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et Statuta dicti Johannis Domini Lumley et Richardi Caldwall in medicina Doctoris fact :' &c. This generous and noble gift of Dr. Caldwall's and the Lord Lumley's, was so highly resented by the College that immediately letters were drawn up and presented to both of them by the president Dr. Gifford; wherein they did not only acknowledge their great obligations due for this so honourable and generous a donation, most thankfully by them accepted; but as a testimony thereof, did immediately decree, that £100 should be forthwith taken out of their public stock, to build the college rooms more ample and spacious for the better celebration of this most solemn lecture.
“Cambden gives the following short account of this our great and worthy Benefactour and Colleague, An. Dom. 1585:
-Hoc anno fato functus R. Caldwallus è Collegio Ænei Nasi Oxon : Dr. qui ut de Repub: benè mereretur (adscito in partem honoris Barono Lumleio) lectionem Chirurgicam honesto salario in Medicorum Collegio Londini à Thom : Linacro fundato, instituit; Juxtáque ad S. Benedict : inhumatur, monumento laqueis plintheis et charchesiis, scamno Hippocratis, glossocomiis et aliis Chirurgicis ex Oribasio et Galeno machinamentis exornato.'
* For a full account of the foundation of these lectures and their founder, see 'Holinshed's Chronicles,' vol. iii, p. 1349 and 1369. Appendix, 21.
To the example of this “ great and worthy benefactour," was added that of the most illustrious Fellows of the College. Richard Forster, M.D. Oxon., was, for several years, Surgical Lecturer, and in the year 1601-3, president of the college; soon after him, the immortal HARVEY succeeded to this office. He despised not the title of “Professor of Anatomy and Surgery” to the College of Physicians, but accepted and retained that office till within a few years of his death (1657), and honoured the appointment by there reading his incomparable lectures, “De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus,” the germs of which discovery he ever acknowledged to have received from the school of his great master at Padua.* It was Frabricius ab Aquapendente, the famous restorer of surgery, who drew his especial attention to the existence of valves in the veins, and thus set the mind of his pupil on those inquiries which ended in his imperishable fame. No less in his daily practice than in his Professor's chair, did
* Harvey was five years a pupil of Fabricius at Padua, 1597—1602, and here took his degree of Doctor of Medicine and Surgery. The University of Padua, from the time of its foundation, in the twelfth century, up to the time of Harvey, produced a succession of more illustrious names than any
other of the revival schools. This was the channel through which Harvey received ancient medicine, and of him it is recorded
“ Laudatis priscorum ingeniis par ;
Quos honoravit maxime imitando,
Docuitque posteros exemplo.” See ‘Harvey's Works, with Life by Willis,' p. xxxviii; also Appendix, 252, 253, 25k.
Harvey encourage surgery, and thus obey the college charter, as well as carry out the founder's object of reinstalling this neglected branch of medicine, Cases shortly occurred to him which evinced the first fruits of his discovery, and the fulness and unity of medicine. He says, “ Looking back upon the office of the arteries or the circulation of the blood, I have occasionally, and against all expectation, completely cured enormous sarcoceles, by the simple means of tying or dividing the little artery that supplied them.”
He relates one particular case of a tumour thus treated successfully, and adds, “ But this cure, as well as various others, accomplished in opposition to vulgar opinion and by unusual procedures, I shall relate at greater length in my
medical observations, if God grant me longer
The loss of these invaluable papers, said to have been caused—though of this there is much doubttby the plundering of his house at the beginning of the rebellion, doubtless deprived the profession of many such cases in proof of his “opposition to vulgar opinion” in this neglected branch of medicine. Further, that he exercised the science and practice of medicine “in all and every its members” is
* Harvey's Works,' Sydenham edition, p. 254.
+ See Notice of an unpublished MS. of Wm. Harvey, by G. E. Paget, M.D., and the conclusions he has arrived at respecting certain papers, bequeathed to the College of Physicians, which he believes may yet be in existence.
evident, not only in his own writings, but by the testimony of Aubrey and others, it is shown that he “cut off and seared” the breast of my Lady Howard --that he speaks of his experience in obstetricsthat he passes his fingers into the uterus, and brings away a mole of the size of a goose's egg—that he dilates the uterine orifice with an iron instrument, and that he uses a speculum.*
Here we have one great representative of medicine in all its branches—the worthy disciple of that school to which he referred as the source of all his attainments; one who, with his master Fabricius, t followed the bright examples of antiquity rather than the mediæval usurpers of medicine; one who, by example as well as precept, would drive far away these ignorant and rash intruders on the physician's office. To effect this object also his donations and his bequests are not wanting.
On his resigning the Professorship of Surgery into the hands of that “learned and incomparable anatomist Sir Charles Scarbrough," he erects, at his own cost, a library and museum, furnishing the one with books, the other as well with a variety of surgical instruments as with numerous objects of curiosity. He also “ determined to make the College
* 'Life by Willis,' note, p. xxvii. † See Appendix 25h.
I "Inscientiam temeritatemque tam exemplo gravitateque suis deterrere." - Charter, 10 Henry VIII. Appendix, 15.
§ Willis's Life,' p. xxxv.
of Physicians not only heirs to his paternal estate, but to bestow it on them in free gift during his life.” This he accomplished by a formal document in the month of July, 1656, assigning a portion of it " for the delivery of a solemn oration annually in commemoration of those who had approved themselves benefactors to the college ; and, by extension, who had added aught to the sum of medical science in the course of the bygone year;"* lastly, in his will, he bequeaths his “ silver instruments of surgerie to Dr. Scarbrough. In the records of St. Bartholomew's Hospital we may perceive much that tended to the improvement of surgery which may be associated with the name of Harvey. His firm and despotic rules for the management of the chirurgeonst were not without effect. It was at the time of his connection with this hospital that the “bone-setter" was scared from that institution, 1628; so, shortly after, the “curer of scald heads," 1697; and, in the following century, the “stone-cutter," 17301. These being afterwards combined in the office of surgeon, Mr. Edward Nourse, 1734, became first lecturer on anatomy;s and with his prosector, Percivall Pott, the joint founder of our modern School of Anatomy and Surgery in St. Bartholomew's Hospital. The
* Willis's Life,' p. xxxvii.
† Appointments made by the Romish Church, or by virtue of the Act 34 & 35 Henry VIII, c. 8. Appendix, 19.
$ Paget's Records.'