« PreviousContinue »
(BLUE) denotes the origin of true medicine from the earliest times, commencing in the midst of (Pagan) ignorance and superstition, pursuing its course in narrow streams throughout the Jewish, Assyrian, Egyptian and Greek nations, whereby darkness, fable and superstition gradually yield to the records of experience. Reason and experience combine (about 400 B.C.) to the exclusion of superstition and the establishment of medicine by HIPPOCRATES. Therapeutics founded on this basis are divided into Dietetics, Pharmaceutics and Chirurgics in the times of Herophilus and Erasistratus in contradistinction to the superstitious rites and ceremonies of the Asclepiadæ or (Pagan) Priest-physicians. True Medicine preserves its Unity in one undivided stream throughout the Grecian, Roman, Arabic and Revival schools to the time of HARVEY, who represented this Unity in the College of Physicians in England. After his death Dietetics are excluded, in proportion as Pharmaceutics are magnified, by the invasion of Apothecaries-supported by Rad. cliffe and his party in the College of Physicians ; Chirurgics also are expelled by the bye-law " Antequam quispiam, &c.
See The reverses in the fate of surgery as connected with the College of Physicians explained by the scroll on the left.
(GREY) denotes the invasion of Medicine by Priests and Monks in the seventh century, or its first great corruption. Light and Truth being extinguished, Reason and Experience banished, the Nestorians and Jews escape to the Arabic schools, where they become the first
physicians and chief professors up to the time of Avicenna. Ignorance and superstition re-established through barbaric irruptions and Papal edicts. (See margin for events from Council of Carthage, A.D. 393, to fall of Alexandria, A.D. 640.) Priest-Physicians (Papal) usurp the whole practice of medicine during the four fol. lowing centuries, their cures effected by relics and miracles—chiefly within their respective monasteries, and at last restricted to them by command of Popes Benedict IX and Urban II; this failing, the first compulsory division ensued, which was effected by Romish synods and councils in the 12th and 13th centuries, whereby internal diseases were assigned to inferior clergy-operations and external diseases to Barbers, Smiths, &c.
In ENGLAND control of “Fysyk” is transmitted successively to Universities, Privy Council (1454), Bishops (1511), College of Physicians (1518), which is alternately subjected to various powers and privileges or to restrictions, as the unity of the Grecian, Roman, Arabic and Revival schools prevailed on the one side, or the divisions and degradations of the Priest, the Barber and the Apothecary on the other.
In IRELAND and SCOTLAND “Fysyk” pursues a like course from Priests and Monks to Universities, and subsequently to Royal Colleges of Physicians.
(RED) denotes the invasion of Medicine by Barbers in the 12th and 13th centuries, or its second great corruption.
In ENGLAND“ Surgerie ” is assigned successively to the Barbers' Company (1461), Barber-Surgeons (1540), Corporation of Surgeons, (1745), and Royal College of Surgeons (1800), by which the division of the Priest and the Barber is perpetuated, although the alliance of either with his respective branch is ignored.
In IRELAND and SCOTLAND the distinctive character of this alliance is represented.
In CIVILISED STATES GENERALLY the division, as well as the corruption, is increasingly ignored.
(YELLOW) denotes the origin of the Pharmacopolites' vocation in the time of Galen, and the various denominations of ose who previously traded in drugs. This office is preserved distinct throughout ancient, mediæval and modern times IN CIVILISED STATES generally, their number for the most part being about one fourth that of Physicians and Surgeons together.
In ENGLAND the office is transmitted from the Speciarii and Epiciers of Italy and France to the Pepperers and Spicerers—the Grocers' Company (1345)--the Grocer-Apothecaries' Company (1607) -and the Society of Pharmacopolites or Apothecaries (1616). Their invasion of Physic (or the Physicians' Office) constitutes the third great corruption of medicine, commences in the seventeenth, is continued through the eighteenth, and allied by law in the nineteenth century (1815) and is without parallel in the whole civilised world.
In IRELAND Apothecaryes are allied with Barber-Chirurgeons and Periwig-makers (1687, probably much earlier), but, separated from these, are established as Corporation of Apothecaries (1745), and as Corporation of Apothecaries' Hall (1791).
In SCOTLAND they are allied with Barber-Surgeons (1657, probably as early as 1505), separated from Barbers (1722), but remain one body corporate with Surgeons—Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh -to the present day, although the duties of their office are chiefly assigned to Chemists and Druggists without any incorporation.
The comparative number of practitioners in either department of Physic, Surgery, and Pharmacy, is denoted as well by the width of the respective streams as the number at the last Census, 1851.