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LAUD, granted them by princes or canon law; but from the intrinsic Abp. Cant.

powers resulting from their character, and consequent upon their consecration.” The archbishop shall speak the rest of his remarks in his own person. “You say where episcopacy has been settled, it cannot be discharged without a violation of God's ordinance. This proposition, I conceive, is inter minus habentes, and wants compass ; for there was never yet any Church where this form was not originally settled. And therefore, wherever episcopacy is not settled at present, it is certain it has been thrown off. For in the beginning it was evidently

there. 790. “ In a second head you grant Presbyterian government may

be of use where episcopacy cannot be had. First, I desire you would consider whether this is not an unnecessary and dangerous concession. Next, I am of opinion there is no place where episcopacy is impracticable. Thirdly, since, as you observe, they are so bold in their claim, and carry their pretensions so high ; since they obtrude their Presbyterian fiction for Christ's kingdom and ordinance, and throw off episcopacy as an opposite and unwarrantable government,—we must not use any mincing terms, but unmask them plainly, and expose the delusion; we must not embarrass ourselves, and compliment away truth, for fear of displeasing Amsterdam or Geneva with this plain dealing.

“ As to your postulata,” continues the archbishop, “I desire you

would allow me the same freedom; your first two are true, but too narrowly expressed: for episcopacy is not to be so confined to apostolical institution as to bar it from a further ascent, and from deriving it originally from our Saviour himself; though perhaps the apostles might superstruct something with respect to form and circumstances. And here give me leave to enlarge a little : the adversaries of episcopacy are not only the furious Arian heretics, amongst which we may reckon the Scottish novelists : besides these, there are others of a more specious alloy, both in the Genevian and Roman faction. The latter division will be contented episcopacy should be juris divini mediati, by, from, and under the

pope, leaving him the privilege of a spiritual monarch over the whole Church. But these controversy writers of the court of Rome will not allow episcopacy to be juris divini immediati, which makes the Church (as Laud goes on) aristocratical in the


bishops :” though, with due submission to his authority, I CHARLES humbly conceive the immediate divine right of episcopacy supposes an original independency amongst those of that order ; and that all privilege and preference of one see above another was the result of subsequent compacts and concessions of the episcopal college. To return: “this distinction of juris divini mediati,” continues the archbishop, “is the Italian rock; of which the Genevians, to give them their due, stand clear. Some of these men will not deny episcopacy to be juris divini, without the above-mentioned distinction : but then they throw in qualifying terms of another kind, it is ut suadentis vel

approbantis, sed non imperantis : they will needs have this kind of government stand upon courtesy, and leave it to the discretion of the people. And thus, by the help of this reserve, they may either admit or renounce it, as interest or fancy happens to suggest : nay, unless my memory very much fails me, (I speak in the archbishop's name,) Beza himself is said to have owned episcopacy to be juris divini imperantis : but then he comes in with this salvo of non universaliter imperantis; and that it was instituted citra considerationem durationis. And thus by fencing with these distinctions, and going a little at large, Geneva and Scotland may escape censure, give themselves a dispensation from Catholic practice, live under bishops in one age, and without them in another. This is the great rock in the lake of Geneva, which hitherto you seem not to have sufficiently marked. In your ninth postulatum you affirm the annexing honourable titles or privileges makes no difference in the substance of the calling ; I suppose you mean titles of archbishops, primates, patriarchs, &c. But then I entreat you would take care to guard your meaning from misconstruction ; for otherwise it is probable the faction may make an advantage of the assertion ; they may pretend it is possible that a bishop implies no more than an honourable distinction, and that their order and powers are the same with that of a priest. As to the eleventh postulatum, it must be managed with great caution, for fear of a saucy answer, which is a great deal more ready with them than a learned one.”

Rushworth, After this the archbishop desires Hall would send him up each head, or postulatum, as they were finished, for further consideration ; and concludes with a ceremonious excuse for

part 2

upon the


LAUD, the frankness of his remarks. By these reflections the reader Abp. Cant.

may perceive the archbishop was a person of a primitive spirit, and of great judgment and penetration: that the learned

bishop Hall had this honourable opinion of him, appears by his Hall alters governing his performance upon Laud's animadversions. When his book

this book, entitled “ Episcopacy by Divine Right," &c. was archbishop's finished, the author laid the manuscript before Laud for his

last review. And here, amongst other things, the archbishop took notice that the Sabbatarian rigours were too gently touched. He remarked further, that Hall had waived the discussion of this question, “ Whether episcopacy be an order or degree?" as not much material : whereas those learned men the archbishop consulted thought the main controversy turned upon this point. He therefore desired the bishop to recollect himself for some alterations in this part of the argument. But the most shocking passages were, Hall's calling the pope Antichrist in such undisguised and decisive expressions. This rugged usage of a Christian bishop was not defensible, in Laud's opinion : and in this a great many learned Protestants concurred with him. However, before he came to any resolution, he acquainted his majesty with the business. How the matter was settled by the king and the archbishop, will appear by his letter to the bishop of Exeter; which I shall transcribe as it lies before me.

“ The last (with which I durst not but acquaint his majesty) is about Antichrist, which title, in three or four places, you bestow upon the pope positively and determinately; whereas king James (of blessed memory) having brought strong proof in a work of his, as you well know, to prove the pope to be Antichrist ; yet being afterwards challenged about it, he made this answer, when the king that now is, went into Spain, and acquainted him with it : That he writ that not concludingly, but by way of argument only; that the pope, and his adherents, might see there was as good and better arguments to prove him Antichrist, than for the pope to challenge temporal jurisdiction over kings.' The whole passage being known to me, I could not but speak with the king about it, who commanded me to write unto you, that you might qualify your expressions in these particulars, and so not differ from the

January, A.D. 163940.


known judgment of his pious and learned father. This is easily CHARLES done with your own pen; and the rather, because all Protest

Cyprian. ants join not in this opinion of Antichrist.”


P. 460.

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The bishop of Exeter, swayed by the reasoning and autho- 791. rity of this letter, softened some of his expressions, and expunged others, to the king's and archbishop's satisfaction.

In the archbishop's account of his province this year, he The archacquaints the king, " that in his diocese near Ashford, several account of

his province. Anabaptists, and other Separatists, stood out so obstinately against the censures of the Church, that there was no other way of dealing with them, but by having recourse to the statute for abjuration, or applying some other way to the assistance of the temporal courts. But whether this remedy was proper, or not, at this disturbed juncture, is referred to his majesty."

From the diocese of London it is certified, that the last year there was a warm contest in the pulpit between Mr. Goodwin, vicar of St. Stephen's Coleman-street, and some other city ministers: the subject of their dispute was touching the act of believing, and the imputation of Christ's righteousness in the justification of a sinner: the people, it seems, were very much entangled, and uneasy in this controversy. The matter had been taken up by the bishop and chancellor, and the parties had promised to be quiet : but this year Goodwin broke his engagement, revived the contest, and preached the people into their former scruples and ferments: however, Hist. of the

Troubles, the lord bishop did not despair of a good issue '.

The diocese of Norwich was quiet, and conformable, as any Archbishop part of the kingdom. This, by the way, was a great reformation, brought on by Wrenn and Montague, in a few

years. The bishop of Ely certified, that sir John Cutts, of Childerly near Cambridge, kept a chaplain, though unqualified by law. The case, as the archbishop acquaints the king, was this:--There were anciently two parishes in Childerly; the one had been long since lost, the other remains presentative. But now, excepting the knight's house, the whole town is depopulated; the church is tumbled into rubbish, and upon the remaining part of the walls a stable, a brew-house, and other

&c. of


1 John Goodwin (says Granger) made more noise in the world than any other person of his age, rank, or profession. A very questionable assertion. VOL. VIII.


LAUD, offices are built. Upon this rectory the knight always proAbp. Cant.

vides a titular incumbent, who receives none of the tithes. But then he has a chapel, which, as he says, was consecrated by bishop Heton. He entertained a stipendiary chaplain under the colour of being the parson's curate : but that in fact he was neither appointed, nor paid by the incumbent. In short, by this means a good rectory was swallowed, and that almost within view of the university.

The bishop of Ely certifieth further, that in Emanuel, Sidney, and Corpus Christi colleges in Cambridge, the rooms they used for chapels were never consecrated.

It was likewise presented to this bishop (Wrenn), that about forty years since, one sir Francis Hind pulled down the church of St. Ethelred in Histon, being a vicarage presentative, and forced the parishioners to go to another small church in that town, to their great inconvenience : and that the lead, timber, stones, bells, and all other materials, were sold by the said sir Francis; or made use of for the building his house in Madingley

The bishop of Peterborough certifies, that some knights, and other secular gentlemen, entertained scholars in their houses for conversation; or gave the vicar his board, where the endowment was small : and this they alleged was not keeping a chaplain, forbidden by the king's instructions. However, most of these scholars perforined the office of a chaplain, that is, they said prayers, but not the Common Prayer appointed by the rubric. This bishop acquaints his metropolitan, that few of the laity are factious, but where the clergy misled them. And this observation Laud is afraid will hold in most parts of the kingdom.

In the diocese of Exeter, one Coxe preached a sermon upon Hosea iv. 4. to prove the Church of England did not maintain the calling of bishops to be jure divino : this sermon made an ill impression upon a great many people in those parts. But the bishop of Exeter having discoursed with this Coxe, sent him up to the archbishop; where, receiving full satisfaction upon the question, he went home, and of his own voluntary motion, made a handsome recantation, and recovered the people he had formerly misled.

The bishops of Bath and Wells, Sarum, Worcester, Gloucester, Rochester, St. David's, Landaff, and Bangor, certify,

Jan. 2, 1639-40.


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