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do not believe there are any passages really exceptionable in CHARLES the Liturgy. Nothing but what has been sufficiently defended: nothing but what they believe themselves able to maintain against all cavil, and opposition whatsoever. After this, they insist upon the obligation they lie under for officiating by the Common Prayer, from several statutes provided for this purpose : but these I have had occasion to mention already.

This resolution upon the covenant, the negative oath, &c. after having been considered in the colleges, passed smoothly in convocation. It was carried by an universality ; one member excepted, who came from Geneva. This, considering the circumstances they were under, was a bold piece of honesty, a noble defence of the Church and constitution. The town was now garrisoned with parliament forces. The visitors, they knew, must take their apology for an open defiance. Tam spectaHowever, they had the courage to assert their principles and fidei et face a victorious rebellion. They chose rather to abandon constantiæ their fortunes and risk their lives, than suffer in their con

frustra quisscience, tarnish their honour, and submit to a criminal com- quam eapliance'.


. Neither the assembly divines, nor any others of that party, Hist. et had the courage to return an answer to this apology. To Antiq. Unifinish this matter, I shall break through the regards of time lib. 1. and observe, that after the restoration of king Charles II., p. 385, when the parliament sat at Oxon, the commons ordered thanks should be returned the university, for having made so learned and noble a stand. The order runs thus :


tra Oxonium

vers. Oxon.

“Martis, 31 Octob. 1665.

The parlia

ment at " Resolved,

Oxon re“ That the thanks of this house be returned to the chan- turn the

chancellor cellor, master and scholars of the university of Oxon, for and students their remarkable loyalty to his majesty's father of happy the book

called, " The memory, in the late rebellion : especially for that extraordinary

Judgment of instance of their duty, in making a bold opposition to the the Univer

sity." rebellious visitors, and refusing to submit to their league and covenant : and lastly, for the illustrious performance they

1 This apology of the Oxford university in favour of the Establishment is certainly a very admirable composition, rendered interesting in the highest degree by the circumstances of the case,


Wood. Lord Clarendon.

and suffer


printed, entitled, “The Judgment of the University;' in which Wood,

they have learnedly maintained the justice of the king's cause.

As to the visitors, what they could not deal with in argument, they answered by force; and turned out the heads and most of the members of the university for refusing the covenant, and the other novel and rebellious engagements.

And here it may not be amiss to give a brief account of The loyalty what the university of Cambridge suffered, during the course ings of the of this unnatural war. To begin : in the year 1641, the Cambridge" masters and fellows of all the colleges sent their plate to the during the

king then at York. This piece of loyalty was interpreted encouraging the war, and made a great crime by the two houses at Westminster : and to fright the university from assisting the king any farther, Dr. Beale, Dr. Martin, and Dr. Stern, masters of St. John's, Queen's, and Jesus colleges, were sent guarded up to London, and imprisoned in the Tower, for their forwardness in the plate business. The next year Dr. Holdisworth was seized, and put in the Tower for executing the king's command, and printing his declarations at Cambridge. About the same time, the vice-chancellor and heads of houses summoned to meet in the consistory, were required to contribute to the assistance of the parliament: for such a compliance would set them right in the opinion of the two houses, and wipe off the imputation of malignancy. But they refused to gratify the rebels; and frankly told them, that contributing to such purposes was not to be reconciled to true religion and a good conscience. For this handsome declaration some of them were afterwards imprisoned. About this time the earl of Manchester was sent down by the two

houses to purge the university of malignant members, as they Querela

called them. To give light into this matter, and make their Cantabri

scrutiny more significant, an oath of discovery was put. This giensis, p. 20.

test obliging them to inform against their friends, tutors, and masters, and betray the interest of their societies, was universally refused: it was likewise contrary to their statutes, viz. “ Non revelabis aliquod secretum collegii, nec malum aut damnum inferes cuilibet sociorum." Not long afterwards, the

members of the university were all ordered to appear within Id. twelve days, and take the covenant. This, not to mention the

thing, was thought a great hardship with respect to the short warning. And therefore Ash, one of the lord Manchester's



turned out

chaplains, reports they had longer time afterwards given them. CHARLES But no leisure for recollection could reconcile them to this compliance: the covenant was generally refused, the non-com- Hist. of the pliers turned out of their preferments, and ordered to quit the University university within three days. In Queen's college they made a bridge,

p. 187. et thorough reformation : the master, all the fellows, and scholars deinc. were turned out; for here they could not debauch so much as

854. a single member of the foundation. The masters or heads of the following colleges were ejected, viz.

1. Peter-house.—Dr. John Cosens, dean of Peterborough, Heads and prebendary of Durham.

of the uni2. Clare-hall.-Dr. Thomas Pask, archdeacon of London. versity of

Cambridge. 3. Pembroke-hall.-Dr. Benjamin Laney, dean of Rochester. 4. Caius-college.Dr. Thomas Badgcroft. 5. King's-college.Dr. Samuel Collins, the king's professor.

6. Queens-college.- Dr. Edward Martin, chaplain to archbishop Laud.

7. Catharine-hall.–Ralph Brownrigge, bishop of Exeter.

8. Jesus-college.Dr. Richard Stern, chaplain to archbishop Laud.

9. St. John's-college.—Dr. William Beale, chaplain to the king.

10. Trinity-college.Dr. Thomas Cumber, dean of Carlisle.

11. Emanuel-college.—Dr. Richard Holdsworth, archdeacon of Huntingdon.

12. Sidney-college.Dr. Samuel Ward (in effect but a prisoner) died a natural death.

To this list may be subjoined some other misfortunes suffered by the university : The soldiers were quartered in their colleges, their chapels plundered and defaced, the Common Prayer-books torn in St. Mary's before the coming out of the suppressing ordinance. Their bridges were broken, their materials for building seized, their groves felled ; and, which was almost an irreparable damage, a choice collection of antiquity in coins and medals, weighing twenty-two pounds, was plundered from St. John's college. And for a further mortification, their estates, formerly exempted, were taxed, and the assessment proportioned by the townsmen.

To proceed: a general assembly met at Edinburgh on the 4th of August this summer.

Two of the Scotch com

The West

minster pro

locutor's speech to Gillespy, a Scotch mi

the Westminster

missioners, Bailly and Gillespy, who sat with the divines at Westminster, produced a copy of the Confession of Faith made by the assembly at Westminster, part of their Catechism, the Directory, and Rouse's Paraphrase on the Psalms. Gillespy likewise laid a copy before them of the prolocutor's speech, made to him at his taking leave of the assembly at Westminster.

By the prolocutor's speech, it appears Gillespy had dropped some suspicion of the English assembly's defection. The grounds for this imputation, the prolocutor endeavours to disprove.

" He excuses the Directory's not being punctually obnister and served; complains the assembly have no power to call offenders sioner, at to account; and that the Lord was pleased still to exercise

them with many wrestlings.' He confesses their affairs are assembly.

very much embarrassed, and that they are, as it were, in a chaos at present. He takes notice what distress the parliament was formerly in ; that the common enemy, (meaniug the king) was high and strong; and that their extraordinary success was owing to the prayers of their brethren of Scotland, and other Protestants abroad. He makes an apology for their not returning an answer to several letters sent them from the Edinburgh assembly. And here he puts Gillespy in mind of the restraints they lie under from the parliament: and that this

was no proper juncture to apply for leave, it being a time of Archibald general darkness and sad apprehension.” Their meaning is, Campbel. they were afraid the Independents would top them, pull their This speech scheme in pieces, and set up their own fancies ; which happened of the West


The next day, this Mr. George Gillespy gave the Scotch attested by Adoniram assembly a letter from the Churches of Zurich, Berne, Basil, Byfield,

and Schaffhausen, in Switzerland, directed to the assembly at the assembly,

Edinburgh. August 7, In the beginning of their letter they profess a hearty The Swiss friendship and strong sympathy with the Scotch Covenanters, letter to the and regret the civil commotions. A great part of their letter general is spent in lamenting the misfortune of the elector palatine, assembly at Edinburgh, and that his interest was no farther considered in the treaty at

Munster. By the way, this elector palatine, for whom they solicit so earnestly, had deserted the king, his uncle, at York; notwithstanding his majesty had interposed so far in his nephew's behalf, and embroiled his affairs for his restitution :

MS. penes



prolocutor is

clerk or

actuary to



In the year


et alib.

notwithstanding all the assistance given this elector and his CHARLES father, he left the king at York, transported himself to Holland, returned afterwards to England, caressed and joined the two houses at Westminster, and sat in the assembly of Whitlock's

Memorials, divines.

p. 97. 103. To return. These Swiss take their leave with a prayer, Ms. penes " That God would dispose the king to a reconciliation with the Archib,

Campbel. Scots, and their Church government."

Armig. And thus, notwithstanding his majesty's manifesto to justify the English hierarchy, to expose the innovations and dangerous practice of the Covenanters; notwithstanding this pre- See above. caution, these foreign Protestants close with the revolters, address them with respect, take them into intimacy and union, and make themselves a party to the British rebellion.

About two months forward, the general assembly at Edinburgh appointed a fast throughout the kingdom, and assigned several reasons for this public humiliation.

They begin with a complaint, “That 'notwithstanding their The Edinsolemn engagement, a multitude of heinous sins abound every bly complain where in the land, and that they fall short of that sobriety, of apostacy

. righteousness, and holiness, which becomes the Gospel. They suggest the great danger to religion and civil government, from the prevalency of the sectaries in England: and that this kingdom has made a fearful defection from the solemn league and covenant. They lament the distressful condition of those who are zealous for the work of God in England : that such good people are now oppressed by those, who, under the pretence of liberty, aim at no less than tyranny and arbitrary power. And, lastly, they instruct the people to pray, that God would preserve the king from farther snares, and bow Rushworth's his heart to the obedience of his will in all those things that part 4. concern religion and righteousness.'

The reason of the Scotch complaining thus tragically of the apostacy in England, was occasioned by a surprising turn which happened in the beginning of June last. For when the Pres- June 4. byterian party had disabled the king in the field, and got him The Presinto their custody at Holdenby; when they had battered down ousted by the

Independthe Church, ousted the greater part of the regular clergy, and ents. procured a settlement of their discipline from the two houses ; 855. when they had surmounted so many difficulties, and thought their prosperity established ; when they were thus far ad

Id. MS. et

Hist. Coll.

p. 644.

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