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sages in the
LAUD, Their last position which I shall mention, by which they Abp. Cant.
support their practice and justify their revolt, is very extraordinary. “ The majority of the kingdom,” say they, “ being upon the score of their numbers the most considerable division, have the liberty of making use of any expedient which they conceive serviceable to the glory of God and the good of the Church, any laws or statutes to the contrary notwithstanding : and that this majority, especially when represented by an assembly, may, without the authority royal, and, which is more, against the express command of the king and council, and against the declared opinion of the judges, elect some few noblemen, barons, ministers, and burgesses ; who, under the distinction of a committee from the general assembly, may lawfully sit,
transact, and settle business touching Church and State, as if The Large there was neither prince, council, nor judge in the realm.” Declaration.
The bishops' declinator having charged the covenanting dalous pas ministers with their scandalous licence in their sermons and
prayers, I shall give some instances of this misbehaviour; one of these men refused to pray in the church for sir William Nesbit, provost of Edinburgh, when lying upon his death-bed, only “ because he had not subscribed the covenant.” Another prayed God “to scatter them all in Israel, and divide them in Jacob, who had counselled us to require the confession of faith to be subscribed by the king's authority.”. Many of these ministers refused to admit those to the Lord's Supper who had not signed the covenant: and, which is more remarkable, in their exhortation before the holy sacrament, they expressly range these non-compliers in the same class with adulterers, slanderers, blasphemers, &c. One of them preached, “that all non-subscribers of the covenant were atheists;" and thus all the lords of the council, and all the lords of the session, were brought under this vile denomination. Another preached, “that as the wrath of God was never diverted from his people until the seven sons of Saul were hanged up before the Lord in Gibeon; so the wrath of God would never depart from that kingdom till the twice seven prelates (the number of the Scotch sees) were hanged up before the Lord there." Another delivered in the pulpit, “that though there were never so many acts of parliament against the covenant, yet it ought to be maintained against them all.” Another held forth with this sentence, “let us never give over till we have the king in our power, and then he shall see how good subjects we are.” CHARLES Another declaration of one of these zealous Covenanters was, “that the bloodiest and sharpest war was rather to be endured than the least error in doctrine and discipline.” Another in his sermon wished “that he, and all the bishops in that kingdom, were in a bottomless boat at sea together; for he could be well content to lose his life so they might lose theirs ?." King's Large
Declaration, The Covenanters being furnished with such principles and p. 403, 404. such preachers, we need not be surprised at their breaking out into the last disorder : and now the king finding it necessary to apply to force, published a declaration to justify his expedi- The king's tion against them. To this purpose his majesty sets forth, and his ex" that he had endeavoured to recover the Scots to their duty pedition by gentle methods, but that his clemency had been thrown Scots. away upon them; that notwithstanding the pretences of religion, rebellion was at the bottom. That it is plain their design was to insult the prerogative, and dissolve the monarchy into a commonwealth : that some of the Scotch had made it their business to pervert his loyal subjects of this realm: that to carry on this treasonable design, they had dispersed mutinous pamphlets, talked seditiously at public meetings, and reproached the king and his government: that now they had broken out into overt acts of rebellion, drawn his subjects together, run to arms, besieged his castles, levied taxes upon the people, and menaced his loyal subjects with violence and military execution. That now the question is not whether a service-book is to be received? Whether the government of the Church shall be episcopal or Presbyterian? But whether his majesty is their king or not? That notwithstanding his patience has held thus long, he would not have them, or any of his subjects, think he can, or will, admit the abolition of episcopal government: a government of the Church best recommended in itself, and established by many acts of parliament in that kingdom."
His majesty further declares, “that by sending the servicebook amongst them he never designed to make any change in their religion, but only to bring both kingdoms to an uni
1 The Scotch Covenanters were doubtless zealous, and perhaps sincere ; but they exhibited an amount of religious bigotry, political rebellion, and sectarian onesidedness, which would be incredible, did we not know that party spirit is capable of producing the most enormous follies and vices.
LAUD, formity in divine worship. And whereas they have spread a Abp. Cant.
report that some persons of power in the hierarchy of England 787.
had solicited his majesty to levy an army against the Scots, and disturb them in their religion; he clears all the English bishops of this imputation ; that not one of them had taken the least step in these affairs but by his royal direction and command. And as for suggesting the expedient of war, it was notoriously known to all his majesty's council then present, that the English bishops solicited for peace and accommodation, and used all their interest to prevail with his majesty for that undeserved lenity with which the Scots had been hitherto treated.”
And to prevent his subjects being poisoned with these rebellious libels, he commands those who have any of them to deliver them to the next justice of peace; to be transmitted from the justices to the secretaries' office. And, lastly, it is ordered, that this proclamation should be read in time of divine service, in every church of the kingdom ; that all the people may be convinced of the notorious misbehaviour of
these men, and see the justice and clemency of his majesty's Bibl. Regia, proceedings.
By the archbishop's report of the state of his province this year, it appears things continued much in the same condition as formerly; the Church rather gaining ground upon the Dis
senters than otherwise. April, 29, In the beginning of the spring, the king marched his army The king
against the Scots. His forces had a very promising appearmarches
ance, and were much superior to those of the Covenanters. against the
The earl of Arundel was general, the earl of Holland general of the horse, and the earl of Essex lieutenant-general of the foot. These troops were furnished with experienced commanders, and well provided with ammunition and artillery. There were likewise several regiments aboard the fleet, commanded by the marquis of Hamilton. This admiral's business was to cruise upon the coast of Scotland, to block up their havens, to distress them in their trade, and debark his land forces for further service, as occasion required. But it seems he had made an ill choice of his ships for this expedition; the
bulk of them being too great to give chace, to come close to Warwick's the shore, and do execution upon the enemy. However, this
misfortune would not have broken the king's measures. He
was well prepared to have given the Scots battle, and in all CHARLES probability might have reduced them to an entire obedience. But the Covenanters, as they had reason, fearing the event of a contest, petitioned for a treaty. And thus, after the two armies had encamped within view of each other, and done little, a pacification was signed at Berwick. By the way, before the treaty came on, Essex secured the town of Berwick, and did his part with advantage enough ; but Holland and Idem. Hamilton performed beneath expectation.
The articles of the pacification, relating to the Church were, And makes “ That his majesty should confirm what his commissioner had viceable paalready promised in his name: that a general assembly should
Berwick. be held at Edinburgh on the sixth of August next ensuing, and a parliament on the twentieth of August at the same place. And the Covenanters on their part were to disband their forces, break up the tables, and hold no meetings or consultations, but such as are warranted by act of parliament.” And not to mention the rest of the articles, the king's good nature seems to have made an omission in one point: “for the Scots were not obliged to disclaim the proceedings of the pretended assembly at Glasgow.” And yet by the boldness and disorder of that meeting, the government of the Church had been reversed, the people heated to sedition, whereby the king's honour suffered extremely. And over and above, by capitulating with a rebellion in form, he brought the revolters too much upon a level with himself, fleshed them in their insolence, and encouraged them to a new insurrection. And besides the over indulgence of these concessions, his majesty is thought to have relied too much upon the good faith of the Covenanters. Had the king done no more than withdrawn his army to a farther distance from the borders : had he held his hand until he had seen the issue of the next assembly and parliament, he might probably have secured the repose of both kingdoms. But by disbanding his forces before the Scotch had done their part in executing the treaty, he disheartened his loyal subjects in that kingdom; and left them, in a manner, at the mercy of the covenant. To which we may add, the English gentry, who made no small part of his army, were balked in their expectation ; shocked with a treaty so dishonourable to the crown, and sensibly disobliged by being thus suddenly dis
LAUD, charged: and that without any thanks returned for their forAbp. Cant. wardness in his majesty's service.
The Scots finding the king had parted with his forces, and public de
disabled himself for revenging an infraction upon the treaty: claration of perceiving the king, I say, in this unguarded condition, “they rence to their resume the old spirit of mutiny, and declare their resolution late assembly
of adhering to their late proceedings; and particularly they declare themselves resolved to stand to the covenant, and general assembly at Glasgow: that they are obliged by their former oath and protestations to maintain it as a most lawful, free, and general assembly of that kingdom: and that all acts and censures, and especially the censures of deprivation and excommunication of the pretended archbishops and bishops, are agreeable to the discipline and constitution of the Kirk of Scotland. Further, they protest themselves unalterably resolved - to adhere to their solemn covenant with God, as declared in the assembly, in which the office of archbishops and bishops is adjured: that the pretended archbishops and bishops, who usurp the office and title abjured, and contemn the censures of the Church, have been malicious incendiaries, and mis-reported this kingdom to his majesty. And in case they return hither they shall be looked on as excommunicate persons, delivered up to the devil, and treated as heathens and
publicans. And, lastly, that all those who entertain and July 1, support the excommunicated prelates, shall be prosecuted to Bibliotheca excommunication, pursuant to the acts and constitution of the Regia, Kirk.”
After this protestation, they published a paper containing 788.
the heads of the late pacification; but this account was so They misrepresent the partially penned in favour of themselves, and so much to the treaty in print.
king's disadvantage, that it was ordered to be called in, and burnt by the hangman. And now, being conscious how deeply his majesty must resent these indignities, they continued their meetings as formerly ; maintained their garrison at Leith; the port to Edinburgh ; kept their officers in full pay, for the next Occasion; and harassed all those of a different sentiment. This misbehaviour being seconded with a riotous assault upon some of the lords of the council and session, the king altered his resolution of going into Scotland to their parliament and assembly; and thus, having constituted the earl of Traquair
sec. 11. p. 377.