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LAUD, and damnable demands; for it is all one, as to yield to be no Abp. Cant.
king in a short time.”
In another letter to the marquis, he calls the confederacy a damnable covenant :” that as long as this covenant was in force (either with or without an explanation)" he should have no more power in Scotland, than as a duke of Venice, which he would rather die than suffer." This resentment of his
majesty was necessary and just: there was courage and policy Id. p. 60. in it. Had the king held firm to this resolution, and not com
plied with the rebellious Covenanters, himself and his kingdoms had been happy. Whether the marquis of Hamilton did not afterwards prevail with the king, to go too far in his condescensions, is somewhat of a question. Some considerable
historians do not stick to affirm, this nobleman forgot his Guthrie's representation, and gave the Covenanters private encourageMemoirs,
ment to push the enterprise.
The Covenanters insisting peremptorily upon a parliament Hist. of the and general assembly, the commissioner desired time to go to
court, for enlarging his instructions. Upon his return he acquainted the faction, he was empowered to convene a parliament, and a general assembly, provided they would acquiesce in these ten preliminary articles.
to the faction.
“1. That all ministers deposed or suspended by presbyteries, missioners' since the first of February last, without warrant of the ordiproposals
nary, should be restored until they were legally convicted.
“2. That all moderators of presbyteries deposed since that 783. time without such warrant, be restored, and all others chosen
in their stead, to desist from acting as moderators.
“ 3. That no minister admitted since that time without such warrant shall exercise the function of the ministry.
“ 4. That all parishioners repair to their own church, and that elders assist the ministers in the discipline of the Church.
“ 5. That all bishops and ministers have their rents and stipends duly paid them.
“6. That all ministers attend their own churches, and none come to the assembly but such as shall be chosen commissioners from the presbyteries.
“ 7. That every moderator be appointed to be a commissioner from that presbytery whereof he is a moderator, according to the act of the assembly, 1606.
8. That bishops and others who shall attend the assembly, CHARLES be secured in their persons from all trouble,
“9. That no lay person meddle in the choice of commissioner from presbyteries.
“ 10. That all convocations and meetings be dissolved, and that the country be reduced to a peaceable posture."
These articles being accepted no otherwise by the Covenanters, than that they should be referred to a general assembly, the commissioner contracted his ten propositions into these two :
“ I. If the lords and others will undertake for themselves and the rest, that no laics shall have votes in choosing the ministers to be sent from the several presbyteries to the general assembly, nor none else but the ministers of the same presbytery.
“ II. If they will undertake that the assembly shall not go about to determine of things established by act of parliament, otherwise than by a remonstrance to the parliament, leaving the determining of things ecclesiastical to the general assembly; and things settled by acts of parliament to the parliament."
Upon these two conditions he promised to convene a general assembly forthwith, and soon after a parliament.
The Covenanters growing angry at these proposals, gave immediate orders for a general assembly: but upon recollection they cooled in their rashness, and were contented to wait till the commissioner could return from the king with further answer: they gave him to the 21st of September, and promised not to proceed to the election till after that time.
The commissioner finding the king at Oatlands, returned Sept. 17. within the limited term with new powers : and having summoned the council, he delivered them a letter from the king, in which his majesty had set down the measures he intended to pursue for composing the differences in Church and State. After this, the king's declaration was read at the cross of Edinburgh, for nulling the Service Book, the Book of Canons, and the High Commission; the five articles of Perth were the king's declared void. It was farther granted, that all persons, eccle- concessions
to the facsiastical or civil, should be liable to the jurisdiction and cen- tion.
LAUD, sure of parliament and general assembly; that no oath should Abp. Cant.
be put to ministers at their admission but what was required by act of parliament. That the ancient confession of faith, with the band annexed, should be renewed and signed, pursuant to the practice in the late reign. That a general assembly should be held at Glasgow in November following, and a parliament at Edinburgh on the 15th of May next year. And, lastly, all instances of disloyalty and misbehaviour were
pardoned. Sept. 22, Immediately after the publishing of this declaration, the
confession of faith was read, and signed by the marquis and the lords of the council. An act of the council was likewise proclaimed, requiring a general subscription of the confession of faith, and appointing commissioners for receiving that security.
This declaration was received with great satisfaction by the moderate party; and now it was thought the Covenanters would acquiesce: but the leading men, who governed the rest, having a further design, went boldly to the Market Cross, and protested against the king's concessions, as not coming up to reasonable expectation. They conceived the subscribing the confession to the old band tied them too close to the government, and therefore would not endure the coming under such a restraint. And here James, earl of Montrose, who proved so brave a royalist afterwards, protested in form in behalf of the nobility, and was at present misled, or disobliged out of his duty.
The commissioners having given orders for the meeting of a general assembly, the Covenanters were busy in getting such members returned as they could confide in. And here the tables at Edinburgh took care to over-rule the ecclesiastical constitution, and form the assembly in an unprecedented manner. For this purpose, the brethren of each presbytery took an oath of secrecy, not to discover the directions of the tables. Notwithstanding this precaution, these private instructions were produced by the commissioners, and publicly read. I shall give the reader some of them :
The Tables' instructions for managing the elections.
“ 1. Order must be taken that none be chosen ruling elders, but Covenanters, and those well affected to the business.
“ 2. That where the minister is not well affected, the
ruling elder be chosen by the commissioners of the shire, and CHARLES spoken to particularly for that effect.
“ 3. That they be careful no chapel-men, chapter-men, or minister, justice of peace, be chosen, unless they have publicly renounced or declared the unlawfulness of their places.
“ 4. That the ruling elders come from every Church in equal nuinber with the ministers; and if the ministers oppose, put themselves in possession, notwithstanding any opposition.
“ 5. That the commissioner of every shire cause to be convened before him the ruling elders of every kirk, chosen before the day of election, and enjoin them upon their oath, that they give voice to none but those who are named already at the meeting at Edinburgh.
“ 6. That where there is a nobleman in the bounds of the presbytery, he be chosen ; and where there is none, there be chosen a baron, or one of the best quality, and he only a Covenanter.
“ 7. That the ablest man in every presbytery be provided to dispute. De potestate supremi magistratus in ecclesiasticis, præsertim in convocandis conciliis.,'
Rushworth, Notwithstanding this article for learning and ability, some members of the assembly could neither write nor read : and yet these men were judges of heresy, and had an authority to 784. condemn Arminianism. This packed conventicle, fearing some disturbance from the character and learning of the bishops, Hamilton, endeavoured to exclude them from voting. To this purpose
p. 98. they addressed the commissioner, to award a citation of the archbishops and bishops to appear at the assembly as criminals. This motion being refused as unprecedented, the Covenanters applied to the presbytery of Edinburgh. These ministers answered their request, and gave them a warrant for the most A scandalscandalous summons that was ever heard of in Christendom. issued by the In this libelling citation, all the bishops are charged with presbytery heresy, simony, perjury, incest, adultery, fornication, and burgh. breach of the Sabbath. To this they added the term “respective,” done, as was supposed, to amuse the vulgar, and make them believe the prelates were guilty through the whole imputation.
Id. p. 88. The bishops made what effort the juncture would allow to assert their authority, and keep their standing. Thus, when
LAUD, the assembly met, they put a declinator into the commissioner's A bp. Cant.
hands,—that is, they protested against the legality of this assembly at pretended assembly, and pleaded in bar to their jurisdiction. Glasgow. The title of the remonstrance is called, “ The Declinator and
Protestation of the Archbishops and Bishops of the Church of
against the pretended General Assembly, holden at Glasgow, The King's November the 21st, 1638." Large Declaration, Their reasons for protesting are as follows:
1. Because the usurped authority of the tables sent instrucprotestation against it.
tions to all the presbyters to elect members for the assembly, about a week before his majesty had issued out his warrant for summoning that meeting.
2. Their second exception was, because the assembly consisted of great numbers of the laity, who were allowed a decisive vote no less than the clergy, whereas such persons were legally disabled from acting under such a character.
3. Even those who pretended themselves ministers of God's word and sacraments were unqualified for being members of the assembly, in regard they had neither subscribed the articles of religion, nor taken the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, before the archbishop or bishop, &c., as the law required. And, further : they had lately protested against his majesty's gracious declaration ; kept up their tables, discharged by authority ; refused to subscribe the band enjoined by his majesty and the lords of the council ; and adhered to their own engagement of “mutual defence against all persons whatsoever.” That, by behaving themselves thus disorderly, they had relapsed into the condition they were in before the king's pardon, and forfeited their claim to his majesty's promise of an assembly, which was only given on condition of dutiful behaviour.
4. Supposing—but not granting—the members of the assembly were capable of the authority they pretend to, and that the presbyteries were empowered to elect commissioners for that purpose, yet now, by deposing the moderators appointed by the bishops to preside in their synods, and substituting others in their place, they had forfeited that privilege. In proof of this exception, the bishops cite an act of the assembly at Glasgow, 1610; and an act of parliament, 1612.