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(No. 1.) Extracts from Charters, Statutes, Bye-laws, Chronicles, and other

records especially referred to in the foregoing Essay, as exhibiting the powers and privileges assigned to various authorities, for directing, controlling, and transmitting the different departments of Medicine and Pharmacy in

ENGLAND. I Date. 1

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PHYSIC
SURGERY

PHARMACY
assigned
assigned

transmitted from 112th and By Romish Synods and Coun- By Romish Synods and Coun Speciarii and Epiciers See 13th cen- cils,

cils turies. TO PRIESTS AND MONKS. TO BARBERS AND SMITHS. TO GILDA DE PIPARIORUM, 1231

To FRATERNITY OF PEPPERERS. 5 1345

By 19 Edw. III,

TO GROCERS' COMPANY. 1422 By 9 Hen. V,

(“Mysterie of Fysyk"). TO UNIVERSITIES (Oxford

and Cambridge).
1447

y 25 Hen. VI.
* De Fædis consuetis pro

Barbitonsore Regis.'
1454 By Rot. 32 Hen. VI, By Rot. 32 Hen. VI,

“De ministrando Med. circa personam Regis,"

TO PRIVY COUNCIL. 1461

By Ch. 1 Edw. IV

"Mysterie of Surgerie"),

To BARBERS' COMPANY. 1500

Ch. 5 Hen. VII. 1503 19 Hen. VII, c. 7.

19 Hen. VII, c. 7. 1510

Ch.2 Hen. VIII.
1511

Ch. 5, Dec. 3 Hen. VIII.
1511
By Ch. 3 Hen. VIII, c. 11, By Ch. 3 Hen. VIII, c. 11,

To BISHOPS.
1518 By Ch. 10 Hen. VIII, c. 5, By Ch. 10 Hen. VIII, c. 5,

and Confirmatory Statutes,

TO ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 151 1522-3 14 & 15 Hen. VIII, c. 5. 14 & 15 Hen. VIII, c. 5. 1540 32 Hen. VIII, c. 40.

32 Hen. VIII, c. 40.
1540

..... By 32 Hen. VIII, c. 42,
To BARBER-SURGEONS'Com-

PANY. 1542-3

By 34 & 35 Hen. VIII, c. 8,

To "as well men as WOMEN.” 1575 Protest against Popish prac

tices in College of Phy

sicians.
1582 By Lumleian Lectures (Holin'shed's Chronicles). SURGERY
re-established in COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS.

By 4 Jac. I,

70GROCER-APOTHECARIES'COMPANY 1616

By 13 Jac. I,
To SOCIETY OF PHARMACOPOLITES,

or Apothecaries.
1630

Ch. 5 Car. I.
1656 Representatives of UNITY and Champions of SURGERY

from llth to 17th century-Constantine to Harvey. Abt. 1700 By the Bie-law “Antequam quispiam," &c., SURGERY

excluded from COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS.
1745

By 18 Geo. II, c. 15,
To CORPORATION OF

SURGEONS.
1800

By Ch. 40 Geo. III,
To ROYAL COLLEGE OF

SURGEONS. 1815 By 55 Geo. III, c. 194,

By 55 Geo. III, c. 194,
TO SOCIETY OF

To SOCIETY OF APOTHECARIES, and
APOTHECARIES.

To CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS with.

out Education or Examination. 1836 To University of London. 1843

By Ch.6 Vict., confirmed 15 & 16 Vict.,

c. 56,

To PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY. 30 1858 By 21 & 22 Vict., c. 90, By 21 & 22 Vict., c. 90, By 21 & 22 Vict., c. 90, TO MEDICAL COUNCIL. TO MEDICAL COUNCIL. To CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS with

out Education or Examination.

1607

(No. 2.) Charters, Statutes, &c., referred to as exhibiting the powers and

privileges assigned to various authorities for directing, controlling, and transmitting the different departments of Medicine and Pharmacy in

IRELAND. Date PHYSIC

SURGERY

PHARMACY
transmitted
transmitted

transmitted
From PRIESTS & Monks. From BARBERS & SMITHS. From SPECIARII AND

EPICIERS. 1311 Bull of Pope Clement v

for founding a Univer

sity.
1320 UNIVERSITY founded by

Alexander de Bucknor,
confirmed by Pope

John XXII. 1446...

By Charter 25 Hen. VI.

To BARBERS' COMPANY. 1576 ...............................

By Charter 18 Eliz., .
To BARBER-CHIRURGEONS

United with Barber-Chi

rurgeons. 1593 By 35 Eliz.

To UNIVERSITY of Dublin. 1687) ............

. By Charter 3 Jac. II. By Charter 3 Jac II.
To BARBER-CHIRURGEONS, APOTHECARYES, AND

PERIWIG-MAKERS of the Guild or Fraternity of

St. Mary Magdalene. 1667 By Ch. Car. II.

To COLL. OF PHYSICIANS. 1692 By Ch. 3 William & Mary

To KING'S AND QUEEN'S
COLL. OF PHYSICIANS
in Ireland.

By Charter 18 Geo. II,
To CORPORATION OF APO-

THECARIES, or Guild of 1761 1 Geo. III.

St. Luke.
Confirmatory act.
(Quack medicines prohi-

bited). 1784 .....

By Charter 24 Geo. III,

To ROYAL COLLEGE OF

SURGEONS of Ireland. 1791.........

By 31 Geo. III,
To CORPORATION OF APO-

THECARIES' HALL. 1845 Queen's University (?) 1858 By 21 and 22 Vict., c. 90, By 21 and 22 Vict., c. 90, By 21 and 22 Vict., c. 90.

| To MEDICAL COUNCIL TO MEDICAL COUNCIL. See ‘History of Pharmacy in Ireland,' by W. D. Moore, M.B. Dublin, 1848.

Also Warburton, 'History of Ireland.' London, 1818.

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(No. 3.) Charters, Statutes, 8C., referred to as exhibiting the powers and

privileges assigned to various authorities for directing, controlling, and transmitting the different departments of Medicine and Pharmacy in

SCOTLAND. Date PHYSIC

SURGERY

PHARMACY
transmitted
transmitted

transmitted
From PRIESTS AND MONKS From BARBERS & SMITHS. From SPECIARII AND EPI.

CIERS. 1413 By Bull of Benedict XIII,

To UNIVERSITY OF

ST. ANDREW's. 1450 By Bull of Pope Nicholas,

To UNIVERSITY OF

I GLASGOW.
1494 By Bull of Pope Alexan-

der VI,
To UNIV. AND King's
COLLEGE, ABERDEEN.

.......... By Charter Jac. IV, (Probably united with

To BARBER-SURGEONS | Barber-Surgeons.)

COMPANY. 1582 By Charter Jac. VI,

To COLLEGE AND UNIVER

SITY OF EDINBURGH. 1593 By Charter Earl Marischal,

To COLLEGE AND UNIVER

SITY OF ABERDEEN. 1599 By Charter Jac. VI, By Charter Jac. VI, 1

To FACULTY OF PHYSI- TO FACULTY OF Physi-,

CIANS AND SURGEONS, CIANS AND SURGEONS,
GLASGOW.

GLASGOW. 1657 ..........

.By Act of Council By Act of Council
To a COMPANY OF BARBER-SURGEONS AND APO.

THECARIES. 1681 By Charter 32 Car. II,

T. ROYAL COLLEGE OF

PHYSICIANS, EDIN. 1722

SURGEON-APOTHECARIES

(Barbers excluded.) 1778

By Charter 18 Geo. III. By Charter 18 Geo. III.
To ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS of Edinburgh.

............ To Chemists & Druggists. 1858 By 21 and 22 Vict. c. 90, By 21 and 22 Vict. c. 90, By 21 and 22 Vict. c. 90,

TO MEDICAL COUNCIL TO MEDICAL COUNCIL.

1505 ...........

то

1851).

See · Letters on the Charters of the Scotch Universities and Medical Corporations,' by J. A. Lawrie, M.D. Glasgow, 1856. Maitland's 'History of Edinburgh.' Edin., 1753. Arnott's ‘History of Edinburgh.' Edin., 1779,

(No. 4.)

“ PEPPERERS” AND “SPICERERS."

“ The Pepperers are first mentioned as a fraternity amongst the amerced gilds of Henry II, but probably existed as a gild long before. The Gelda de Pipariorum paid on this occasion sixteen marks, &c. In connection with this fraternity was an office analogous to that of the jurés of Salernum, which may be traced back in this kingdom to times almost coeval with these appointments, and the history of its descent from that period to the Censors of the College of Physicians may be clearly followed. Thus Cowel says, “The garbellor of spices is an officer of great antiquity in the City of London, who is empowered to enter any shop or warehouse, to view and search drugs, &c., and to garble and cleanse them.” . . . . “This garbelling was originally confined to pepper and other spices, and was deemed necessary to prevent their being adulterated, for which purpose a chief garbeller was appointed and sworn to execute his office faithfully and impartially.”

The trade in spices, &c., originally carried on by the “pepperers of Sopar's lane and spicerers of the ward of Cheap" passed in the year 1345 to the hands of the Grocers' Company, who, having extended their trade to drugs, confectionery, grocery (commonly so called), tobacco, &c. &c., attained the name of “Grossiers”—"engrossers of all sorts of wares”-and hence Grocers.

“In 1450 the grocers obtained the important privilege of sharing the office of garbeller of spices with the city.”

. . . “ The fraternity appear to have obtained this latter privilege in consequence of a petition presented by them to the Corporation of London, conjointly with Angelo Ciba, Reginald Grillo, Tobias Lomellino, Branca Doria, and other Genoese, Florentine, Lucca, and Lombardy merchants, complaining of the unjust mode of garbelling “spices and other sotill wares.Towards the end of the following century “the rare tract on this subject, entitled ' A Profitable and Necessarie Discourse for the Meeting with the bad Garbelling of Spices used in these Daies,' &c. (4to Lond., 1591), affords many curious hints relative to the above part of the Grocers' profession at that time.

“It is addressed from Grocers' Hall, London, to Sir William Webb (then Mayor) and his brethren the aldermen, and complains that the representation of 'sundrye of the retayling grocers of London, to the cheefe officers, the gardians, and to the first menne of that society (the Grocers) against the fact of bad garbelling of spices, betweene them and the merchantes'had 'in lieu of reformation taught manye indigneties and wrought som indignation, towards the complainants;' and it makes this appeal in consequence, to a controlling power, threatening if it should there fail, to follow the advice of the poet Muscus :

“It is good sometime to sound in open street

The wicked works which men do think to hide;'

“Or meaning, as the petitioners explain, 'that by publishing some small pamphlet touching the same, suche good may ensue-either the workmanne to grow betterr or the buier to be more wise in the office of garbelling."

Shortly after this period, we find the Grocers' Company then united with the Apothecaries exercising their penal powers. “On the 7th of February, 1616, Michael Eason, having been convicted before the Court, he being an

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