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A.D. 1626.

ABBOT, answer to the articles : from whence we may conclude the Abp. Cant.

process was dropped by the Commons. Whether their impeachment of the duke of Buckingham might draw them from business of lower consideration, or their distrust of making the charge good, or the sudden dissolution of parliament, was the occasion of this issue, is somewhat uncertain.

Before the ending of parliament, the bishop of Gloucester preaching before his majesty, asserted the real presence in such strong language, that he was suspected of going to an excess, and coming too near the verge of popery. The discourse made

a great noise, and gave disgust both in town and country. The Exceptions convocation examined the exceptionable passages, but came bishop of to no decision. The king, being willing to satisfy himself and Gloucester's

the parliament, ordered archbishop Abbot; Andrews, bisho before the

of Winchester; and Laud, bishop of St. David's, to make king. April 12, a thorough inquiry into the bishop's discourse, and report their

opinion. They met accordingly, and after having perused the sermon, and argued upon the meaning of those sentences which gave offence, they returned the king this answer:

6. That some things in that sermon had been spoken less warily, but nothing falsely : that nothing had been innovated by him in the doctrine of the Church of England: but, however, they thought very fit that Goodman should be appointed to preach again

before his majesty, for the better explaining his meaning, and Cyprian. showing how, and in what particulars, he had been mistaken Archbishop by his auditors.” Goodman preaching accordingly before the Diary.

king, had no farther trouble. Montague's As for Montague's business, who had been charged with

deserting towards Popery and Arminianism, by the Commons convocation,

of both parliaments, the reader may possibly be somewhat at a loss why the convocation took no cognizance of this matter. For the articles exhibited were points of religion, and by consequence proper to the decision of the clergy. Besides, the king was plainly inclined to give the convocation their just liberty, as appears by the letter of the three bishops abovementioned, to the duke of Buckingham. Here they acquaint the duke, “ that his majesty had taken that business into his own care, and most worthily referred it in a right course to Church consideration." But then, we are to remember, that Laud had been lately sent by the duke of Buckingham to consult Andrews, about what was thought fit to be proposed in



business not moved in

and why.



the convocation; and whether it was seasonable to revive the CHARLES Quinquarticular controversy. Now by the issue we may collect, Andrews did not think it proper to refresh those disputes at present. Those of Montague's profession, it is likely, did not think it safe to push the matter to a crisis : they knew the archbishop, and many of the bishops and clergy, were rather of the Calvinian side; and therefore it was more prudential to let the cause sleep, than run the hazard of a debate in convocation.

But though the convocation seemed to overlook, or stand neuter in the contest, Montague was attacked in print by Carleton, bishop of Chichester ; Sutcliffe, dean of Exeter; by Yates, Rouse, &c. And thus the clashing was kept on, and the breach grew rather wider. To accommodate matters, a conference had lately been held in York-house, the duke of Puckingham, and some other temporal lords, being present. The managers were Buckeridge, bishop of Rochester, and Dr. White, dean of Carlisle, on the one side; and Morton, bishop of Coventry, and Dr. Preston, preacher at Lincoln's-inn, on the other. They touched upon the five points, but the ques- Two contion argued most at length was, “ Whether it was possible upon the five for one elected to fall from grace.” The advantage of the dis- Feb. 11, pute was given to either side, according to the variety of judg- 1626. ment or inclination in the audience. There was soon after a second conference in the same place, and before the same temporal lords, of which, Robert, earl of Warwick, and William, earl of Pembroke, were two. The divines were likewise the same, excepting that Montague appeared in bishop Bucke- Fuller's ridge's room. As to the event, it was not more successful than the former; they came to no accommodation, nor made any book !!

Archbishop converts of each other.

His majesty, to prevent the controversy's growing warmer, The king's and breaking the people into parties, by the advice of the proclamar bishops, published a proclamation to keep both sides quiet. the disputing In this state-paper the king declares “his utter dislike of all those who, to show their parts, to please their humour, or play their revenge, shall be so hardy as to propagate any new opinions differing from the orthodoxal belief of the Church of England ; that he is fully resolved never to admit any innovation in the doctrine or discipline of the Church. And as he shall always be forward to encourage his religious and well



the controversy.

ABBOT, affected subjects, so he is resolved not to forbear the punishing Abp. Cant. those who, out of sinister regards, shall presume to embroil

either Church or State. His majesty therefore commands all his subjects (and more especially the clergy), both in England and Ireland, that from henceforth they manage themselves with such discretion and conscience, that neither by writing, preaching, printing, conferences, or otherwise, they raise

any doubts, or publish any singularities concerning religion; but that upon arguments of this nature they keep themselves close to the doctrine and discipline happily established by authority."

From hence, his majesty proceeds to charge “ all archbishops and bishops, all counsellors of State, judges, and ministers of justice, to correct and suppress those mutinous spirits that shall venture to break through this rule of sobriety and obedience to his majesty, and forget the submission they owe to the constitutions of the Church and the laws of the realm.” The proclamation concludes, “That in case of mis

behaviour, his majesty will proceed against the offenders with Bib. Regia. all the severity their crimes should deserve." Cyprian. Anglic.

The articles of the commons against Montague encouraged the Calvinians to draw out their force, and set upon him. Besides those already mentioned, Gode, Featly, Ward, Wooton, Pryn, and Burton, furnished pamphlets upon the argument. Laud, and some bishops on the other side, supported by his majesty's proclamation, endeavoured to suppress those books, and stifle the controversy. In short, some of the pamphlets were stopped at the press, some called in, and both the printers and the authors questioned for engaging in an argument prohibited by the government. Amongst the rest, Burton and Pryn were called before the High Commission. But when the court was near their censure, they were served with a prohibition from Westminster-hall to stop their proceedings. This was the hardiest stroke of the judges, and fell at the rebound

on his majesty's proclamation. 739. The commons complaint of the growth of popery, and the The pope's king's letters to the bishops and judges to prosecute recusants, Letter to the looked like a storm coming on that quarter. The pope reEnglish

ceiving advice of this unexpected turn, sent a consolatory

letter to the English Roman Catholics. This pope, like Paul See Records, num. 109. V., seems to mistake the purport of the oath of allegiance; he



takes it for granted this test means more than a security for CHARLES loyalty and civil obedience; that it strikes at the privileges of St. Peter's chair, and implies a claim of spiritual supremacy in the crown. Notwithstanding this supposition, he recommends submission and passive obedience in moving expressions; he lets them know they are not to apply to any expedients of violence; and that prayers and patience are the only defence Christian subjects are allowed to make use of '.

And now to open the way, and make the Church history more intelligible, I must touch a little on what happened in the State. “The king of Denmark lately published a manifesto, setting forth, that at the instance of the kings of Great Britain and Denmark, the elector palatine had offered a submission to his imperial majesty, and thereupon was in hopes of being restored to the patrimony and privilege of his ancestors : that, notwithstanding this offer of satisfaction, the emperor continued his former hostilities upon the elector's country, and had much damnified the Lower Saxony by the forces commanded by his general count Tilly.

“ The country being thus distressed, the princes of the Lower Saxony desired the assistance of him the king of Denmark to settle the repose, and preserve the liberties of Germany; that his Danish majesty was resolved to take the field for the restitution of the elector palatine: and that the king of Great Britain had entered into an engagement for the same purpose.”

In the beginning of the year the war was prosperous on the Danes' side, but towards the end of the campaign the battle near Lutzen proved decisive for the emperor. In this action, where count Tilly commanded against the king of Denmark, the Danish infantry was entirely broken, the train of artillery lost, and a great many general officers killed and made prisoners.

The king of England, advertised of this misfortune, found it necessary to send out a fleet, and furnish a reinforcement for his uncle the Dane. But the exchequer was not in cash for so great an undertaking. The parliament, unless allowed to proceed in their impeachment of the duke of Buckingham, would pass no subsidy-bill. Instead of granting supplies, the commons had prepared a remonstrance. The king, thinking himself ill used in their postponing the money-bill, and that he

1 If the popes had always acted on this conviction, they would have been less frequently execrated.



A.D. 1626.


ABBOT, was struck at in his minister, and not liking to be prescribed Abp. Cant.

to in the administration, dissolved the parliament on the 15th of June. But the crown revenues were in no condition to assist the confederates, and support the charge of a war : and therefore to answer the necessities of the government, a loan was pitched on as the best expedient. To dispose the people to assist this way, the clergy were called on to recommend the king's affairs. To this purpose, the king gave Laud, now bishop of Bath and Wells, some minutes to form into instructions. This bishop's draught being approved by the council, his majesty sent them to the two archbishops, requiring by his

letters, to disperse them among the clergy of their respective Sept. 29, provinces. To this end, besides transmitting the copies to the

incumbents within their own proper dioceses, they were to

send them to their suffragans, with orders to publish them in Archbishop the same manner. To give the reader somewhat of the subDiary.

stance of the instructions.

After having mentioned the king of Denmark's defeat in Germany, the loss of the palatinate, and the excessive power and ambition of the house of Austria, the clergy were to remind the people, “ that the last parliament in the late reign addressed his present majesty to solicit the king his father to break off the treaties with the emperor and the king of Spain; promising at the same time to enable the crown to prosecute the war; and that the subject could not desert his majesty in this enterprise without reproach, and failure in duty: for this war being commenced at the instance, and upon

the engagement of the parliament, the people are bound by Cyprian. the laws of God and man to support the government in it.”

This year the Roman Catholics in Ireland, finding the History of

government somewhat distressed for want of money, offered bles, &c. of to maintain five hundred horse, and five thousand foot, on conArchbishop

dition of a toleration. This proposal being somewhat inviting, my lord deputy Faukland convened a meeting of both communions to the castle of Dublin : but the project was dashed by a protestation of the bishops against this indulgence. The instrument, signed by the lord primate Usher and eleven other bishops, was published at Christ-church before the lord deputy and council, by Downham bishop of Derry, who preached strongly against making religion subservient to state policy, and preferring the interest of this world to that of the other.


p. 162.

the Trou


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