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in times past.” He and his party are raising an agitation to call upon her Majesty, Tudor-like, to issue an injunction prohibiting our Clergy from carrying out the Rubric. The PrayerBook itself is menaced. A so-called National Club tries to agitate by calumny and invective our every parish. Mob emeutes and meetings, as ignorant and prejudiced as they, have denounced our principles. The distant duchy of Cornwall is called together to hurl defiance upon the Pope, and it turns the weight of its invective upon our worthy publisher. Lastly, and most sadly,—but we pause. There is a church, of which in our last volume we said that it was “the most complete, and with completeness, the most sumptuous church which has been dedicated to the use of the Anglican Communion since the revival.” This church has been desecrated by the dregs of the populace, the ringleader in the profanation the First Minister of the Crown; and, their brutal sacrilege scarce appeased, its high-minded priest driven from the altars he has himself at his own exceeding self-sacrifice reared. Another church, that of S. Jude's, Bristol, which only in our last number we lauded for its exactness, has, before our next appeared, fallen, not to violence, not to insolence combined with insidiousness, but to sheer insidiousness—a change of livings—fair promises unblushingly made -a reading in—and the choir is stripped and banished from the chancel—the candlesticks sent off—the “holy doors” converted into a reading-desk in the nave—the offertory discontinued daily worship abandoned. Further north, where there was no colourable fear of ministerial influence, no hope of distinguished patronage to justify the motives, a church, raised by the offerings of Englishmen, to build a bulwark of Catholic worship in a vast city where Calvin reigned supreme-a church, voluntarily

-a served by the gratuitous labours of a priest, who has sacrificed health, almost life, to his exertions, that modicum of Catholic ritualism-for it was a modicum-in which he indulged himself, and which was the ground of his support in this land, has been rudely forbidden by one, from whom on all accounts a different treatment was to be expected. In Manchester, too, the memory of the dead was nothing to the momentary spleen,-but we will not repeat what another pen has so forcibly described in our current pages.

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Such are a few of the portents which have crowded on us since our last number. But we do not despair,-nay, we are confident. The plot has burst too soon ; and our champions rise from every side.

We do not mean to fall short of our occasion. Hitherto we have avoided the strife of tongues, almost to an excess. Henceforward we will speak out like men, and fight as our fathers fought against commission, if need be, and against Parliament, for the ritual of the English Church.


WESTERN CHURCH, A.D. 540—1736.

A Paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Oxford Architectural

Society : S. Barnabas' Day, 1850. By the Rev. J. M. NEALE, M.A., Honorary Secretary to the Ecclesiological Society.

(Concluded from Vol. XI., Page 226.)


RADULPHUS, who flourished about a.d. 1157, was the author of a Commentary on Leviticus, in twenty Books, which enjoyed a considerable reputation in the Middle Ages, and which is a very diffuse and recondite specimen of architectural, as well as of other symbolism.

I next produce the unknown author of the Icelandic Homily, translated for the Ecclesiologist, by Mr. Gordon, from a MS. preserved in the Royal Library at Stockholm, and dating between 1150 and 1200. It shows how completely the Western Church must have been imbued with one spirit of symbolism, when we read, in a sermon addressed to a village congregation in that far off island, passage after passage such as the following:

“Like as the church is constructed out of many stones or beams, so are people assembled in the faith from many nations and tongues. Some Christian people are now in heaven with God, but some are in the world here. Therefore do some parts of the church denote the glory of the heavenly kingdom, while some parts mark Christendom on earth. The Choir marketh saints in heaven; but the Nave Christian men on earth. The Altar marketh Christ. ... The foundations of churches mark Apostles and Prophets, who are the supports of all faith : as Paulus said, “Ye are built upon the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets.' The Cross-wall, which is between nave and choir, marketh the Holy Ghost; for, like as we do enter into Christendom through faith in Christ, so do we enter into the glory of heaven by the door of grace and of the Holy Ghost." But the whole Homily is very well worth perusal.

1 Vol. VIII. p. 216.

We shall now proceed to RICHARDUS de SANCTO VICTORE (1110— 1173). The whole of the work called Allegories of the Tabernacle of the Testimony, is a tissue of ecclesiological symbolism. Some of the explanations appear singular: thus, the Candlestick is interpreted of the grace of discretion; and the gilding on the wood, of assigning a reason for visible things.

But the explanation of the Temple of Ezekiel is exceedingly valuable, as showing how completely in allegorizing the Temple or Tabernacle the writers of this era took their ideas from actually existing examples. The treatise just named is accompanied by plates, evidently faithful copies from the original MS. In them, agreeably with what we might have expected from the date of the composition, the details of the Temple are of late Romanesque work: nor are the arrangements, so far as the subject would allow, (in the porch, for instance,) essentially different from those actually adopted by Norman architects.

I commence the decline of symbolic art with

ROBERT PAULULUS, Priest of Amiens, who flourished about 1175, and left three books of ecclesiastical ceremonies, usually attributed to Hugo de Sancto Victore.

PIERRE de CELLE, Bishop of Chartres, follows. He lived from 1110 to 1187, and left two books on the Tabernacle, in which the old spirit is fully carried out.

CENCIO, in the account which he gives of the election of Pope Celestine III., in 1190, is full of the same principle. The Pope, at his enthronization, had a succinctorium of red silk, from which hung a purse, and in the purse twelve precious stones and musk. The succinctorium signified chastity; the purse, almsgiving; the twelve stones, the twelve Apostles; and the musk, the sweet savour of JESUS CHRIST.2

Following Cencio, we have PETER of BLOIS,3 Archdeacon of Bath (1140-1200). The testimony of this friend and supporter of S. Thomas of Canterbury, as an English dignitary, is very valuable. In the sermon on the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, we find the following passage:

"In this house hath Wisdom hewn out seven pillars, the seven graces of the SPIRIT, or the seven principal virtues. There be four concerning which philosophers have, of a long season, written and disputed; to wit, prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude: there be three of which the philosopher hath no knowledge, faith, hope, and charity."4 The principle of symbolical architecture is applied to the Tabernacle in an epistle to the Abbot and Convent of Chichester ;5 and the same thing again occurs in a sermon on the Feast of SS. Peter and Paul.

In the year 1213, we have a very curious instance of numerary symbolism. In the great battle of Muret, between the Crusaders, under Simon de Montfort, and the Albigenses, under the Count of Toulouse, where the latter were routed, the former moved on in three bodies, in honour of the HOLY TRINITY. It is needless to remark on

1 Ed. Rouen, 1650, p. 212. 4 Page 334 A.

2 Mus. Italic. II. 210.


Ep. cxxxix. p. 216 B.

3 Ed. Paris. 1667.

the strength of that principle, which could thus modify the arrangements of a battle.

I may mention a somewhat similarly out-of-the-way expression of symbolism in the Eastern Church. In the Slavonic Lexicon of Theodore Polycarp, three languages are introduced, Slavonic, Greek, and Latin. One should have thought that no particular reason need have been assigned for thus exhibiting the three principal languages of the Church in juxtaposition. But the editor expressly tells us that the triple number was chosen out of reverence to the Holy Trinity.

I now proceed to S. Antony of Padual (1195—1231). He is one of the earliest writers in whom we find a sensible decline of the symbolical principle: not indeed in the absence of mystical exposition, but in its strained and violent character ; à sufficient proof that, instead of a living energy, it was becoming a dead language. I refer, for testimonies in favour of symbolism, to S. Antony's Exposition on Exodus,and to that on the Books of Kings. From the latter I will quote a passage, which will prove the truth of the remark which i have just made.

The King, that is, Christ, commanded that they should bring great stones ; that is, the height of penitence: precious stones ; that is, whose price is eternal life: to lay the foundation of the Temple ; that is, that Temple wherein Christ desireth to dwell. This commandment the King Himself gave, when He said, “Repent ye.' These be the stones that careful David chose from the running brook, when he went forth to fight with Goliath, that is, the devil ; five in number, because the will of the five senses is to be restrained by penance. He began to build the House of the Lord. Solomon built the Temple of three materials ; marble, cedar, and gold. In marble, the virginity of our Lady; in cedar (which by his odour chases serpents) her humility : in gold, her purity, be set forth.”

Next, I shall bring forward one of the most remarkable testimonies in our favour, that of WILLIAM,4 Bishop of Paris, whose life extended from 1178 to 1248. The evidence of so illustrious a name among the schoolmen carries with it more than usual weight. The principle is laid down in a passage of the seventeenth book De Legibus,5 which is too long for quotation. But another, from the treatise de Universo, is as follows : " Therefore, the heaven is as it were a vest of splendour for the whole world, and the beautiful roof of the glorious palace of God, Which ruleth for ever; and the fair covering of His Temple, which is the whole world ; and the habitation and inmost shrine of His glory.

Or, by another comparison : it is, as it were, the sacrarium in the same Temple, containing and receiving all things which in the world be holy, and worthy of the dignity of so noble a habitation."

The following passages, occurring in the 29th chapter De Legibus,7 are highly important; because, instead of dwelling on the details, they boldly and philosophically vindicate the necessity of the whole principle, of symbolism. 1 Ed. La Haye, 1739. 2 Page 306 seq.

3 Page 412 seq. 4 Ed. Paris. 1674.

5 Tom. I. 48.

6 Cap. xxxv. p. 630 F. 7 Tom. I. 101.

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“There are two kinds of Temples; the one which is living and true, namely the whole company of the Saints, and every one of them; the other dead, that is to say, consisting of insensible timbers and stones; and this is to the true and living one as the figure to the truth. Wherefore the worship paid in the one beareth the same relation to the worship paid in the other. For, as Aristotle saith, if one ratio holdeth in proportionals, the other holdeth also. Now the Temples are proportionals to their worship :" that is, as Temple to worship, so Temple to worship: "therefore we may say permutando, as Temple to Temple, so worship to worship. This is evident in the consecration of a church, and in the reconciliation of the same; for the dedication or consecration of a church is the figure of baptismal dedication or consecration ; and reconciliation of a church is the figure of penitential reconciliation. And because exterior rites specially pertain to the honour of God, as it is written, Lord, I have loved the habitation of Thine House, and the place where Thine honour dwelleth, we must declare severally what be the forms and matters of these rites.” He enumerates these : the proces. sion; the materials of the church; the Divine office; the vestments ; the furniture; the bells; the aspersion of Holy Water. “To the unlearned, then,” he proceeds, “this exterior procession leadeth to doctrine and erudition; but to the learned, it is a huge provocation and incitement unto interior advancement and procession. For they openly read in the very order, ornament, and apparatus of procession, how they must begin, advance, and enter into the Heavenly Church and the Heavenly Table, that is, the Table of Eternal Refection. ... . It is not only pleasant but salutary that we often set forth to the people how we must go forth to the coming Judge and King; and they going out to Him with the whole apparatus of a procession, may understand how they shall be led by Him, with the triumphal banners of the Cross going afore, and shall be introduced by Him into the Celestial House and the palace not made with hands. And to draw to an end with our discourse on this subject, all that is done in external rites is a most convenient figure and representation of the truth of that which ought to be in us now, and which is promised to us hereafter, and which we hope to obtain. As the whole furniture of seric palls and vestments is the beauty in which we here ought to shine in the inner man, that is, the pulchritude of virtues and graces; also that beauty wherewith we shall be decorated in the life to come : so the splendour of lights setteth forth the internal splendour of grace, and the future effulgence of glory. BUT IN EXTERIOR RITES,”—and notice this remarkable concession, THERE IS NO VIRTUE, save that we have said.”

“By what books,” he proceeds, “is our interior furniture, that of graces and virtues, more clearly set forth, than by the ornament of lights, and the hanging of silken palls to the walls of the church, or around the Holy Altar ? These do expound with great affluence of speech, learning, and eloquence, how the inner temple should be adorned.

“ By what books can an unlearned man be so clearly taught concerning that internal and spiritual Temple which we ought to be? What way can so conveniently be pointed out to men whereby they may learn what manner of persons they ought to be in the Divine Mysteries, as

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