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but, being under the king's disfavour, had orders not to appear CHARLES at this solemnity, but to depute one of the prebendaries to officiate in his place. This order put him somewhat to a stand. He was unwilling to nominate Laud, then one of the prebendaries, because he looked on him as his rival at court; but then, to have overlooked a bishop, and named another of a lower rank, would have been too plain a discovery of disaffection. He therefore prudently sent the king the names and distinctions of all the prebendaries, leaving the choice to his majesty, who pitched upon Laud. Laud being thus nomi- Laud per nated, did the dean's part in preparing for that pompous dean of appearance. And finding the old crucifix among the regalia, sem spannt at he placed it upon the altar, according to ancient usage.
The duke of Buckingham, keeping on his misunderstanding with the bishop of Lincoln, was a weight upon that prelate's fortune, and kept him from emerging at court. He seems to have lain under a particular hardship at this time; for he had not received his writ of summons to sit in parliament. This, though with submission to his majesty's pleasure, he represented as unprecedented usage ; and that this privilege was not denied to any prisoners, or condemned peers in his father's reign. He therefore entreated the king for leave to make his proxy, if not permitted to attend in person. He likewise begged the king to soften the duke, and bring him off his resentment ; who, though he had never received any real provocation from him, was not to be reconciled by any thing the bishop could do, or suffer. And lastly, he humbly desires the king's name might not be used to his disadvantage, and that his reputation might not suffer by his absence from the parliament. He concludes with strong protestations of duty and affection to the king ; stands boldly upon his innocence; and solicits for no protection against the charge of any subject whatever. And now the second parliament being met, a commission for A committee
of religion religion was settled, and Montague's “ Appeal to Cæsar”
first apagain debated. This book being referred by the commons to pointed by the committee abovementioned, Mr. Pym made his report of mons. several erroneous opinions extracted from it; upon which the house made this resolve: “ That Mr. Montague endeavoured to reconcile England to Rome, and alienate the king's affection from his well-affected subjects.” By the way, this is the
ABBOT, first time we hear of a committee of religion in the house of Abp. Cant.
Commons. The articles exhibited against Montague were drawn up in the form following.
Articles exhibited against
“That he, the said Richard Montague, in or about the
twenty-first year of the reign of our late sovereign king James Montague. of famous memory, hath caused to be printed, and in his name
to be published, one book, called, “An Answer to the late Gag of Protestants.' And in or about anno twenty-two of the same king, he caused to be printed and published one other book, entitled, “A Treatise of the Invocation of Saints. And likewise in the first year of his majesty's reign, that now is, he procured to be printed, and in his name to be published, another book, entitled, “An Appeal to Cæsar.' In every of which books he hath maintained and confirmed some doctrine contrary or repugnant to the articles agreed by the archbishops and bishops of both provinces, and the whole clergy, holden in the convocation at London A.D. 1562, according to the computation of the Church of England, ‘for avoiding diversity of opinions, and for establishing consent touching true religion ;' all which appears in the places hereafter mentioned, and in divers other places and passages of the same books ; and by his so doing hath broken the laws and statutes of this realm in that case provided, and very much disturbed both the peace of Church and commonwealth.
“1. Whereas, in the five-and-thirtieth article of the articles aforementioned, it is declared, that the second book of homilies doth contain a godly and wholesome doctrine; in the sixteenth homily of which book it is determined, that the Church of Rome, as it is at present, and hath been for the space of nine hundred years and odd, is so far wide from the nature of a true Church, that nothing can be more. He, the said Richard Montague, in several places in the said books, called, “The Answer to the Gag,' and in his other book, called, The Appeal,' doth advisedly maintain and affirm, that the Church of Rome is and ever was a true Church, since it was a Church.
“ II. Whereas, in the same homily, it is likewise declared, that the Church of Rome is not built upon the foundation of the prophets and apostles. And in the eight-and-twentieth article of the said articles, that transubstantiation overthroweth
the nature of a sacrament; and in the five-and-twentieth of CHARLES the said articles, that five other reputed sacraments of the Church of Rome are not to be accounted sacraments. Yet, contrary and repugnant hereunto, he, the said Richard Montague, doth maintain and affirm in his book aforesaid, called, • The Answer to the Gag,' that the Church of Rome hath ever remained firm upon the same foundation of sacraments and doctrine instituted by God.
- III. In the nineteenth of the same articles it is farther determined, that the Church of Rome hath erred, not only in their living, and matters of ceremony, but also in matters of 737. faith. He, the said Richard Montague, speaking of those points which belong to faith and good manners, hope and charity, doth in the said book, called, “The Gag,' affirm and maintain, that none of these are controverted in their points, meaning the Protestants and Papists; and notwithstanding that in the one-and-thirtieth article it is resolved, that the sacrifice of masses, in which, as it is commonly said, the priest doth offer Christ for the quick and the dead, to have remission of pain and guilt too, is a blasphemous fable, and dangerous deceit; this being one of the points controverted between the Church of England and the Church of Rome;—the said Richard Montague, in his book called “The Gag,' doth affirm, and maintain, that the controverted points are of a lesser and inferior nature, of which a man may be ignorant, without any danger of his soul at all; a man may resolve to oppose this or that without peril of perishing for ever.
“ IV. Whereas in the second homily, entituled, 'Against Peril of Idolatry,' contained in the aforesaid book of homilies, and approved by the five-and-thirtieth article aforementioned, it is declared, that images teach no good lesson, neither of God nor godliness; but all error and wickedness : he, the said Richard Montague, in the book of “Gag,' aforesaid, doth affirm and maintain, that images may be used for the instruction of the ignorant and excitation of devotion.
“ V. That in the same homily, it is plainly expressed, that the attributing the defence of certain countries to saints, is a spoiling God of his honour, and that such saints are but dii tutelares of the Gentiles, or idolaters. The said Richard Montague hath, notwithstanding, in his said book, entituled, "A Treatise concerning the Invocation of Saints,' affirmed and
ABBOT, maintained, that saints have not only a memory, but a more Abp. Cant.
peculiar charge of their friends; and that it may be admitted, that some saints have a peculiar patronage, custody, protection, and power, as angels also have, over certain persons and countries, by special deputation; and that it is no impiety so to believe: whereas in the seventeenth of the said articles, it is resolved, that God hath certainly decreed by his counsel, secret to us, to deliver from curse and damnation, those whom he hath chosen in Christ out of mankind, and to bring them by Christ to everlasting salvation; wherefore they which be endued with so excellent a benefit of God, and called according to God's purpose, working in due season, they through the grace obey the calling, they be justified freely, walk religiously in good works, and at length, by God's mercy, attain to everlasting felicity. He, the said Richard Montague, in the said book, called, • The Appeal,' doth maintain and affirm, that men justified may fall away, and depart from the state which once they had; they may arise again, and become new men possibly, but not certainly, nor necessarily. And the better to countenance this his opinion, he hath in the same book wilfully added, falsified, and changed divers words in the sixteenth of the articles beforementioned, and divers other words, both in the Book of Homilies and in the Book of Common Prayer, and so misrecited and changed, the said places he doth allege in the said book, called “The Appeal,' endeavouring thereby to lay a most wicked and malicious scandal upon the Church of England, as if she did herein differ from the reformed Churches beyond the seas; and did consent to those pernicious errors, which are commonly called Arminianism, and which the late famous queen Elizabeth, and king James, of happy memory, did so piously and diligently labour to suppress'.
“ That the said Richard Montague, contrary to his duty and allegiance, endeavoured to raise great factions and divisions in this commonwealth, by casting the odious and scandalous name of Puritans upon such his majesty's loving subjects as conform themselves to the doctrines and ceremonies of the Church of England; under that name laying upon them divers false and malicious imputations, so to bring them into jealousy and dis
Montague had moral courage enough, to defend what he conceived to be Catholic orthodoxy, against the favourite prejudices and conceit of sects and parties, by whom the truth was rent and torn to fragments.
pleasure with his most excellent majesty, and into reproach and CHARLES ignominy with the rest of the people, to the great danger of sedition and disturbance in the state, if it be not timely prevented.
“That the scope and end of the said Richard Montague, in the books beforementioned, is to give encouragement to popery, and to withdraw his majesty's subjects from true religion established, to the Roman superstition, and consequently to be reconciled to the see of Rome; all which he laboureth, by subtle and cunning ways, whereby God's true religion hath been much scandalized, those mischiefs introduced, which the wisdom of many laws hath endeavoured to prevent, the devices and practices of his majesty's enemies have been furthered and advanced, to the great peril and hazard of our sovereign lord the king, and of all his dominions, and loving subjects.
“ That the said Richard Montague hath inserted into the book, called The Appeal,' divers passages dishonourable to the late king, his majesty's father, of famous memory; full of bitterness, railing, and injurious speeches to other persons, disgraceful and contemptible to many worthy divines, both of this kingdom, and other reformed Churches beyond the seas ; impious and profane in scoffing at preaching, meditating and conferring, pulpits, lectures, Bible, and all show of religion ; all which do aggravate his former offences, having proceeded from malicious and envenomed heat against the peace of the Church, and the sincerity of the reformed religion publicly professed, and by law established in this kingdom. All which offences being to the dishonour of God, and of most mischievous effect and consequence against the good of this Church and commonwealth of England, and of other his majesty's realms and dominions, the Commons assembled in parliament, do hereby pray that the said Richard Montague may be punished according to his demerits, in such exemplary manner, as may deter others from attempting so presumptuously to disturb the peace of the Church and State, and that the Collections, book aforesaid may be suppressed and burnt."
It does not appear this impeachment was laid before the house of Lords, in what manner the Commons intended to prosecute their charge, or how far they proceeded. Rushworth having made a search into this matter, could not find that Montague was brought to his defence, or that he returned any