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sections relating to the pre-Mughal period of these texts were first compiled in the Mughal period. A strong evidence in regard to the late origin of the pre-Mughal sections of the Madalā Pañji is their general unreliability. To say nothing of the earlier dynasties, no independent evidence has yet been discovered relating to the 42 kings of the Kesari dynasty who are supposed to have reigned from the fifth to the end of the eleventh century A.D. Even the history of the Ganga kings is hopelessly muddled. In the Choda Ganga of the i uri annals, we can hardly recognise Anantavarman Choda's Ganga whose lineage and history are well known from contemporary epigraphic records. Gangesvara, the hero of a cycle of nasty legends unknown to history, is sandwiched between Choda Ganga ard his immediate successor Kāmārṇava who is called Kāmadeva In place of the last seven or eight kings of the Ganga dynasty who are alternately named Narasimha Deva and Bhanu Deva the Puri annals substitute a succession of six Narasimhas followed by six Bhanudevas. But with the accession of Kapilendra we are on firmer historical ground. In A, B, D(6), D(8), D(10) and D(14), the last king of the Ganga dynasty is named Matta Bhanu or the mad Bhanu. It is said that Matta Bhanu had no male issue or no brother who could succeed him. So he prayed to Jagannath to nominate a successor. In the night Jagannath appeared before him in a dream and said that in the following morning, near the temple of Vimala, he would meet his heir in the person of a young man picking food from a potsherd who would run away at his approach. In the following morning the king actually met a young man near the temple of Vimala behaving exactly in the same manner. The young man turned out to be Kapili (Kapila), a Raut or Rajput of the Solar line, who after serving as a cowherd of a Brahmana and then associating with a gang of thieves for some time was then leading the life of a beggar. King Matta Bhanu adopted Kapili as his heir-apparent and on his death was succeeded by

1 In C and D(3) the last Ganga king is named Akață Abaṭā Bhanu, son of Matta Bhanu.

him in the Saka year 1374 (A.D. 1452) according to E, which gives the most reliable dates. On his accession to the throne Kapili came to be known as Kapilendra and Kapilesavara. The tales that have gathered round the early life of this king read more like legends invented by popular fancy than sober history. But in a stone inscription found at Gopinathpur in the Cuttack district which records the erection of a temple of Jagannath by Gopinatha Mahāpātra, a minister of Kapilendra Deva, we are told

bhāsvad-vam sāvatamsa-tri-jagad-adhipati-nila-sail


ādeśad-Odra-dese samajani Kapilendra

abhidhāno Narendraḥ.1

"By order of the Lord of Nila-giri (blue hill) (who is) the Lord of the three worlds (Jagannatha), there was born in the Odra-desa a king named Kapilendra, the ornament of the solar line."

The reference to the "order" of Jagannatha in connection with Kapilendra in this stanza clearly indicates that his contemporaries believed in some such stories relating to his accession as those preserved in the Puri annals. What was the reason for that belief, what is the substratum of fact underlying the stories, it is now difficult to determine. But after the story of the order of Jagann atha relating to Kapili's succession communicated to Matta Bhanu Deva and his adoption of the former as heir, we are treated to an anachronism in the annals. It is said that Matta Bhanu sent Kapili to the Subadar or Nawab of Orissa to settle the amount of tribute (peshkash) and the Nawab conferred on him the title of Bhramaravara. In the fifteenth century Orissa was an independent kingdom and the titles Subadar and Nawab were unknown in India before the establishment of the Mughal empire more than a century after.

1 M. M. Chakravarti, Inscription of Kapilendra Deva, J.A.S.B., Vol. LXIX, 1901, Part I, p. 175.

From the middle of the sixteenth century onward it is possible to check the accuracy of the narrative of the Puri annals with the help of the historians of the Mughal empire. By saying so I do not mean that the Mughal histories are necessarily more trustworthy than the corresponding sections of the Puri annals. But we know more about the antecedents, the opportunities and the prejudices of the Mughal historians than those of the anonymous compilers of the Puri annals, and are therefore in a better position to subject the statements of the former to criticism. Abul Fazl in his Akbarnama furnishes us with some details relating to the history of the last independent kings in Orissa. The dynasty founded by Kapilendra was overthrown by Govinda Vidyadhara, the powerful minister of his famous grandson Prataparudra. Govinda Vidyadhara, known as Vira Govinda Deva after his usurpation, who died in Śakāvda 1467 (A.D. 1545), was succeeded by his son Chakra or (Ci akā) Pratapa Deva. The story of the death of Chakā l'ratāpa Deva is thus told in A :

অনেক অন্যায় সে রাযা কলে। ব্রাহ্মণকু বারু ঘাস কটাঙ্গলে৷ রাযরে সমস্ত লোক আরত হোঈলে। এ রযা থিলে ভল নোহিব বোঈলে । ১৫ অঙ্ক মেস মাস কৃষ্ণ ত্রেছশী দিন ঐ পুঋসোতম রযা বাড়ী মাটী আবাহান হোঈলে ৷ এ রাযা ভোগ কলে ১২/৬ 1 এহাঙ্ক পুঅ নরসিংহ রায় যেনা হোঈ রাজা হেলে ।

"The king did many wrong things. He made Brahmans gather fodder for horses. All people were afraid of the king. They said, 'If this king continue to reign, no good will be done.' In the 15th Anka on the 13th day of the dark half of the month of Vaisakha, the king died within the compound of the temple of Jagannatha at Puri. This king reigned for 12 years and 6 months." His son Narasimha who was the hair-apparent became king. Manuscript B, which like A, belongs to the collection of the Deul Karan, gives a somewhat different account of the death of king Chakā Pratapa. In this manuscript it is stated, "After this his son Chaka Pratāpa

reigned for 8 years (up to the) Śaka year 1471 (A.d. 1549). The span of life of this king had expired. He tied himself with a silken cord to the (image of) Lord Jagannatha within the temple but could not live up to the third quarter of the day. The silken cord snapped and he fell down dead." The date of the death of Chaka Pratāpa given in B and in D(3) is evidently wrong. MS. E., like A and D(10), assigns to Chakā Pratapa a reign of more than 12 years from the Saka year 1467 (A.D. 1545) to 1479 (A.D. 1557). In D(10) it is simply stated that Chakā Pratapa Deva died at Sri-Purusottama. The account of B read with that of A and D(10) seems to indicate that there was considerable mystery about the death of Chaka Pratapa Dev. An explanation of this mystery is found in the Akbarnama wherein we are told: "There have always been independent rulers in this country. Among them there was formerly Partab Deo. His son Narsingh Deo out of wickedness rose up against his father and lulled him into carelessness by the repeating of charms. When he got an opportunity, he poisoned him and acquired eternal death,"1

The agreement between Abul Fazl's account of the end of Chaka Pratapa Deva's successor and that given in the temple annals is even closer. I shall reproduce from manuscript A the Oyria original :—

এ মকুন্দ হরিচন্দন চারি ভাঈ রজাঙ্কু মেলিআ হোঈলে। রজাঙ্কু শ্রীনঅরে কুটুম্ব যাউঅছস্তি বোলী দোলী ভিতরে যাঈ ভুসী মাঈলে ৷

A similar account is found in D(10). Instead of translating this passage in English, I shall reproduce Beveridge's English translation of Abul Fazl's account :

"About that time Mukund Deo had come from Telingana, and entered into the service of the Rajah. He was indignant on beholding this wickedness, and resolved upon vengeance. He represented that his wife was coming to pay a visit (to the Rajah) and filled litters (dolis) with arms and sent them off. He also put presents and gold into the hands of skilful and 1 Akbarnama, translated by Beveridge, Vol. III, p. 933.


9 Res. J.

courageous men, and entered the fort. Inasmuch as a parricide does not last long, the latter was soon disposed of, and the sovereignty went to another."

This passage reads like an enlarged version of the Oriya account quoted above, only the three other brothers of Telinga Mukunda find no mention in it. According to E, Narasimha called Singha Deva, reigned for fifteen days only. Mukunda Harichandana first set up Narasimha's brother Raghuram on the throne and putting him to death after a year in Sakāvda 1481 (A.D. 1559) himself ascended the throne and came to be known as Telinga Mukunda Deva. In his reign Orissa was conquered by the Pathans of Bengal. The story of the conquest is thus told in the annals A, D(10) and D(14)

"In the 10th Anka (8th year Mukunda Deva encamped on the bank of the Ganges (Gangā kaṭakai kale). He inade an alliance with the Padshah of Delhi (Emperor Akbar), but was hostile to the Padshah of Gaur (Sulaiman Kararānī). He indulged in sports in boats in the Ganges (Gangāre nāva keli kale). When the Padshah of Gaur came to know this, he advanced with a large army. When the king (Makunda Deva) came to know this, he took refuge in the Koṭasarma fort. Several engagements were fought between the Raja and the Padshah near the fort and many of the warriors on both sides were killed, but no party could overcome the other. In the meantime Kala Pabar came from the west along the Kansa- vansa river and laid siege to Katak (Cuttack). Koli Saanta Singhāra who was in charge of Katak fought hard and was killed. The royal palace was captured. Taking advantage of this confusion, Ramachandra Bhañja who was at Sarangarb, proclaimed himself king. When Mukunda Deva who was at Kotasarmagarh heard of the capture of his palace and the assumption of sovereignty by Ramachandra Bhanja, he surrendered himself to the Padshah (Sulaiman Kararāni). A battle

1. In B and F there is no reference to sports in boats, and in both these manscripts it is stated that the goddess Ganga appeared in person before Mukunda Deva who presented her bangles made of precious stones.

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