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without the risk of having our scalp dignity been so tried. The fact is, the nailed to the gates of the Massachu- dam had been raised. It is true the setts Cotton Mills.
Salmon made nothing of it. The lazy When we asked Mr. Madder Spin- ones went up the sloping part, while ney why there were no longer fish in the more lively jumped the steeper porthe river, that enterprising mill-owner tions; and one active fellow, incited by replied, that it was "owing to the pro- his lady-love, who was peeking over gress of civilization "; whereupon we the crest of the fall at hini, made such a were led to wonder, whether, if we frantic bound at the corner,” that he should cut all the belting in his mill, threw himself ten feet out of water, and Mr. Spinney would say the machinery came down, slosh, in the mill-pond stopped by reason of the progress of above, to the delight of the females, civilization. Spinney junior is getting though his own sex said anybody could his education at Harvard, and there he do it who chose to try. The fishermen will probably learn enough to under looked with apprehension on these instand that the fish were not taken care creasing difficulties, and threatened to of, and therefore disappeared. If com- pull the dam down; but the gentlemen, pelled to write a forensic on the sub- from being ingenious, as aforesaid, now ject, he might get enough information became defiant, and expressed themto tell the following sad tale of the de- selves to this effect, namely, that they struction of the Autochthonoi.
should like to see the fishermen do it. Less than a century ago people were This was sarcasm; and though Whateseized with a beaver-like desire to build ly says sarcasm should be used spardams. They called themselves slack- ingly, in this instance the effect was water companies, — which referred, per- good, and the dam remained. haps, to their finances. These dams By this time, what with seines, pots, bothered the fish, for no way was given dip-nets, spears, hooks, dams, and mills, to help them over, notwithstanding the the fisheries were in a poor way; and old Crown law, and notwithstanding the old New Hampshire lady who used learned decisions, as in Stoughton ver- to spear Salmon with a pitchfork could sus Baker; for the beavers cared not do so no more. The fishes whimpered, for Crown law, and took no kind of in- and would have whimpered much more terest in Mr. Stoughton or Mr. Baker. had they known what was coming. So the Salmon and Shad were dimin- Certain Pentakosiomedimnoi of Athished, yet not destroyed. Now ingen- ens determined to put a hotbed of ious gentlemen used to go up to manufactures in a corner of Andover, Chelmsford and Dracut, and gaze at the on the Merrimack, and to grow mills, river. Perhaps they considered how like early lettuce, all in four weeks. slack the water was. At any rate they They spoke soon began to resolve great things. If, thought they, a mill-pond will turn a
“The words that cleft Eildon hills in three,"
“And bridled the Tweed with a curb of stone " ; wheel to grind corn, why not also a wheel to spin cotton ? and why not and, when the Salmon and the Shad thus spin a great deal of cotton ? So came up the next spring, they ran their they began; while the merchants looked noses against a granite scarp, twentyon with horror at this prospect of sev- three feet high, from whose crest fell a eral thousand yards of cloth to be cast, thundering cataract. The Shad rolled in one vast flood, upon the market. up their eyes at it, waggled their tails,
Next year the sober Shad, making and fell down stream to Marston's Fertheir usual rush at the sloping face of ry. The Salmon, springing and plungthe Pawtucket Falls dam, had a tough ing, eagerly reconnoitred the position thing of it. Some got over, and some from wing to wing. At last one lively had to fall back, all out of breath, and grilse cried out : “Here is a sort of take another run. Never had their trough coming down from the top! but VOL. XXII. — NO. 130.
it's awful steep!” “Stand aside,” They appeared in force before the Legshouted the hoarse voice of an old islature with a panathenaic chorus. male Salmon, whose glorious hooked
PARHODOS. jaw penetrated his upper lip, and stood
O honorable Areopagites out two inches above his nose. And with that he rushed tête baissée against
Zeus the earth-shaker, the torrent. An old fisherman who was
Poseidon, heaver of the waves,
Send us water ;standing on the abutment suddenly ex
Hephaistos, the iron-worker, claimed: “There was a whopper tried
And his much skilful Kuklops
Give us power : it! He got half-way up; but it ain't no
Do not those wretches who cry kind er use. I told them County Com
Fish! Fish! missioners that the only way they would
Strive against the immortal Gods? get fish up that fishway was to hitch å rope to 'em. But they was like all ought to do who has any responsibility:
The Legislature did what everybody folks that don't know nothin', they namely, first, not to assume said rethought they knew all about it."
The Lawrence dam and its noted sponsibility ; secondly, to gain time ; fishway (constructed to the satisfac- thirdly, to get somebody else to do the tion of the County Commissioners”) form of two commissioners, – the very
work. The somebody else took on the macke an end of the Salmon, because
“official persons ” already referred to. they can hatch their eggs only in the
These proceeded to collect information. mountain brooks; but the Shad could
They cross-questioned the oldest inbreed in warmer and more turbid wa
habitants, and got crooked answers; ters, and they therefore continued to flourish in a limited sort of way. Time they entered into the mysteries of flash
boards, and investigated the properties went on. Children who ate of the last shad of New Hampshire waters
of garancine ; they wandered on the
river-banks after the manner of the had grown to man's estate, and the memory of the diet of their youth spotted tatler (Totanus macularius);
and at last they made a report only fifty seemed to have died within them ; but it slept only. In the year 1865 they two negative points: first, that the
pages long, the brevity of which proved rose as one man and as one woman,
commissioners were not congressmen ; and cried : “Give us the flesh-pots of and, second, that they had never writour youth, the Salmon and the Shad, and the Alewife, and the fatness there. Thereupon the Legislature, gratified
ten for newspapers or for periodicals. of! or we will divert all the waters of
beyond measure, said: “Good boys! the great Lake Winnipiseogee into the
Build some Piscataqua, which runs down to the fishways. Breed some fish. And here sea over against Portsmouth!” These is a check to pay for it all.” Thus encries came to the ears of the Penta- couraged, the official persons did build kosiomedimnoi, the High Honorable fishways, especially a big one at LawLocks and Canals
, and all the Manda- rence in place of the singular trough rins of the Red Button that are in already referred to. But, when they and about Franklin Street. They took
came to Holyoke, on the Connecticut, counsel together. “Do nothing about
the Wooden-Dam-and-Nutmeg Comit!” said the Mandarins. “Pay them,”
pany there dwelling were inclined to suggested the Pentakosiomedimnoi. “Dine them — Blackhawk — pigs' feet,” which is equivalent to Mr. Toodles's
the papal aphorism, Non possumus, murmured the High Honorable. Here
“It's not quite in our line; and we the echoes seemed to say “ Fishways” really can't.” The fact is, the NutThis was a dreadful word, because to them a fishway (other than that of a Those who have studied the useful metrical County Commissioner) was a big gap iambic trimeter acatalectic in pyrrichium aut iambum
works of our universities will know that this is an to let all the water out of a mill-pond. Those who do not know this are to be pitied.
megs had a “charter” which they held States Commissioner of Agriculture for to be a sovereign balm for fishways, 1866, and in the “Voyages ” of Proand which they fulminated against the fessor Coste, and in five hundred books official persons, as William the Testy and papers beside ? fulminated his proclamation against the
From this fish culture, if we will only Yankee onion patches. This, and the make it a real industry in this Comhigh water of that summer, retarded monwealth, may come important addithe development of the fish way for the tions to our bill of fare. Many things time being ; but meanwhile important are more pleasant than paying as much incubations were going on just below as we now do for animal food. Fish, the dam, — nothing less, indeed, than flesh, and fowl are all as dear as dear the hatching of Shad by an artificial can be; and, what is worse, they are hard method. All this is something to be to come at, for our back-country peoexplained, and deserves a new para- ple, during the hot weather. We have graph.
two goodly rivers in Massachusetts, In the times of the later Roman em- and plenty of streams, brooks, ponds, perors, to such a pitch had luxury risen, pools, and springs. We cultivate corn that a mullet was often sold – No! and potatoes on the land (and lose this is a little too bad; you shall not be money on every bushel); why not cultibored with dreadful old stories of Heli- vate fish in the waters, and make monogabalus and oysters, or of the cruel ey? There are two secrets at the foungourmet with his "in murænas.” Well, dation of success. First, fishes must then, start once more: In the Middle be taken from the domain of game, and Ages, when Europe was overshadowed become property. Secondly, the fishes by monkish superstition, the observ- must be fed for nothing ; and the way ance of Lent rendered a large supply of to do that is to breed multitudes of herfish necessary; fish-ponds were there- bivorous or of insectivorous fishes to fore – Oh! there we go again, more feed the carnivorous fishes, which, in prosy than ever. Come, now, let us get turn, are to feed man. Thus, if you at once to Joseph Rémy. Joseph Ré- have a thousand Trout, do you breed my, a man of humble station and slight for their diet a million Shiners; and education, but of studious and reflec- these will take care of themselves, extive temperament, was one of those in- cept in the matter of getting caught by stances, more common in America than the Trout. So much for domestic cul. abroad, where man, without the ex
ture, - our fish-coop, as we may come to ternal advantages of culture or of for- call it. Then, as to the encouragement tune, rises by his own efforts to a well- of migratory sea-fishes,
- the Salmon, deserved eminence. He was a - yes, Sea-trout, Shad, Bass, Alewife, Sturand all that sort of thing. The fact is, geon, — if you would have children, * Rémy found he could squeeze the eggs you must have a nursery; if you would out of fishes, and hatch them after- have fish, you must extend their breedwards ; and so can anybody else who ing-grounds. Open, then, the ten thouchooses to try, and who will take pains sand dams that bar our streams, and, enough. We have had Columbus and with care and patience, these waters the hen's egg; now we have Rémy and will be peopled ; and we, whose mother the fish egg. As to the exact manner earth is so barren, will find that mother of hatching fish, is it not written in the sea will each year send abundant food report of the Commissioners for this into every brook that empties into a year,* and in the report of the United stream, that flows into a river, that House Document No. 60 (1868).
runs to the ocean.
NOTRE DAME AND THE ADVENT OF GOTHIC
EVEN centuries the towers of Notre for the rapid and sure communication
city of Paris. The ages have gnawed made great sanctuaries for each stricken their solemn stones, and filled their soul, and visible proofs of the power of scars with the dust, and tinted their old religious faith. walls with the gray of all antique things. In the cathedrals that raised their Raised by a humanity that is immortal, grave and sculptured walls over the the rude movements of revolutions, the castles of dukes and barons to humble tooth and rigor of the winds and rains,– them, over the houses of the poor to all the unchronicled violences of time, console them, all the facts, dreams, and have not altered the grandeur of their superstitions of their life in the Dark essential forms. Square, firm, majestic, Ages were embodied. The cathedral they stand to-day over modern Paris as stones held the memorials of the awful they stood yesterday over the pointed years of suffering and gross superstition roofs and narrow streets of the ancient that had afflicted populations after the city. They make us know the grand dissolution of Roman order. The grospirit and ancient vigor of a people tesque forms that seem to start out of who had none of the things that are the very walls, and speak to the mind, the boast of the modern man. They are not capricious and idle inventions. are the work of a people who were The very name they bear memorializes united and almost democratic without an old mediæval superstition, for during the newspaper and the railway, - a peo- the Middle Ages the dragons of Rouen ple who were poets and artists without and Metz were called gargouilles. Garcritics, skilled workmen without printed gouille is the French architectural term encyclopædias, religious without tract to-day. societies and sectarian journals.
It was in that night of ignorance, The grand cathedrals were simulta- in those years in which society was neously begun in the rich cities of plunged into almost historical oblivion, France in what was called at the time that those disordered and debased ideas the royal domain. During the twelfth of natural life had full play. The monkcentury the people exhibited an extraor- ish workers in stone shared the superdinary political movement for consolida- stition of the people, and th carved tion, and of emancipation from local with gusto the typical vices and beasts, powers. They ranged themselves un- from which faith in religion alone could der the large ideas of religion and mon- protect or deliver man. Later the more archy. Led by the bishops, stimulated beautiful forms of the sinless flower and by the monks, instructed by the archi- perfect leaf, which we find in the pure tects, they erected the cathedrals as and noble Gothic, took the place of the visible types of something more mighty beast and the dragon. The graceful than barons, lords, and counts. They vine, stone-carved, twined tenderly in created in a grand effort of enthusiasm the arches, or climbed the column, and religious monuments and national edi- the flower-petal unfolded in the capital, fices. It was from the union of all the or under the gallery, or upon the altar. forces of France of the twelfth century The monk had been delivered by art, that the cathedrals were projected. No the people had found an issue in the human work was ever more grandly vigor of work and in the unity of faith. nourished or more boldly conceived. The forms which like a petrified pop
To-day we have marvellous agents ulation look over Paris from the walls
and towers of Notre Dame are sur
All hold the horrible or stimuprisingly vigorous and sincere in char late the curiosity of the mind. On the acter. They show
towers, over the fatalest and gayest knowledge of natural structure and a city of the world, your sentinels are rare invention. Suppose you go with monsters. You question which be the me to the summit of the towers of most terrible, these frank, gross deNotre Dame. Victor Hugo and Théo- mons about you, carved by the old Galphile Gautier have gone before us, like lic stone-cutters, or the fair, smiling students and poets. To go to the sum- city, so vast and heterogeneous, below mit you enter the north tower through you. The radiant aspect of the city is a little door, and ascend three hundred deceptive, like the fabled smile of the and eighty-nine steps, dimly lighted, Sphinx. At the Morgue every mornworn down into little hollows, made ing you will find a fresh victim who has visible by long, thin cuts in the wall, failed under the task it imposed upon such as would serve for an arrow or his life. a sunbeam. At length you reach the It is difficult to resist the thoughts Tight gallery, supported by slender col- that reach you at such a height. The ums ; about two hundred more steps in city, which changes like the vesture of perfect darkness take you to the sum- a man, far below you ; the cathedral, mit of the tower. You are pedestalled which remains essentially the same by centuries of human labor ; you are through all the centuries, about you. surrounded by dragons, cranes, dogs, Underneath, our great humanity dwelland apes. Dogs of a ferocious aspect; ing in poor, little, suffering, foolish men; apes with the breasts of women and yet their hands were enough to raise the powerful hands of men ; a bear, an such a monument! From their brain elephant, a goat; great muscular devils, these inventions, from their hands these with backs like dragons, and the face forms ! terminating in a snout or a beak, ears Strange exaltation and strange hulike swine, and horns like bulls, miliation for us! We have been in our strange-looking bird, half parrot, half unity great enough to create the longeagle, with a cloth thrown over the head, enduring; and in our individual lives like an old woman! They are posed we are mocked by the grandeur we on the balustrade of the gallery, and at have made, and which is the memorial each angle of the towers ; at other places of our past existence. An awe of our they serve as water-spouts, and are ancestors steals over us; the ancient called gargoyles. All these forms and time takes awful proportions; we forget faces are carved in the boldest and larg- the actual Paris, with its costly and moest sculpturesque style ; the anatomynotonous barracks, the new opera-house, is well based on nature; all the leading the new wing of the Tuileries! With forms truly and expressively rendered, the deformed Quasimodo of Victor Huthough entirely foreign to the Phidian go, we can neither feel alone nor occupy idea of form. These figures, about the ourselves with the actual city. The old size of a man, posed at each corner of sculptors had left him the saintly figures the gallery, or looking down upon Paris and the grotesque dreams and dreads or afar off over the humid Seine, show of their imagination. Kings, bishops, dark against the sky, and are enor
martyrs, saints !
Around the ogival mous in character ; in each an amaz- portals, the Last Judgment and its crowd ing muscular energy has been ex- of holy and serene souls, its mob of pressed, — never so much ferocious convulsed and damned beings. These force and so much variety of invention. were his friends when he entered the The grotesque of the bright Greek mind cathedral. When he went up to strike is child's play next to these intensely the sweet and awful bells of the great horrible figures. Some of them just south tower, he went up to demons and touch the horrible, indecent, and ob- dragons who were not less his friends,