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ciled to the holding two or three livings. As for the honest CHARLES clergy, who refused to join the rebellion, or revolt from the Church, they were sequestered and imprisoned ; and almost every way harassed and undone. From the year 1641, to six years forward, there were a hundred and fifteen clergymen turned out of their livings, within the bills of mortality; most of these were plundered, and their wives and children set in


829. the streets. By these barbarities at London, the reader may Aërius Reconjecture the greatness of the calamity in the rest of the divinus, kingdom. They had another way of reaching the orthodox clergy beside the covenant: some of them were sequestered and ejected upon pretence of scandal and immorality. But to show the iniquity of their proceedings upon this head, it may be observed first, that some of the crimes charged upon them were capital: and therefore since the forfeiture of their lives was not taken, we may reasonably believe the proof was defective. Secondly, the depositions against them were seldom taken upon oath, but bare affirmation went for evidence. Thirdly, many of the complainants were apparently factious ; men who had deserted the Church, and professed an aversion to the hierarchy. Fourthly, many of these pretended criminals, were ignorantly if not maliciously charged with delivering false doctrine: for instance, some were prosecuted for preaching that “Baptism washes away original sin.” And lastly, many were outed for malignancy; that is, for being true to their allegiance. In short, it is observed, there were more Fuller's turned out of their livings by the Presbyterians in three years, Hist. than were deprived by the Papists in queen Mary's reign; or book 2. had been silenced, suspended, or deprived by all the bishops, from the first year of queen Elizabeth, to the time we are upon'. And that this might be done with some colour of justice, they set up a “Committee for plundered ministers," under pretence of providing for such godly ministers, as had either suffered in their effects by his majesty's forces, or lost their benefices for adhering to the two houses.

To proceed: his majesty, being scandalously misreported Redivivus. in the assembly's letters, as if he designed the introducing of popery, thought it was necessary to wipe off the aspersion by a declaration addressed to the reformed beyond sea. manifesto, the king avows his steady adherence to the religion this mani, settled by English synods and confirmed by acts of parliament; Protestants

beyond sea. 1 A statement well worthy the attention of Presbyterians and Dissenters.



In this His majes

num. 118.

the Inde

LAUD, " that he had educated his children in this belief, and, for Abp. Cant, farther strengthening the Protestant interest, married his

daughter to the prince of Orange; that the most eminent Protestants in Germany, France, Denmark, Switzerland, Bohemia, and Holland, not excepting the synod at Dort, have publicly approved the Liturgy and government of the Church of England; and, lastly, that he was resolved to live

and die in the communion of this Church, and protect it in all See Records, parts of the constitution to the utmost of his power.

To return to the assembly: these divines, though mostly agreed, fell short of universal harmony. Five of their members --Goodwin, Nye, Bridge, Simpson, and Burroughs—were of

the congregational persuasion, afterwards called Independents. The rise and These men, as has been observed, transported themselves into principles of

Holland for liberty of conscience. They had proselyted several pendents.

wealthy families of merchants and others, who went along with them. The states of Holland gave them a friendly reception, assigned them churches to meet in, and subsisted the ministers with a competent maintenance. Some of these English refugees, as has been related, settled at Rotterdam, and some at Arnheim, in Guelderland. Being thus encouraged by the Dutch government, they advanced to the forming their Church discipline. And here, to speak in their own language, they consulted the Scriptures without any prepossessions: they looked“ upon the Word of Christ as unpartially and unprejudicedly as men of flesh and blood are like to do in any juncture of time that may fall out: the place they went to, the condi

tion they were in, and the company they went with, affording Apologetical no temptation to any bias." Narrative,

The principles upon which they founded their Church government were, first, to confine themselves to Scripture precept and precedent, without any supplemental intermixtures of ancient practice or novel invention ; secondly, not to be confined to their present resolutions, without room for alteration upon farther views and inquiry. They thought it was not impossible time might inform them better in several particulars, and that it was by no means prudential to tie themselves up from improvement. Pursuant to these grounds, they held a middle course between presbytery and Brownism. The first they counted too arbitrary and decisive ; and the other too loose, floating, and undetermined. Their main distinction declared against the dependency of Churches. For instance,

p. 3.


they disallowed parochial and provincial subordinations, and CHARLES formed all their congregations upon a scheme of co-ordinacy. Some sort of ceremonious preference was allowed to the elder Church, but without any addition of authority.

As to the manner of their service, they prayed publicly for kings and all in authority; they read the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, and expounded the lessons upon proper occasions; they administered the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper ; they used singing of Psalms, and made collections for the poor every Lord's-day. Their public officers were pastors, teachers, ruling elders (which were ecclesiastics), Id. p. 8. and deacons.

As for Church censures, they lay all within the compass of 1d. p. 9. admonition and excommunication; and, notwithstanding these Actus regifew branches of discipline, the latter was never exerted during synodis de their stay in Holland. Farther : they reckoned synods an non peragi, useful expedient, and necessary in some cases, but would not Responsion allow them any binding force: they were to declare the truth, p. 114. they said, but had no authority to enjoin obedience and govern practice. The Presbyterians charged these Independents with an ambulatory, uncertain religion : to which they answered, they only kept themselves upon the reserve for farther discoveries of truth. The misunderstandings among themselves at Rotterdam have been touched already. The congregation at Arnheim, where Goodwin and Nye were pastors, were better united. Here, besides the Church ordinances above-mentioned, they proposed the receiving the holy kiss ; prophesyings in the 1 Cor. xvi. congregation, when any of the audience thought themselves qua- 1Cor. xiv. 2. lified to speak; honouring of widows'; and extreme unction. Eph. v. 19. All this they thought sufficiently recommended by Scripture John v. 14. authority. But, before they came to a resolution upon these points, they had a prospect of better business in England: for now the hierarchy was broken, the inclosures of discipline pulled up, and the Puritan party encouraged by the two houses at Westminster. The juncture being thus inviting, the Congregationalists quitted Holland, and came for England. At their arrival they immediately practised upon their scheme, and gathered Churches. The Presbyterians looked upon this proselyting as no better than encroachment. They complained their flocks were perverted and their settlement disturbed. They ex- 830. pected the Independents should resign their singularities, and

minis a

1 - Honour widows that are widows indeed."-1 Tim. v. 3.

1 Tim. v. 3.


p. 79.

LAUD, come under the Scotch regulation, now countenanced by the parAbp. Cant.

liament. On the other hand, these men excepted to the Genevian plan, refused to be concluded by a majority, and moved for a toleration. This motion being rejected by the assembly, Goodwin and the other four members already mentioned addressed the parliament with an “ Apologetical Narrative.” And here they only petition for indisturbance in their own country, not knowing, as they say, to retreat elsewhere to any tolerable convenience. How the controversy was banded between the Presbyterians and Independents on this head, shall be related afterwards.

What success the assembly's letter had among the foreign Protestants, is more than I can account for, excepting in the Netherlands. Here the Dutch divines made no difficulty to close with the English rebellion. They sent an answer to the address they had received, in which they express their satisfac

tion with the proceedings of the parliament touching the coveMemorials

, nant, and desire their admission into that engagement.

The committees for sequestration of delinquents' estates had an oath sent down to them by an ordinance of the lords and commons. They were to tender it to all persons of one-andtwenty years of age ; and, in case they refused it, two-thirds of their estates, real and personal, were to be forfeited. The oath was in the form following:

“ I, A. B., do abjure and renounce the pope's supremacy and authority over the Catholic Church in general, and over myself in particular; and I do believe that there is not any transubstantiation in the sacrament of the Lord's supper, or in

the elements of bread and wine, after consecration thereof, by August 19. any person whatsoever; and I do also believe that there is not A.D. 1643.

any purgatory, or that the consecrated host, crucifixes, or images, ought to be worshipped, or that any worship is due unto any of them; and I also believe that salvation cannot be merited by works; and all doctrines in affirmation of the said points I do abjure, renounce, without any equivocation, mental reservation, or secret evasion whatsoever, taking the words by me spoken according to the common and usual meaning of them.

“ So help me God,”

Scobel's Collect. &c. fol. 50.

Aug. 28. An ordinance

The same month another ordinance passed, that “all monuments of superstition or idolatry should be removed and demo



Id. fol. 69.

A.D. 1644,

lished.” But this, being much the same with the order sent CHARLES down by Pym and the parliament-committee about three years since, needs not be repeated. This ordinance, in the beginning monuments of the next summer, was reinforced with another of a resem- and superbling purport. By virtue of this latter provision, “all representations of any angel or saint, in any cathedral, collegiate, or parish church or chapel, or in any open place, was to be taken away, defaced, and utterly demolished; the chancelground of every church or chapel, raised for any altar or communion-table, was to be levelled; no copes, surplices, superstitious vestments, roods, or holy water-fonts” (as they called them), were to be used ; no cross, crucifix, or representation of any angel or saint, was to remain upon any place or other furniture belonging to the worship of God; and all organs were taken away, and, with the other superstitious vestments above-mentioned, utterly defaced.”

The next ordinance of the two houses commands a stricter observation of the Lord's-day. In this pretended act, the “ king's declaration concerning lawful sports to be used, and April 6 all other books and pamphlets, that have been or shall be written, printed, or published against the morality of the fourth commandment or of the Lord's-day, shall be called in, seized, and publicly burnt, by the justices of peace.” It is likewise ordained by the lords and commons, 66 that all and singular May-poles shall be taken down by the constables, against

May poles. churchwardens,” &c., “and none suffered for the future.”

This summer, after the fight at Marston-moor, in which the king's forces were worsted, the assembly of divines communicated a letter to the parliament, which they received from the Kirk of Scotland. It was a sort of remonstrance against the dilatory proceedings in settling the Church government in England. This expostulation was not without effect : for, soon after, the assembly had leave to draw up a form for ordination of ministers and debating the settlement of the Church. And the question being put by the assembly, whether presbytery is jure divino, hoping to carry it in the affirmative, one of the lay-members stood up, and objected that though government in general was jure divino, yet whether presbytery, episcopacy, independency, or any other form of Church government, was jure divino, was a disputable point. Therefore, he thought it advisable for the assembly to forbear declaring their

An ordinince

Id. fol. 68,



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