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wax, and put together in the shape of a modern book, the name of codex was still retained. We have the authority of Winckelmann and others that all the literary works (and paintings of works) found at Herculaneum and Pompeii were rolls, and that most of the rolls were made of papyrus. The change, most probably, was very gradual, and the following quotation gives the opinion of Mr. Humphreys on the subject:
"It is supposed that the square form of book began to prevail in Rome in imitation of the tablets used for private memoranda, which were at first waxed plates of metal within a cover more or less decorated, and protected by raised edges. These tablets were afterwards displaced by leaves of vellum, sometimes of different colors, to the number of five or six. Such tablets, within richly carved ivory covers, were, during the period of the Eastern empire, presented to consuls, or other high functionaries, on their nomination to office. Eventually, it became customary for private persons to present each other with tablets, often with complimentary poems ready written on the leaves of vellum, the covers naturally becoming objects for decorative embellishment. Small books of poems may have been prepared for sale in the same way, as the old rolled form did not afford such scope for decoration as the pair of panels which enclosed and protected the tablets. This form of book probably arose in the East shortly before the removal of the capital to Constantinople, as the name by which tablets of that kind were distinguished was the Greek term diptych. The period which may be assigned for the general adoption of the square form for certain books, which were at first distinguished as libri quadrati, was probably not earlier than the fourth century. There is a copy of Virgil in the Vatican library, which may be considered one of the oldest existing monuments of a book in this form. It has been assigned by some to the reign of Septimius Severus, but more probably belongs to the age of Constantine. At any rate, it is a relic of Roman handicraft when the language of Virgil was still the language of Rome, as is shown by the costumes, and all the accessories of the illustrations, which were evidently executed when Roman dress and manners prevailed in Italy."
A learned German, named Schwartz, who wrote a treatise on books in 1705, says (but without giving any date as to age), that there may be seen in the same library a copy of Livy, Tacitus, and others, all in quarto quadrato, i. e., in square quarto.
During the middle or dark ages, reckoned by Mr. Hallam from A.D. 486 to A.D. 1495, i. e., from about seventy years after the
final departure of the Romans from Britain to the tenth year of the reign of Henry VII, books were very scarce, and consequently very high priced. The monks were nearly the sole transcribers, and, as they worked single-handed in the scriptorium attached to each principal monastery, but few copies could be made. The monks, and sometimes the bishops, were the illuminators and bookbinders as well as the transcribers.
The introduction of paper must have greatly aided the multiplication of books. Paper is said to have been invented by the Chinese about A.D. 95 (Penny Cyclopædia). The art of making paper from cotton was learned from the Chinese by the Arabs in the seventh century; and there was a manufactory of such paper established at Samarkand about A.D. 706. The Arabs seem to have carried the art into Spain, and to have there made paper from linen and hemp, as well as from cotton (fournal of Education). Of course, the invention of printing (about A.D. 1438) did away with the occupation of the transcriber, and materially increased the work of the binder.
In Dibdin's Bibliographical Decameron we read: "The printing of the folio Bible in the reign of Henry VIII (1538-1539), must have given importance to the art of bookbinding. The first edition consisted of 2500 copies, one of which was set up in every church in England, and secured to a desk by a chain. Within three years there were seven editions of this work."
Authors, too numerous to mention, describe books bound in gold, silver, velvet, silk, vellum, and leather, and having the covers ornamented with precious stones and metals, crucifixes, madonnas, bosses, &c., &c. The most ancient bound books in the library of the British Museum are, 1. The celebrated MS. of St. Cuthbert's gospels, written between 698-720; it is bound in velvet, intermixed with silver, and having a broad silver border; the centre and border are inlaid with gems. 2. A copy of the Latin gospels, written in the beginning of the ninth century; the binding is coeval or nearly so; it consists of thick oaken covers plated in silver and set with gems; on one side is embossed the figure of the Savior, with the symbols of the Evangelists in the corners, and on the other side is the Agnus Dei. 3. Latin gospels of the tenth century, in ancient metallic binding, ornamented with crystals. 4. A Latin psalter, with the canticles, litany, and office for the dead, written and illuminated about the year 1140; the covers are of carved ivory, set with turquoises; on one side are represented some events in the life of David, on the other, illustrations of the seven works of mercy.
[TO BE CONTINUED.
CATALOGUE OF BOOKS
FOR SALE AT THE ANNEXED PRICES, BY J. SABIN & SONS,
Booksellers and Importers, 84 Nassau St., New York, and 14 York St., Covent Garden, London.
66 MINUS EST GRAVIS APPIA TARDIS.
See back numbers of the Bibliopolist for other Catalogues.
THE ADVENTURES OF A GENTLEMAN in Search of a Horse. By Caveat Emptor, Gent. 16m0, half calf. Scarce. London, 1835. $2.50 Very funny, with cuts that would make a horse laugh. A'KEMPIS, THOMAS. Of the Imitation of
Jesus Christ. Translated from the Latin Original, with Introduction and Notes by Thomas Frognall Dibdin. Frontispiece. Fine uncut copy in boards. London, 1828. $11.00 AN ACCOUNT OF THE SOCIETY FOR the Encouragement of the British Troops in Germany and North America. Relating to the Battles of Thanhausen and Quebec. Bound in polished calf by Riviere. London, 1760. $10.00 A fine, tall copy of this excessively scarce "Account." THE ATHENIAN ORACLE. Being an entire Collection of all the Valuable Questions and Answers in the old Athenian Mercuries. 4 vols., 12mo, newly bound in half calf. London, 1706.
BELL, THOMAS. History of British Quadrupeds, including the Cetacea. Illustrated by nearly 200 Woodcuts. 8vo, calf. Original edition. London, 1837. $12.00
BE WICK, THOMAS. History of Quadrupeds. Beautiful Woodcuts. 8vo, calf. Newcastle, 1811. $12.50 BREWSTER, SIR DAVID. Letters on Natural Magic, addressed to Sir Walter Scott. Woodcuts. 16mo, half calf. London, 1838. BREWSTER, DAVID. More Worlds than One the Creed of the Philosopher and the Hope of the Christian. Illustrated. 12mo, cloth. London, 1874. $1.50 BROWN, CAPT. THOS. Book of ButterAles, Sphinxes and Moths. Illustrated by 96 Engravings colored after nature. 2 vols., 12mo, half levant, gilt tops, uncut. Scarce. 1832.
THE BOOK OF SHAKESPEARE GEMS in a Series of Landscape Illustrations of the interesting Localities of Shakespeare's Dramas. Pol
ished calf, uncut. A beautiful copy. London,
$8.00 BURK, JOHN. The History of Virginia, from its First Settlement to the Present Day. 4 vols., 8vo, a fine large copy, beautifully bound in polished calf by Riviere. Rare. Petersburg, $80.00
A choice copy of this, the rarest and most valuable of all the early histories. BYRON, LORD.
Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. A Romaunt. The elegant edition, with the beautiful Illustrations on Steel, by Warren. Small 4to, tree calf extra, gilt tops, uncut. London, 1841. $29.00
A very fine, large, clean and handsomely bound copy of this choicely gotten up book, now quite scarce.
CATALOGUE OF THE LIBRARY OF THE
Massachusetts Historical Society. 2 vols., 4to, half morocco, gilt tops, uncut. Large paper. Boston, 1859. $12.00 CERVANTES. Life and Exploits of Don Quixote de la Mancha. Jarvis' translation. Cruikshanks illustrations. 2 vols., 8vo, half morocco, gilt tops, uncut. London, 1828. $6.00 CHAFFERS, WILLIAM. The Collector's Hand-book of Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain of the Renaissance and Modern Periods. Nearly 3,000 marks. 16mo, cloth. London, 1874. $2.50
New and useful. CHAMBER'S USEFUL AND VALUABLE PUBLICATIONS. LATEST EDITIONS. OFFERED AT GREATLY REDUCED PRICES. J. SABIN & SON, HAVING PURCHASED A LARGE QUANTITY OF THESE POPULAR WORKS, ARE ENABLED 'TO OFFER THEM AT EXCEPTIONALLY LOW PRICES. Chambers' Encyclopædia. A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge for the People. Complete. With Supplement and Index. Illustrated with Maps and numerous Wood Engravings. 10 vols., royal 8vo. 1868. Cloth, $28.00; Half calf, or morocco extra, $45.00; Tree calf extra, $65.00 The best Cyclopædia of its size extant. Chambers, R Cyclopædia of English Literature. A History of British Authors from the Earliest to the Present Time. With copious Selections from their Writings. Portraits and Engravings. 2 vols., impl. 8vo. 1858. Cloth, $7.00; Half calf, or half morocco gilt, cloth sides, $9.50.
Chambers' Book of Days. Anecdotes, Biography, History. Numerous Illustrati ns. 2 vols., royal 8vo, new half calf, gilt. 1869. $10.00. Cloth, $7.75
Chambers, W. & R. Information for the People, with several hundred Illustrations on Wood, last edition, 2 vols., impl. 8vo, cloth. 1858. $6.00; New half calf, gilt, $9.00 CHARLEVOIX, PERE. Letters to the Dutchess of Lesdiguieres. Giving an Account of a Voyage to Canada, and Louisiana to the Gulf of Mexico. 12mo, newly bound in sprinkled calf, citron edges. London, 1763. $8.00
A very handsomely bound copy of this scarce book. COOK, CAPT. JAMES. Voyage to the Pacific Ocean. Undertaken by the command of His Majesty, for Making Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere. Illustrated with Maps and Charts. 8 vols., 4to, and folio atlas. Half calf, gilt. London, 1784. $42.50
Fine copy of the best edition. CROLY, REV. GEORGE. The Works Complete. Comprising Poetical Works, with 20 Etchings by Dagley, 2 vols.; Salathiel, 3 vols.; Marston, 3 vols. 8 vols., 8vo, newly bound in half morocco extra, gilt tops, uncut. London, $8.50
A very pretty and complete set of these powerfully written novels rarely found together. CUVIER, BARON. The Animal Kingdom Arranged According to its Organization. Serving as a Foundation for Natural History of Animals. Designs after nature. Colored plates. 500 additional plates. 8 vols., half calf. London, 1834. $25.00 DOBRIZHOFFER, MARTIN. An account of the Abipones, an Equestrian People of Paraguay. 3 vols., 8vo, half calf. London, 1822.
$7.75 ELEGANT EXTRACTS, OR USEFUL and Entertaining Pieces of Poetry, selected for the Improvement of Young Persons. 8 vols., imp. 8vo, calf. London, 1805.
Rarely found complete.
AN ENQUIRY INTO THE CAUSES OF the Alienation of the Delaware and Shawanese Indians from the British Interest. Written in Pennsylvania. Map. Sprinkled calf extra, by Riviere. London, 1759. $21.00 This is a choice copy, including both parts, which are rarely found.
EPITAPHS AND EPIGRAMS.
From the time of Adam has dying been the inevitable finishing stroke of ma's human existence. Every landscape is dotted no less surely with its ancient villages than its shady graveyards, and to know that half-hidden in the tall grass lie the sparkling drops of immortal minds, is only to make man envious to behold the most brilliant of them safely garnered in his own storehouse of knowledge. To say this little book has accomplished this end is not claiming too much. It places side by side the " Grave" effusions of Gray with such drolleries as the following will form an example:
Here lies the bones of Margaret Gwyn, Who was so very pure within,
She cracked her outer shell of sin, And hatched herself a Seraphim.
FLY FISHING IN SALT AND FRESH Water. With Six Beautifully Colored Plates of
Artificial Flies. Very scarce. 8vo, cloth, uncut. London, 1851. $3.50. FREEMAN, ED. An Essay on Origin and Development of Window Tracery in England. With nearly 400 Illustrations. 8vo, cloth. London, 1851. $3.50. HISTORY OF THE BUCANIERS OF America. From the First Original down to this Time. Written in several Languages, and new collected into one volume. With Maps and 25 Copperplates. Very scarce. 8vo, half morocco. Nice copy. London, 1704. $9.50 HOMER. Illiad Rendered into English Blank Verse, to which are Appended Translations of Poems, Ancient and Modern, by Earl of Derby. Beautifully printed edition. 2 vols., 12mo, morocco elegant, gilt edges. London, 1868. $10.50 ILIAD OF HOMER, PRINCE OF POETS. Never before in any language truly translated. With Transa Comment on Some of his Chief Places. lated by Chapman, with Introduction and Notes by Richard Hooper. Portrait. First issue. 5 vols., small 4to, calf, gilt. London, 1857. $32.00 HOOD, THOMAS. Poetical Works 4 vols., half calf, gilt. Boston, 1864. $4.50
THE ILLUSTRATED BOOK OF FRENCH Songs, Scottish Songs and English Songs 3 vols., 16mo, newly bound in half calf. London, 1855.
A very pretty series, full of graceful woodcuts. The songs in the original and translation. IRVING, THEODOR. The Conquest of Florida under Hernando de Soto. 2 vols., 12mo, half calf. Pretty copy. London, 1835. $4.00 JAMES, G. P. R. A Book of the Passions. Illustrated with 16 splendid Engravings by Charles Heath. Polished calf, gilt edges. Philadelphia, 1839. $9.00
A very pretty table book elegantly bound. JOURNAL OF HENRY COCKBURN, being a Continuation of the Memorials of his 2 vols., 8vo, cloth, uncut. Times, 1831-1854. London, 1874. $7.00 LICHTENSTEIN, PRINCESS MARIE. Holland House. With numerous Illustrations. Portraits. 2 vols., 8vo, cloth. London, 1874.
$9.00 LOWE, E. J. Beautiful Leaved Plants. With 60 Colored Illustrations. Imp. 8vo, handsomely bound in light polished calf, gilt tops, uncut. London, 1872.
Also uniform with the above and sold together with it for $22.00,
LOWE, E. J. Natural History of New and Rare Ferns, with Colored Illustrations and Woodcuts. London, 1871. $12.50 MELEK-HANUM.
Six Years in Europe: Sequel to Thirty Years in the Harem. 8vo, cloth. London, 187. $2.25 MEMOIRS OF THE COURT OF ENGland in the Reign of King Charles II. Containing the Amours of that Prince, the Duke of Monmouth, Earl of Argyle, etc. By the Countess Dunois. 8vo, half calf, citron edges. London,
1708. $7.00 Very ingenious, diverting and scarce, throwing much light upon this most interesting and important period of English history.
MIRTH AND MORALITY: A Collection of Original Tales. By Carlton Bruce. Illustrated by Geo. Cruikshank. 16mo, boards, uncut. Rare. London, 1835$750 MOMMSEN, THEODOR. History of Rome translated by Dickson. With Preface and Notes. Best edition. 4 vols., 8vo, elegantly bound in tree calf, gilt tops, uncut. London, 1868. $40.co A beautiful copy of this fine book.
MONTAIGNE. WORKS. Edited by W Hazlitt. Portrait and Vignette. Imp. 8vo, polished calf. Scarce. London, 1853. $10.00 MOTLEY, J. L. Life and Death of John Barneveld, Advocate of Holland. With a View of the Primary Causes and Movements of the Thirty Years' War. Portrait and Plates. 2 vols., 8vo,
cloth, uncut. $6.00 NICOLAIUS, Joannes Secundus. Kisses: a Poetical Translation of the Basia. With Essay on his Life and Writings. Bartolozzi Plate. 8vo, calf. Rare. London, 1790. $4.00 NORTH, OLIVER. The Practical Assayer. Containing easy Methods for the Assay of the Principal Metals and Alloys. Principally designed for Explorers and those interested in Mines. Illustration and Tables. 12mo, cloth. London, 1874. $2.1 2.37 PALEY, WILLIAM, D D. Works. With Life and Writings, by Edmund Paley. Portrait. 6 vols., 8vo, half calf. London, 1830. $6.50 PEPYS, SAMUEL. Memoirs. Comprising his Diary from 1656-1669, and Selections from his Private Correspondence. Edited by Lord Braybrooke. Portrait. 5 vols., 8vo, boards, uncut. Rare. London, 1828. PERFECT CEREMONIES OF THE HONorable Degree of Mark Master Mason; comprising Opening and Closing of the Lodge, Ceremony of Advancement, Installing the W. M., &c., &c. Woodcut Illustrations. Small 4to, cloth. Privately Printed. London, 1874. $3.00 PRINCESS OF CLEVES. The most famed Romance. Written in French by the greatest wits of France. 12mo, half calf. London, 1679. $2.00 PSALMANAAZAAR, GEORGE. Historical and Geographical Description of Formosa, an Island subject to the Emperor of Japan. 12mo, new half calf, citron edges. London, 1704. Also uniformly bound his confession of this celebrated hoax, under the title of PSALMANAAZAAR, GEORGE. Memoirs of ****Commonly known by the name of George Psalmanaazaar, a reputed native of Formosa, written to be published after death. Portrait. Together 2 vols., 8vo. Scarce. London, 1764.
RFID, CAPTAIN MAYNE. The Headless Horseman. A strange Tale of Texas. Plates. 8vo, half morocco. London, 1869. REYNOLD, JOHN. Triumph of God's Revenge against the Crying and Execrable Sin of Murther, expressed in thirty several Tragical Histories. To which is added God's Revenge against the Abominable Sin of Adultery. Containing several Histories never before printed, illustrated with new Scultptures. Curious Plates. Royal 8vo,
calf, gilt. The latter part more especially being rare and entertaining. London, 1679. $27.50 ROBERTS, DAVID. The Holy Land, Syria, Idomea, Arabia, Egypt and Nubia, from Drawings made on the Spot. Historical Descriptions by Rev. Geo. Crowley. Lithographed by Louis Haghe. Portrait. 4 vols., folio, half morocco, uncut copy. London, 1842. $200 00
Mounted on guards; very rarely found in this condition. ROSS, ALEXANDER. Red River Settlement. Its Present Progress and Present State. With account of Native Races and General History to Present Day. Frontispiece. 8vo, cloth. London. 1856. $2.75
ROUSSEAU, J. J. Confessions. With the Reviews of the Solitary Walker. 5 vols., 16mo, newly bound in half calf. A scarce edition. London, 1783. $10.50 BOY'S SATIRE UPON WOLSEY. Printed in black-letter, by Pickering, on thick heavy laid paper. 16mo, cloth. $4.50 SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM. Works. Edited with a Scrupulous Revision of the Text, by Charles and Mary Cowden Clarke, with 66 Illustrations selected from "The Boydell Gallery," reproduced in Woodbury Type. Portrait. 2 vols., imp. 8vo, calf, gilt. London, 1874. $20.00 $14.00
The Same. Cloth, gilt. SHAKESPEARE, WILL. Annotations by Samuel Johnson and George Stevens, and various Commentators, upon the several Writings of. Por3 vols., 16mo, half calf. London, 1788. $3.50 History and Antiquities
of Stratford-upon-Avon. By R. B Wheler. 8 Plates. 16mo, old calf. Very scarce. Stratfordupon-Avon, n. d. $5.00 SHAKESPEARE'S
COMEDY OF MUCH Ado About Nothing. Photo Lithographed by H. Staunton, from the original of 1600. Small 4to, Roxburghe. London, 1864. $1.75
SHYP OF FOOLS. See Advertisement. SCOTT, SIR WALTER. Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft, addressed to J. G. Lockhart. 16mo, half calf. London, 1831. $2.00 STEVENSON, THOMAS. Design and Construction of Harbours; a Treatise on Maritime Engineering. 4to, cloth. Published at $20. Edinburgh, 1874. $6.25 SWIFT, JONATHAN. His Works, containing additional Letters. Tracts and Poems, not hitherto published. With Notes and Life of Author, by Walter Scott. Portrait. 19 vols., 8vo, half calf. Edinburgh, 1814. $50.00 THE TRAVELS OF MARCO POLO, A Venetian, in the Thirteenth Century. Translated with Notes, by Wm. Marsden. London, 1818.
Map. 4to, old $13.50.