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(revived in the 1st of queen Eliz.), suffragans are appointed to be erected in twenty-six several places of this kingilom, the number of them might be very well conformed unto the several rural deaneries, into which every diocese is subdivided; which being done, the suffragan (supplying the place of those who, in the ancient Church, were called chorepiscopi,') might every month assemble a synod of all the rectors or incumbent pastors within the precinct, and, according to the major part of their voices, conclude all matters that should be brought into debate before them. To this synod the rector and churchwardens might present such impenitent persons as, by admonition and suspension from the sacrament, would not be reformed ; who, if they would still remain contumacious and incorrigible, the sentence of excommunication might be decreed against them by the synod, and accordingly be executed in the parish where they lived. Hitherto, also, all things that concerned the parochial ministers might be referred, whether they did touch their doctrine or their conversation; as also the censure of all new opinions, heresies, and schisms, which did arise within that circuit, with liberty of appeal, if need so require, unto the diocesan synod.
“III. The diocesan synod might be held once or twice in the year, as it should be thought most convenient; therein all the suffragans, and the rest of the rectors or incumbent pastors, * or a certain select number out of every deanery within that diocese,' might meet; with the consent of the major part of whom, all things might be concluded by the bishop or superintendent (call him which you will), or, in his absence, by one of the suffragans, whom he should depute in his stead, to be moderator of that assembly. Here all matters of great moment might be taken into consideration, and the orders of the monthly synods revised, and, if need be, reformed. And if here also any matter of difficulty could not receive a full determination, it might be referred to the next provincial or national synod.
“ IV. The provincial synod might consist of all the bishops and suffragans, and such of the clergy as should be elected out of every diocese within the province. The primate of either province might be the moderator of this meeting (or, in his room, some one of the bishops appointed by him), and all matters be ordered therein by common consent, as in the former
assemblies. This synod might be held every third year, and CHARLES if the parliament do then sit, both the primates and provincial synods of the land might join together, and make up national council, wherein all appeals from inferior synods might Vit. Jacob. be received, all their acts examined, and all ecclesiastical constitutions which concern the state of the Church of the whole nation established."
The Presbyterian divines refined upon this plan, and went These mifarther in their demands. They moved, “that the suffragans upon arch should be chosen by their respective synods; that districts bishop may be reduced to a moderate extent; that ministers should be under no oaths, or promises of obedience to the bishops, as being responsible for all breaches upon the law; that the bishops may not govern at discretion, but be restrained to the direction of canons, or constitutions; and that these should be either made or confirmed by act of parliament.
“As to the liturgy, they owned the lawfulness of a prescribed form of public worship; but desired withal, that some learned, pious, and moderate divines of both parties might be employed either to draw up a new Liturgy, or reform the old
And here they propose the adding some variety of composure couched in Scripture phrase, to be used or omitted, as the minister should think fit. As to the ceremonies, it was their humble opinion, divine service was perfect without them ; that in matters of worship God has declared himself a jealous God; that most of the Reformed Churches abroad rejected the English ceremonies ; that at home they had been matter of dispute and contention ever since the Reformation ; that many pious and useful ministers had been silenced upon this score, and separations from the Church occasioned from hence; that these externals were no immutable circumstances, and see two therefore they intreated that kneeling at the sacrament might papers of not be imposed ; that the wearing the surplice, the cross in &c. humbly baptism, and bowing at the name of Jesus, rather than of to his maChrist or Emanuel, might be laid aside ; and that care might jesty by the
Presbyterian be taken to prevent innovations contrary to law.”
Farther : they desired the king, “that none of their ministers might be ejected from sequestered livings where the episcopal incumbents were dead; that his majesty would please to give a public signification of his pleasure, that no oaths, subscriptions, or renunciation of orders might be required till the
present debate was gone through, and the controversy brought to an issue.”
The king treated them with regard, told them he was much pleased with their declaring for a liturgy, and yielding to the essentials of episcopacy; and promised them, that where the old incumbents were dead, the benefices should be confirmed to those in possession.
Not long after, the bishops returned an answer to the Presbyterians' paper of proposals.
“ As to their preliminary requests, they conceive the laws of the realm have made a sufficient provision, and that no farther security can be given. As for liberty of conscience, they are willing to comply, provided a passage may not be opened for private conventicles; for should such an indulgence be granted, the consequences might prove very unserviceable to the State. That they approve the fixing a godly minister in each parish, but do not understand what is meant by “residing on his cure,' nor how far those words may be stretched : nor what farther provision can be made upon that head. As for confirmation, and the barring scandalous persons from the communion, they thought the Church had taken sufficient care of that matter. And touching the observation of the Lord's-day, they reply, the laws of the kingdom were stricter than those of any foreign reformed communion whatsoever. As to Church government, they insist upon continuing the former hierarchy without any alteration; and that the Presbyterians' objections against a single person's administration in the Church were equally applicable to the State. The extent of the dioceses they conceive well enough fitted to the bishops' inspection and management; and that the share of ecclesiastical jurisdiction put into the hands of chancellors, &c., was regular in the main. Archbishop Usher's plan for retrenching the bishops' authority, they declare inconsistent with two other discourses of that prelate ; and that his four propositions, at the best, were but some private thoughts thrown together. They pronounce the offices in the Common Prayer altogether unexceptionable, and conceive the book cannot be too strictly enjoined; especially when ministers are not denied the exercise of their gifts in praying before and after sermon ; which liberty, for extemporary or private compositions, stands only upon a late custom, without any foundation from law or canons; and that the common use of this practice comes only from connivance.
The bishops' ansz'er to the Presbyterians' proposals.
However, they are contented to yield the liturgy may be CHARLES reviewed, in case his majesty thinks fit. As for the ceremonies, they are unwilling to part with any of them: being clearly of opinion, that the satisfaction of some private persons ought not to overrule the public peace and uniformity of the Church; and that if any abatements were made, it would only feed a distemper, and encourage unquiet people to farther demands."
Calamy's And here it may not be improper to observe, that nine of Baxter. the bishops survived the rebellion, and recovered their sees at the Restoration ; viz., William Juxon, bishop of London, The bishops translated this year to Canterbury; William Pierce, bishop of who live to Bath and Wells ; Robert Skinner, bishop of Oxford, trans- tion, lated afterwards to Worcester; John Warner, bishop of Rochester; William Roberts, bishop of Bangor; Matthew Wren, bishop of Ely; Bryan Duppa, bishop of Salisbury, from whence, after the Restoration, he was removed to Winchester; Henry King, bishop of Chichester; Accepted Frewen, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, and this year promoted to the archbishopric of York. Besides these, there were six bishops consecrated on the first Sunday in Advent, viz., John, lord bishop of Durham; William, lord bishop of Cosens. St. David's; Benjamin, lord bishop of Peterborough ; Hugh, Laney. lord bishop of Llandaff; Richard, lord bishop of Carlisle ; Stern. Bryan, lord bishop of Chester; and John, lord bishop of Gauden. Exeter: when Juxon was translated to Canterbury, Gilbert Sheldon was made bishop of London. The other bishoprics See Arch
bishop Sanwere quickly filled with well qualified persons.
To return : soon after the bishops had sent the answer above mentioned, the Presbyterian ministers were told the king would put all he thought proper to grant them into a declaration : that they should see this instrument before it was published, and have the liberty to report what they happened to dislike. A copy of this declaration was accordingly sent them by the lord chancellor Hyde. Some little time before it was issued out, this lord gave notice of it in a speech to the parliament. Here he acquaints the houses, “he was Lord-chan-, commanded to mention two things recommended to them by speech upon his majesty in his declaration from Breda, the one for com- the subject of posing those unhappy differences and distempers in religion, which had too much disturbed the peace of the kingdom.
croft's Life and Sermons.
JUXON, This," saith he, “is a sad argument indeed, it is a consideraAbp. Cant.
tion that must make every religious heart bleed to see religion, which should be the strongest obligation and cement of affection and brotherly kindness and compassion, made now by the perverse wranglings of passionate and froward men, the ground of all animosity, hatred, malice, and revenge ; and this unruly and unmanly passion, I fear, too frequently transports those who are in the right, as well as those who are in the wrong, and leaves the latter more excusable than the former. When men who find their manners and dispositions very conformable in all the necessary obligations of human nature, avoid one another's conversation, and grow first unsociable, and then uncharitable to each other, because one cannot think as the other doth.
My lords and gentlemen, this disquisition hath cost the king many a sigh, many a sad hour, when he hath considered the almost irreparable reproach the Protestant religion hath undergone from the divisions and distractions which have been so notorious in this kingdom. What pains he hath taken to compose them, after several discourses with pious and learned men of different persuasions, you will shortly perceive by a declaration, which he will publish upon that occasion; by which you will see his great indulgence to those who can have any pretension from conscience to differ from their brethren.”
The Presbyterian divines having perused the declaration, drew a petition to the king, and subjoined some remarks on the declaration. They delivered what they had done to the lord chancellor, who thought it most advisable to drop this address, and never called on them to present it to the king. However, he desired they would give in the particulars of what they thought proper should be altered; upon which they delivered him minutes upon these heads. And now a day was fixed for his majesty's perusing the declaration, as the lord chancellor had drawn it. Accordingly, the king came to the lord chancellor's with the dukes of Albemarle and Ormond, the earls of Manchester and Anglesey, the lord Hollis, and some others of the court; with these appeared Sheldon, bishop of London, Morley, bishop of Worcester, Hinchman, bishop of Salisbury, Cosens, bishop of Durham, Gauden, bishop of Exeter, Dr. Hacket, Dr. Berwick, Dr. Gunning, &c. On