A History of Indian Philosophy: Volume 1

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, 1922 - Philosophy - 528 pages
In this benchmark five-volume study, originally published between 1922 and 1955, Surendranath Dasgupta examines the principal schools of thought that define Indian philosophy. A unifying force greater than art, literature, religion, or science, Professor Dasgupta describes philosophy as the most important achievement of Indian thought, arguing that an understanding of its history is necessary to appreciate the significance and potentialities of India's complex culture. Volume I offers an examination of the Vedas and the Brahmanas, the earlier Upanisads, and the six systems of Indian philosophy.

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Contents

The Vedas and their antiquity 2 The place of the Vedas in the Hindu mind
10
Classification of the Vedic literature
11
The Samhitās
12
The Brahmaņas
13
The Āraṇyakas 7 The RgVeda its civilization
14
Principle of Causation and Conservation of Energy
15
The Vedic gods
16
Polytheism Henotheism and Monotheism
17
Growth of a Monotheistic tendency Prajapati Viśvakarma
19
Brahma
20
Sacrifice the First Rudiments of the Law of Karma
21
CosmogonyMythological and Philosophical
23
Eschatology the Doctrine of Ātman
25
T5 Conclusion
26
CHAPTER III
28
The place of the Upanisads in Vedic literature
29
The names of the Upanisads NonBrahmanic influence
30
Brāhmaṇas and the Early Upanisads
31
The meaning of the word Upanisad The composition and growth of diverse Upanisads
38
Revival of Upanisad studies in modern times
39
The Upanisads and their interpretations
41
the struggle and the failures
42
Unknowability of Brahman and the Negative Method
44
The Atman doctrine
45
Place of Brahman in the Upanisads 12 The World
48
The WorldSoul 14 The Theory of Causation
52
Doctrine of Transmigration
53
Emancipation
58
CHAPTER IV
62
Growth of the Philosophic Literature
65
The Indian systems of Philosophy
67
Some fundamental points of agreement I The Karma theory
71
CHAPTER V
78
his Life
81
Early Buddhist Literature
82
The Doctrine of Causal Connection of early Buddhism
84
The Khandhas
93
Avijjā and Āsava
99
Sila and Samādhi
100
Kamma PAGE 78 81 82 84
101
100
106
Upanisads and Buddhism
111
The Schools of Theravada Buddhism
125
The Tathata Philosophy of Asvaghosa 80 A D
129
Sautrantika theory of Perception 14 Uncompromising Idealism or the School of Vij˝ānavāda Buddhism
145
Some Ontological Problems on which the Different Indian Systems diverged
164
The Doctrine of Momentariness and the Doctrine of Causal Efficiency Arthakriyākāritva 158
168
CHAPTER VI
169
Two Sects of Jainism
170
The Canonical and other Literature of the Jains
171
Some General Characteristics of the Jains
172
Life of Mahāvīra The Fundamental Ideas of Jaina Ontology
173
The Doctrine of Relative Pluralism Anekāntavāda
175
The Doctrine of Nayas
176
PAGE I
177
The Doctrine of Syādvāda
179
Knowledge its value for
181
ΙΟ IO II
182
Theory of Perception
183
NonPerceptual knowledge
185
Knowledge as Revelation
186
The Jīvas
188
Karma Theory
190
Karma Asrava and Nirjarā
192
Pudgala
195
Samkhya Atheism and Yoga Theism
258
The Cognitive Process and some characteristics of Citta
261
Sorrow and its Dissolution 22 Citta
265
Yoga Purificatory Practices Parikarma
270
24 The Yoga Meditation
271
CHAPTER VIII
274
Dravya Guņa Karma Sāmānya Višeṣa Sama vāya 10 The Theory of Causation II Dissolution Pralaya and Creation Srşti
280
19
288
20
297
21
321
Perception Pratyakṣa
332
Inference
333
Upamana and Śabda
343
23
353
of Salvation
360
A Comparative Review
367
The Mimāmsā Literature
369
The Parataḥpramanya doctrine of Nyaya and the Svataḥprāmāṇya doctrine of Mīmāmsā
372
The place of Senseorgans in Perception
375
Indeterminate and Determinate Perception
378
Some Ontological Problems connected with the Doctrine of Per ception
379
The Nature of Knowledge
382
The Psychology of Illusion
384
25
385
Inference
387
Upamana Arthāpatti
391
Sabdapramāņa
394
The Pramana of Nonperception anupalabdhi
397
Self Salvation and God
399
26
401
Mimńmsń as Philosophy and Mīmāmsā as Ritualism
403
CHAPTER X
406
a Review
408
Vedanta Literature
419
Vedanta in Gauḍapāda
420
Vedanta and Sankara 788820 A D
429
The main idea of the Vedanta philosophy
439
In what sense is the worldappearance false?
443
The nature of the worldappearance phenomena
445
The Definition of Aj˝āna nescience
452
Io Aj˝āna established by Perception and Inference
454
Locus and Object of Aj˝āna Ahamkāra and Antaḥkaraṇa
457
Anirvācyavāda and the Vedanta dialectic
461
The Theory of Causation
465
Vedanta theory of Perception and Inference
470
Atman Jiva Iśvara Ekajīvavāda and Dṛṣṭisṛṣṭivāda
474
Vedanta theory of Illusion
485
Vedanta Ethics and Vedanta Emancipation
489
Vedanta and other Indian systems
492
INDEX
495
Jaina Atheism 23 Mokṣa emancipation 169 170 171
497
173
501
wwwwx 28 30 31 38 39
502
175
503
41
505
183
506
42
507
238
511
52
516
58
519
62
521
65
523
71
525
74
527
The Doctrine of Soul 75 6 Unity in Indian Sadhana philosophical religious and ethical 5 The Pessimistic Attitude towards the World and the Optimist...
528

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Page 124 - because being of the nature of negation they are non-collocative and hence have no production or dissolution. The eightfold noble path which leads to this state consists of right views, right aspirations, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right rapture 1
Page 46 - which is free from sin, free from old age, from death and grief, from hunger and thirst, whose desires are true, whose cogitations are true, that is to be searched for, that is to be enquired; he gets all his desires and all worlds who knows that self."
Page 40 - throughout harmonious meaning! From every sentence deep, original, and sublime thoughts arise, and the whole is pervaded by a high and holy and earnest spirit....In the whole world there is no study, except that of the originals, so beneficial and so elevating as that of the Oupanikhat It has been the solace of my life, it will be the solace of my death!*" Through Schopenhauer
Page 423 - and Vasubandhu ; and I believe that there is sufficient evidence in his karikas for thinking that he was possibly himself a Buddhist, and considered that the teachings of the Upanisads tallied with those of Buddha. Thus at the beginning of the fourth chapter of his karikas he says that he adores that great
Page 229 - was probably the most notable person for he not only collected the different forms of Yoga practices, and gleaned the diverse ideas which were or could be associated with the Yoga, but grafted them all on the Samkhya metaphysics, and gave them the form in which they have been handed down to us. Vacaspati and
Page 23 - 8 ). In some passages it is said " Brahmanaspati blew forth these births like a blacksmith. In the earliest age of the gods, the existent sprang from the non-existent. In the first age of the gods, the existent sprang from the non-existent: thereafter the regions sprang, thereafter, from Uttanapada
Page 13 - refined sacerdotal class, the Atharva- Veda is, in the main a book of spells and incantations appealing to the demon world, and teems with notions about witchcraft current among the lower grades of the population, and derived from an immemorial antiquity. These two, thus complementary to each other in contents are obviously the most important of the four
Page 229 - also brings the conviction that the sutras do not show any original attempt, but a masterly and systematic compilation which was also supplemented by fitting contributions. The systematic manner also in which the first three chapters are written by way of definition and classification shows that the materials were already in existence and that
Page 438 - agents and enjoyers, which contains the fruit of works specially determined according to space, time, and cause, a world which is formed after an arrangement inconceivable even by the (imagination of the) mind 1 ." The reasons that Sankara adduces for the existence of Brahman may be considered to be threefold:
Page 133 - ignorance manifests itself; and from non-enlightenment starts that which sees, that which represents, that which apprehends an objective world, and that which constantly particularizes. This is called ego (manas). Five different names are given to the ego (according to its different modes of operation). The first name is activity-consciousness

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