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the other side, the Dissenters were represented by Reynolds, CHARLES Calamy, Ash, Wallis, Manton, Spurstow, Baxter, and some others. The business of this day was not to argue,

but lord chancellor read the declaration, each party was to speak their exceptions, and, after all, the king was to overrule the debate, and settle the form. There were several objections raised touching prelacy, re-ordination, and other particulars. When the whole was read, the lord chancellor pulled out another paper, and acquainted them that the king had been petitioned by the Independents and Anabaptists, for indulging their respective persuasions. Upon this he read a supplemental clause in the declaration, to this effect: “that others also might be permitted to meet for religious worship, provided they give no disturbance to the public peace ; and that they may not be molested by any justice of peace or other officer. This clause was suspected upon the score of the latitude in which it was expressed, and that there might be a design to bring the Papists within the compass of the toleration ; for this reason, probably, it was neither approved by the episcopal or Presbyterian party. However, the point being nice, and 874. the construction somewhat uncertain, there was nothing objected; only Baxter took the freedom to declare against the tolerating Papists and Socinians : to which his majesty replied, “ the laws had sufficiently provided against danger from the Papists.” And thus the matter was dropped. Before the meeting broke up, the king settled the sense of the declaration: and if there happened any dispute touching the manner of expression, this point was to be referred to bishop Morley and bishop Hinchman, Reynolds, and Calamy. And in case they happened to disagree, the earl of Anglesey and the lord Hollis were to determine the difference.

Calamy's On the 25th of October, his majesty set forth his “Declara- Baxter. tion to all his loving subjects of his kingdom of England and dominion of Wales concerning ecclesiastical affairs." I shall give the reader part of this instrument :


“ In our letter,” saith the king to the speaker of the house The king's of commons, “from Breda, we declared how much we desired declaration

touching the advancement and propagation of the Protestant religion ; ecclesiastical that neither the unkindness of those of the same faith towards A.D. 1660. us, nor the civilities and obligations from those of a contrary

JUXON, profession, (of both which we have had abundant evidence,) Abp. Cant.

could in the least degree startle us, or make us swerve from it, and that nothing can be proposed to manifest our zeal and affection for it, to which we will not readily consent. And we said then, that we did hope in due time ourself to propose somewhat for the propagation of it that will satisfy the world that we have always made it both our care and our study, and have observed enough what is most like to bring disadvantage to it. And the truth is, we do think ourself more competent to propose, and with God's assistance to determine, many things now in difference, from the time we have spent, and the experience we have had in most of the reformed Churches abroad, in France, in the Low Countries, and in Germany, where we have had frequent conferences with the most learned men, who have unanimously lamented the great reproach the Protestant religion undergoes from the distempers and too notorious schisms in matters of religion in England. And as the most learned amongst them have always, with great submission and reverence, acknowledged and magnified the established government of the Church of England, and the great countenance and shelter the Protestant religion received from it before these unhappy times ; so many of them have with great ingenuity and sorrow confessed that they were too easily misled by misinformation and prejudice, into some disesteem of it, as if it had too much complied with the Church of Rome; whereas they now acknowledge it to be the best fence God hath yet raised against popery in the world : and we are persuaded they do with great zeal wish it restored to its old dignity and veneration.

" When we were in Holland, we were attended by many grave and learned ministers from hence, who were looked upon as the most able and principal assertors of the Presbyterian opinions ; with whom we had as much conference as the multitude of affairs which were then upon us would permit us to have, and, to our great satisfaction and comfort, found them persons full of affection to us, of zeal for the peace of the Church and State, and neither enemies (as they have been given out to be) to episcopacy or liturgy, but modestly to desire such alterations in either, as without shaking foundations, might best allay the present distempers, which the indisposition of the time and the tenderness of some men's


consciences had contracted. For the better doing whereof, CHARLES we did intend, upon our first arrival in this kingdom, to call a synod of divines, as the most proper expedient to provide a proper remedy for all those differences and dissatisfactions which had or should arise in matters of religion. And in the mean time we published, in our declaration from Breda, a liberty to tender consciences, and that no man should be disquieted, or called in question, for differences of opinion in matters of religion, which do not disturb the peace of the kingdom, and that we shall be ready to consent to such an act of parliament as, upon mature deliberation, shall be offered to us, for the full granting that indulgence.

“ We need not profess the high esteem and affection we have for the Church of England, as it is established by law; the reverence to which hath supported us, by God's blessing, against many temptations : nor do we think that reverence in the least degree diminished by our condescensions, not peremptorily insisting on some particulars of ceremony, which, however introduced by the piety and devotion, and order of former times, may not be so agreeable to the present, but may even lessen that piety and devotion for the improvement whereof they might happily be first introduced, and consequently may well be dispensed with. And we hope this charitable compliance of ours will dispose the minds of all men to a cheerful submission to that authority, the preservation whereof is so necessary for the unity and peace of the Church, and that they will acknowledge the support of the episcopal authority to be the best support of religion, by being the best means to contain the minds of men within the rules of government. And they who would destroy the exercise of that holy function within the rules which were observed in the primitive times, must remember and consider, that the ecclesiastical power was in those blessed times always subordinate and subject to the civil': it was likewise proportioned to such an extent as This is a was most agreeable to that. And as the sanctity and simpli- See the first city, and resignation of that age, did then refer many things part of this to the bishops, which the policy of succeeding ages would not and above admit, at least did otherwise provide for; so it can be no re second. proach to primitive episcopacy, if where there have been great

· By civil, the king means royal; in which sense he is right, for the Crown is superior both to Church and State.

Abp. Cant.

JUXON, alterations in the civil government from what was then, there

have been likewise some difference and alteration in the ecclesiastical, the essence and foundation being still preserved."


The king's concessions shall next be inserted.

“ 1. We do, in the first place,” continues his majesty, “ declare our purpose and resolution is, and shall be, to promote the power of godliness, to encourage the exercise of religion, both public and private; and to take care that the Lord's day be applied to holy exercises, without unnecessary divertisements; and that insufficient, negligent, and scandalous ministers be not permitted in the Church. And that as the present bishops are known to be men of great and exemplary piety in their lives, which they have manifested in their notorious and unexampled sufferings during these late distempers, and of great and known sufficiency of learning ; so we shall take especial care to prefer no man to that office and charge, but men of learning, virtue, and piety, who may be themselves the best examples to those who are to be governed by them. And we shall expect and provide the best we can, that the bishops be frequent preachers, and that they do very often preach themselves in some churches of their diocese, except they be hindered by sickness, or some or other bodily infirmity, or some other justifiable occasion, which shall not be thought justifiable if it be frequent.

“ 2. Because the dioceses, especially some of them, are thought to be of too large extent, we will appoint such a number of suffragan bishops in every diocese, as shall be sufficient for the due performance of their work.

“3. No bishop shall ordain or exercise any part of jurisdiction which appertains to the censures of the Church, without the advice and assistance of the presbyters: and no chancellor, commissaries, or officials, as such, shall execute any act of spiritual jurisdiction in these cases; viz. excommunication, absolution, or matters wherein any of the ministry are concerned, with reference to their pastoral charge. However, our intent an meaning is, to uphold and maintain the profession of the civil laws, so far and in such matters as it hath been of use and practice within our kingdoms and dominions : albeit, as to excommunication, our will and pleasure is, that no chancellor, commissary, or official, shall decree any sentence of excom/


munication or absolution, or be judges in those things wherein CHARLES any of the ministry are concerned, as is aforesaid : nor shall the archdeacon exercise any jurisdiction without the advice and assistance of six ministers of his archdeaconry, whereof three are to be nominated by the bishop, and three by the election of the major part of the presbyters within the archdeaconry.

** 4. To the end that the deans and chapters may be the better fitted to afford council and assistance to the bishops both in ordination, and the other offices mentioned before, we will take care that those preferments be given to the most learned, pious, and discreet presbyters of the same diocese. And moreover, that an equal number to those of the chapter, of the most learned, pious, and discreet presbyters of the same diocese, annually chosen by the major vote of all the presbyters of that diocese, present at such elections, shall be always advising and assisting, together with those of the chapter, in all ordinations, and in every part of the jurisdiction which appertains to the censures of the Church, and at all other solemn and important actions in the exercise of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction, wherein any of the ministry are concerned; provided that in all such meetings, the number of the ministers so elected, and those present of the chapter, shall be equal, and not exceed one another; and that to make the numbers equal, the juniors of the exceeding number be withdrawn, that the most ancient may take place. Nor shall any suffragan bishop ordain, or exercise the fore-mentioned offices and acts of spiritual jurisdiction, but with the advice and assistance of a sufficient number of the most judicious and pious presbyters annually chosen as aforesaid, within his precincts. And our will is, that the great work of ordination be constantly and solemnly performed by the bishop and his aforesaid presbytery, at the four set times and seasons appointed by the Church for that purpose.

5. We will take care that confirmation be solemnly and rightly performed, by the information and with the consent of the minister of the place, who shall admit none to the Lord's supper, till they have made a credible profession of their faith, and promised obedience to the will of God, according as is expressed in the considerations of the rubric before the catechism: and that all possible diligence be used for the instruction and reformation of scandalous offenders, whom the

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