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ABBOT, religion, and the fears of a relapse into popery.

To scatter Abp. Cant.

these jealousies, the king would have his subjects recollect what difficulties and dangers he met with, not many years since, on the score of religion ; that his faith and resolution was still the same; and that he was no less careful to guard against innovation than those who seemed so much disturbed upon that head; that the favour and relaxation granted to some recusants was occasioned by the parliament's refusing to supply the necessities of the government. However, upon an exact enquiry into matter of fact, it will be found there is no such increase of popery, nor any thing that looks like the pretended toleration ; that the commission, so much complained of, neither dispenses with any penalty, nor restrains the course of justice against recusants. Their next fear arises from the daily growth of the Arminian faction. This is called “a cunning way ''

to bring in popery". But this charge the king looks on as a very injurious reflection upon his person and government; that it is not fit his subjects should be led into a mistake by a parliamentary remonstrance, or by any other means ; as if his majesty is either so ignorant in matters of religious belief, or so indifferent in maintaining them, as that any singular opinion should grow up, or any faction prevail in his kingdoms, without his knowledge; that this was a fancy altogether without ground, and endeavoured to persuade the people the king slept over the government; that two eminent prelates attending his person were much wronged in being accused without the least colour of proof produced against them and that should either these bishops, or any others, attempt the altering of religion, his majesty would quickly animadvert upon them, without staying for the commons' remonstrance.

“ To give a colour to their complaint, the people are made to believe orthodox books have a restraint clapped upon them ; but the king is very well assured, that since the late parliament began, some whom the remonstrance calls orthodox had ventured upon intolerable liberty in printing ; that his majesty's proclamation commanded both sides to acquiesce, and lie by till the passions of men had time to cool and grow calm. Had this order been duly obeyed, the nation had not been tossed in the present tempest.' As for the discountenancing good

1 Arminianism has its faults; but to accuse it thus of being implicated with the peculiar abuses of popery, was a cotnemptible ex-parte falsehood.

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preachers, his majesty knows none who can answer this cha- CHARLES racter that lie under any such distress. That it shall be his majesty's constant care to provide his people with sufficient guides for conscience and spiritual assistance. And as for the Church preferments in the crown, he has always endeavoured to bestow them upon industry and desert ; but then, as the preferments are his majesty's own, he shall make himself judge of the merit of persons, and not be taught by a remonstrance.

“ Then with reference to Ireland, the king believes religion in no worse condition in that kingdom than queen Elizabeth left it; that his majesty looks on the report of monasteries and other superstitious houses, built in Dublin and other towns of note, as a great disparagement to his government; that his deputy and council in that kingdom would not suffer such hardy innovations, so dishonourable to God and the government, without acquainting him with it; and that he could not endure his good people should be thus imposed on with misrelations. And whereas the remonstrance lays some stress on the circumstance of time, and sets forth that the true religion is undermined at home, and openly attacked in foreign parts, at the same unhappy juncture ;-to this his majesty replies, the Reformation is safe enough from any attempts at home, if those who seem most concerned for its support are not in a practice against it; for while the interest of religion

; is thus factiously pursued, the heat of the contest oftentimes melts off the purity which it is intended to preserve ; and that his majesty is well assured these violent distempered motions are none of God's methods."


Angl. Soon after the recess of the parliament, Laud was translated Bishop Laud from Bath and Wells to London, and Montague promoted to London. the see of Chichester. Before he was consecrated, an unexpected rub was thrown in the way. At the confirmation of August 24. bishops, in the court of arches at Bow-church, in Cheapside, there was public notice given, that if any persons could object either against the party elected, or the legality of the election, they are to come and offer their exceptions at the day prefixed. This intimation being given, one Jones, a bookseller, attended with the mob, appearing at the confirmation, excepted against Montague, as a person unqualified for the episcopal dignity.

translated to


ABBOT, And to be somewhat particular, he charged him with popery, Abp. Cant.

Arminianism, and other heterodoxies, for which his books had Exceptions been censured in the former parliament. But Dr. Thomas against Montague in Rives, who then officiated for Brent, the vicar-general, disaphis confirma

pointed this challenge; for Jones had made some material omissions in the manner, and not offered his objections in form of law. For instance, the exceptions were neither given in writing, nor signed by an advocate, nor presented by any proc

tor of the court. Upon the failure of these circumstances, the 746. confirmation went on. And to set Montague out of the reach

of these cavils, he was consecrated two days after at Croydon.

After the murder of the duke of Buckingham, who was stabbed at Portsmouth by one John Felton, a lieutenant, Laud seemed to fill his room in the king's esteem, and had a considerable direction of affairs both in Church and State. To give an instance: This prelate, for silencing the controversy between the Calvinists and Arminians, procured the reprinting of the Nine-and-thirty Articles, with the king's declaration prefixed at the head of them. This was conceived the best expedient to lay the Predestinarian disputes asleep. For by the statutes of the realm, all incumbents were obliged to read the book of Articles at church soon after their institution; and by the canons, all that took orders were bound to subscribe them.* As to the king's declaration at the head of the Articles, the design of it was to guard them from misconstruction, and prevent their being wrested out of the obvious and literal sense. The declaration runs thus :

The king's declaration prefixed to the Nineand-thirty Articles.

By the King. Being by God's ordinance, according to our just title, defender of the faith, and supreme governor of the Church within these our dominions, we hold it most agreeable to our kingly office, and our own religious zeal, to conserve and maintain the Church committed to our charge in the unity of true religion, and in the bond of peace; and not to suffer unnecessary disputations, alterations, and questions to be raised which may nourish faction both in Church and common-wealth. We have therefore, upon mature deliberation, and with the advice of so many of our bishops as might be conveniently called together, thought fit to make this declaration following: That the Articles of the Church of England (which had been



allowed and authorized heretofore, and which our clergy gene- CHARLES rally have subscribed unto) do contain the true doctrine of the Church of England, agreeable to God's Word; which we do therefore ratify and confirm, requiring all our loving subjects to continue in the uniform profession thereof, and prohibiting the least difference from the said articles; which to that end we command to be reprinted, and this our declaration to be published therewith.

“ That we are supreme governor of the Church of England, and that if any differences arise about the external policy concerning injunctions, canons, or other constitutions whatsoever thereunto belonging; the clergy in their convocation are to order and settle them, having first obtained leave under our broad seal so to do: and we approving their said ordinances and constitutions, provided that none be made contrary to the laws and customs of the land. That out of our princely care, that the churchmen may do the work which is proper unto them; the bishops and clergy, from time to time, in convocation, upon their humble desire, shall have licence under our broad seal, to deliberate of, and to do all such things as, being made plain by them, and assented to by us, shall concern the settled continuance of the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England established ; from which we shall not endure any variation or departing in the least degree. That for the present, though some differences have been ill raised, we take comfort in this, that all clergymen within our realm have always most willingly subscribed to the Articles established, which is an argument to us, that they all agree in the true usual literal meaning of the said Articles, and that even in those curious points in which the differences lie, men of all sorts take the Articles of the Church of England to be for them; which is an argument, again, that none of them intend any desertion of the Articles established. That therefore, in these both curious and unhappy differences, which have for many years, in different times and places, exercised the Church of Christ, we will that all further curious search be laid aside, and these disputes be shut up in God's promises, as they be generally set forth in holy Scriptures, and the general meaning of the Articles of the Church of England, according to them. And that no man hereafter shall either print or preach to draw the Article aside any way, but shall submit to it in the plain

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The Calvin-

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ABBOT, and full meaning thereof; and shall not put his own sense or Abp. Cant.

comment to the meaning of the Article, but shall take it in the literal and grammatical sense. That if any public reader in either of our universities, or any head or master of a college, or any other person respectively in either of them, shall affix any new sense to any Article, or shall publicly read, determine, or hold any public disputation, or suffer any such to be held either way, in either the universities or colleges respectively; or if any divine in the universities shall preach or print any thing either way, other than is established in convocation with our

, royal assent, he or they the offenders shall be liable to our displeasure, and the Church's censure in our commission ecclesias

tical, as well as any other; and we will see there shall be due Bibliotheca execution


them." Regia, sec.3.

The Calvinian party complained loudly of this declaration. ists complain of the de- They gave out the design of it was chiefly for the suppressing claration,

orthodox books, for the discouraging godly ministers from an address preaching the comfortable doctrines of man's election to eternal

happiness, and for promoting the growth of Arminianism. And to give these jealousies an appearance of probability, a letter, pretended to be written to the rector of the Jesuits'college in Brussels, is industriously dispersed. And here his correspondents acquaint him what care they had taken to plant the “sovereign drug," as they call it, of Arminianism ; that this would purge off the Protestant heresy; that they began to find the effects of it already; and that, for preventing disappointment on the Puritan side, the Arminians had possessed themselves of the duke. The letter goes on in a resembling strain of confidence, and was looked on by men of sense as no better than a piece of forgery. However, notwithstanding its romantic air, the paper gained belief, and helped to do busi

For now the Calvinists in and about London drew an address to the king, which they intended to present for recalling his declaration. The petition sets forth “ what a

restraint was laid upon them from preaching the saving doc747. trines of God's free grace in election and predestination ; that

this had brought them under a very uncomfortable dilemma, either of falling under the Divine displeasure, if they did not execute their commission in declaring the whole counsel of God, or of being censured for opposition to his majesty's

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