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authority in case they preached the received doctrines of the CHARLES Church, and attacked the Pelagian and Arminian heresies, both boldly published from pulpit and press.” That therefore they humbly intreat his majesty would be pleased to take the fore-mentioned evils and grievances into his princely consideration: and, as a wise physician, apply such speedy remedies as may both cure the present distempers, and preserve the Church and State from those plagues with which their neighbours had not been a little distressed.

Canter

bury's But this address was stopped in its passage, and never Doom. reached the king: however, when the parliament met, something of this kind was resolved as the sense of the house : but of this by and by.

To proceed; in the interval between the two sessions, Dr. ManwarManwaring's sermons, entitled, “Religion and Allegiance," mons supwere suppressed by proclamation; in which the king declared, pressed by

proclamathat though the grounds of the discourse were rightly laid to tion, and persuade the subject to obedience for conscience sake, there “ Appello were notwithstanding several exceptionable passages : that called in. some of the doctor's inferences and applications clashed with the laws of the land, and the proceedings of parliaments : that the doctor's ignorance of the constitution had misled him to that degree, that he had justly drawn upon himself the censure of the high court of parliament. That his majesty being desirous to remove occasions of scandal, had thought fit those sermons should be wholly suppressed. About the same Rushworth’s time bishop Montague's “ Appello Cæsarem” was called in. vol. 1. The order sets forth, that this book had been the first occasion of those disputes and differences, which had disturbed the repose of the Church. His majesty therefore commands all persons who had any of those books in their hands to deliver them to the bishop of the diocese, or to the chancellor or vicechancellor of the universities, provided that they were found in either of those societies. And that if any person by preaching, reading, or printing, should revive those unnecessary disputes, his majesty was resolved to make them repent their presumption. On the other side, to secure bishop Montague from further trouble, and relieve Manwaring a little under the parliamentary sentence, they had both of them his majesty's pardon for all errors formerly committed in speaking, writing, or printing. Montague's preferment, since his being harassed by the commons, has been mentioned already : and as for

both pre

ABBOT, Manwaring, notwithstanding the sentence of the lords had Abp. Cant. disabled him from promotion, he was presented to the rectory They are

of Stamford Rivers in Essex, with a dispensation to hold it ferred. with his living of St. Giles's in the Fields, and was afterwards

made bishop of St. David's. The preferring this gentleman, who had recanted in form, and owned himself so remarkable a criminal, was no serviceable conduct: this countenance looked something like a partiality for the prerogative, made the parliament more warm at their next meeting, and the king lose ground in the affection of his subjects.

But to give satisfaction another way, a proclamation was issued for proceeding against popish recusants, and directions sent to his majesty's commissioners for taking the forfeitures of two thirds of their estates. But the rigour of the statutes is said to have been mitigated by favourable composition. This proclamation was seconded with another for apprehending

all priests and Jesuits, and committing them to gaol without Proclama bail or mainprize. And here Richard Smith, bishop of Chaltion against cedon, was particularly mentioned. He was sent hither by of Chalce-' the pope, with episcopal jurisdiction over the English Roman don, &c.

Catholics. He wrote a book entitled, the “Prudential Balance,” and was a person well esteemed by the laity and seculars. But his character was by no means acceptable to the regulars, who appeared strongly against him, and particularly one Nicholas Smith. This titular bishop of Chalcedon finding the country unfriendly, retired to France, and was kindly received by cardinal Richelieu.

About Christmas this year, archbishop Abbot was restored to his liberty and jurisdiction: he was sent for to court, kissed the king's hand, and was ordered not to fail being at the council board twice a week: after this he was no more put under any restraint, but enjoyed the privilege of his station as long as he lived.

At the next meeting the commons concerned themselves

with controversies of religion, pronounced upon the sense of vol. 1.

the Nine-and-thirty Articles, and seem to clash with the king's late declaration. This vow of the house of commons, as Rushworth calls it, stands thus :

Examen
Histor.
Rush worth's
Collect.

“We the commons in parliament assembled, do claim, protest, and avow for truth, the sense of the articles of religion, which were established by parliament in the thirteenth year of

The Commons' declaration

upon the

1.

our late queen Elizabeth, which by the public act of the CHARLES Church of England, and by the general and current expositions of the writers of our Church, have been delivered unto us.

Nine-and

thirty ArtiAnd we reject the sense of the Jesuits, and Arminians, and cles. all others wherein they differ from us."

66

The commons being thus decisive in points of religion and mystery, was somewhat surprising: it was thought the resolution of these matters, in which the most learned clergy were so much divided, had been more proper for a provincial council ; that the setting a rule for belief was foreign to the business of the commons; that their profession had not qualified them for inquiries of this kind: and that they had neither character or authority for settling the controversy. To instance, in one clause of their declaration, they vow for truth the sense of the articles, which were established by parliament, in the thirteenth

year

of

queen Elizabeth." But, by the way, neither the sense of the articles, nor the articles themselves, are established either in that parliament, or in any other. We hear of no committee of religion appointed to examine the orthodoxy of these credenda, or any resolution of the house upon their report. The design of the statute, as has been already observed, was only to provide 13 Eliz. against non-conformity; for which purpose the clergy are cap. 12. obliged to subscribe the articles, and read them in their parish churches.

The commons were by no means pleased with the administration; they insinuated Popery and Arminianism were in a concert to undermine the constitution, and make way for arbitrary government. That the juncture called for an inquiry into 748. the pardon that had been granted, and the ecclesiastical preferments bestowed since the last session: that the work of the Lord” must not be “done negligently ;” and that the business of religion ought to have the preference to that of tonnage and poundage. And the committee being settled, Mr. Pym spoke to the following effect :

Religion," he said, “ was distressed with Popery and They comArminianism. As to the first, they ought to inquire into three main lion things. First, The non-execution of the laws against Papists. in religion. Secondly, How much these recusants had been employed and countenanced. Thirdly, They were to take notice of the

ABBOT, breach made upon the law by bringing in superstitious cereAbp. Cant.

monies.” And here he instances in the innovations pretended to be practised at Durham, by Mr. Cozens : such as angels, crucifixes, saints, altars, candles on Candlemas-day burning in the church.

Now, if Pym meant invocation of saints and angels, and worshipping the cross, or the altar, it was a downright calumny on Cozens : but if this is not his meaning, his charge is trifling, and nothing to the purpose. Then speaking to the point of Arminianism, he passes the “ Lambeth Articles” for the doctrine of the Church of England : taking this for granted, he would have a test for examining the late contrary opinions : and moves that an inquiry may be made what men have been since preferred, who have professed these heresies : what pardons they have had for false doctrine: what books have been prohibited that appeared against them, and how much those on their side have been suffered to pass.

Pursuant to this speech, the committee excepted to the pardons of Montague and Manwaring, complained of Neile, bishop

of Winchester, for procuring them, and call an Arminian the A.D. 1628-9. spawn of a Papist. And thus the humour rising high against The parlia- the court in the lower house, the king dissolved the par

liament.

This year Toby Mathew, archbishop of York, departed this

life, and was succeeded by Montaign. Leighton's

Before the breaking up of the parliament, one Leighton, a scandalous Scotchman, and doctor of physic, dedicated a scandalous book pamphlet.

to the two houses, entituled, “Sion's Plea." In this frantic performance he solicits his patrons to “kill all the bishops, and smite them under the fifth rib.” His manners to the queen are of the same extraordinary rudeness : for he salutes her majesty in no better language than that of an idolatress, a Canaanite, and

a daughter of Heth. For these coarse liberties he was taken A.D. 1629. up, brought into the Star-chamber, and sentenced to have his

ears cropped, his nose slit, his forehead branded, and to be whipped. Between the sentence and the execution, he made

his escape out of the Fleet; but was seized in Bedfordshire, Cyprian.

and suffered the punishment'. Anglic.

" The punishment of this Leighton has frequently been called unjustifiably severe ; but surely his conduct was criminal and offensive in the highest degree, and perhaps

Idem.

ment dissolved.

deserved still worse treatment,

I.

Laud, who had now the ascendant at court, being sensible CHARLES the discipline and revenues of the Church were mismanaged, and out of order, was intent in projecting a remedy. To this purpose he consulted Harsenet, who succeeded Montaign in the see of York: these two prelates threw their scheme into ten articles, and presented them to the king. This draught was signed by his majesty, and published under the title of his “ Instructions to the Most Reverend Father in God, George, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, containing certain Orders to be observed and put in execution by the several Bishops in his Province." The instructions are these following:

ול

66 CHARLES Rex.

The king's

“ I. That the lords the bishops be commanded to their instructions several sees, there to keep residence ; excepting those which bishop of

Canterbury, are at necessary attendance on the court.

fc. “ II. That none of them reside upon his land or lease that he hath purchased, nor on his commendam, if he hold any; but in one of his episcopal houses, if he have any such : and that he waste not the woods where any are left.

“ III. That they give charge in their triennial visitation, and at other convenient times, both by themselves and their archdeacons. That the declaration for settling all questions in difference, be strictly observed by all parties.

“ IV. That there be a special care taken by them all, that their ordinations be solemn, and not of unworthy persons.

“ V. That they take great care concerning the lecturers in their several dioceses, for whom we give these special directions following:

“ 1. That in all parishes the afternoon sermons be turned into catechizing by question and answer, where and whensoever there is not some great cause apparent to break this ancient and profitable order.

“ 2. That every bishop ordain in his diocese; that every lecturer do read divine service according to the Liturgy, printed by authority, in his surplice, and before the lecture.

“ 3. That where a lecture is set up in a market-town, it may be read by a company of grave and orthodox divines near adjoining, and in the same diocese, and that they preach in gowns, and not in cloaks, as too many do.

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