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passing such a bill being foreseen, or at least suspected, it was CHARLES thought more advisable to refer the matter to the king's instructions. Pursuant to this suggestion, his majesty directed his letters to the archbishops, bishops, deans, and chapters, " That The king's

instructions forthwith provision be made for the augmentation of all such for any

menting poor vicarages and cures where the tithes and profits are appro- vicarages, priated to them and their successors, in such manner, that fe. they who immediately attend upon the performance of ministerial offices in every parish, may have a competent portion out of every rectory impropriate,” &c. These letters were readily complied with, and very consi- They are

answered by derable augmentations made in most of the parishes appro- the cleroypriated to ecclesiastical corporations : but lay impropriators

impropriustuck too close to the point of interest, and refused to be governed by his majesty's direction. It is true, many of the 891. house of communs seemed well disposed to a remedy for this evil, and several resolves were made to this purpose; but these pious advances came to nothing. The miscarriage is supposed to have happened, either by the members being diverted and called off by the king's pressing for supplies, by the covetousness of impropriators, or by the disaffection of some lay patrons, who envied the clergy a better supported and independent condition.

In January last, Sanderson, bishop of Lincoln, departed Bishop Sunthis life. He was youngest son of Robert Sanderson, of Gilthwait-hall, esq., in Yorkshire, by Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Jan. 29, Carr, gent., of Rutherwait-hall, in Ecclesfield, in the same county. He was educated at Lincoln college, Oxford, where he was regius professor of divinity. In the year 1647 he was principally concerned in drawing up the university's reasons against the covenant and negative oath formerly mentioned. The next year he was turned out of his professorship and canonry of Christchurch, by the parliament visitors. After this he retired to Boothby Pannel, in Lincolnshire, where he was plundered and imprisoned. In his younger time he was inclined to Calvinism : but having argued the quinquarticular controversy with Dr. Hammond, he came off from Calvin and Twiss, and disliked both the supra and sublapsarian schemes. Soon after the Restoration he was promoted to the see of Lincoln, and assisted at the conference of the Savoy, but did not engage much in that debate. He was a prelate of considerable

derson's death.

A.D. 1662-3.

Life of

derson. Athen. Oxon.

SHEL- learning: the talent which distinguished him most was the Abp. Cant. resolution of cases of conscience, in which he was particularly

eminent. His principal works are, “ De Juramenti Obligatione Prælectiones Septem;" “ De Obligatione Conscientiæ

Prælectiones Decem." Nine Cases of Conscience in English, Bishop San- and a volume of Sermons in folio.

The next summer, in June, William Juxon, archbishop of The death of Canterbury, died in his palace at Lambeth, and was buried in archbishop the chapel of St. John's college, Oxford, to which he was a

considerable benefactor. He received his education in this society, and was some time afterwards student in Gray’s-inn. In the late reign he was first preferred to the bishopric of Hereford, next to that of London, and upon the Restoration was translated to the see of Canterbury: but part of his character being touched already, I shall add nothing farther. Upon his death, Gilbert Sheldon, bishop of London, was made his successor, and Humphry Henchman, bishop of Sarum,

removed to London. And of pri

About this time, John Bramhall, archbishop of Armagh, mate Brum- departed this life. He was a gentleman of an ancient family,

descended from the Bramhalls of Bramhall-hall, in Cheshire. He was educated in Cambridge, where he commenced doctor of divinity. Being beneficed in Yorkshire, he engaged a Jesuit in a conference about transubstantiation, and had the advantage in the dispute. Upon this he was made chaplain to Mathews, archbishop of York. and not long after prebendary of York and Ripon. In 1633 he resigned his preferments in England, and settled in Ireland : where, by the recommendation of the lord deputy Strafford, he was made bishop of Derry. At his coming to Ireland he found the revenues of the Church miserably wasted, and procured several acts of parliament for securing the ecclesiastical revenue; and, not stopping at the preventing future encroachment, he regained the rights of the Church by argument, law, and purchase ; got fee farms surrendered, and recovered between thirty and forty thousand pounds per annum in four years time. To conclude: at the Restoration he was made archbishop of Armagh, and speaker of the house of lords in the parliament at Dublin. To take leave of his memory, he was very considerable in the argumentative part of learning, a great controversial divine, a good governor and statesman, and furnished with courage


Life before



Hist. of

suitable to his character and principles. He was far from being CHARLES straitlaced in his notions, and uncharitable in his censures ; being famous for his distinction between articles of peace and Archbishop articles of faith.

his Works, To proceed. Several of the Nonconformist divines, though in folio. they believed the terms for ministerial conformity imprac- Presbyterian ticable, yet made no scruple in joining in lay communion with ministers the established Church. Thus, after the exercise of their with the

national ministry, they usually came to their parish church at Divine service, and were sometimes communicated there. And this is supposed to have been the rise of occasional conformity. Complete

The Church being now brought forward to so good a settle- England, ment, the convocation acquiesced, and moved little further. vol. 3. This session ended with the prorogation of the parliament for July 27, the summer.

From this time, till the dissolution of the parlia- A further ment in the year 1678, the clergy met mostly for form sake. account of As for synodical business, there was little done, excepting three tion. things of no great importance. This small business was a Synod. committee appointed to inspect a new grammar, May the in Append. 4th, 1664; an order about a Latin Prayer-book, May the p. 124, 125. 18th ; and a petition, October 11, 1667, agreed to be presented to the king, on behalf of Dr. Duport, to have the sole liberty of printing his Greek translation of the Psalms for seven years. And thus the reader can expect nothing farther from the convocation.

Upon the 18th of June, a third session of the first parlia- Acts relating ment began at Edinburgh. The preamble of the first act sets made in the forth, “that it was his majesty's express pleasure, that, in the parliament constitution of parliaments, and choosing lords of the articles burgh. at this session, and in all time coming, the same form and order should be kept which had been used before these late troubles, especially in the parliament holden in the year 1633 ; and the manner of election of lords of the articles being now seen and considered by the estates of parliament, they did in all duty humbly acquiesce in his majesty's pleasure ; and, in prosecution thereof, the clergy retired to the exchequerchamber, and the nobility to the inner house of the session, the barons and burgesses keeping their places in the parliamenthouse. The clergy made choice of eight noblemen to be on the articles; and the nobility made choice of eight bishops." Both these divisions are named. This being done, to speak in

sess. 3. сар. 1.

SHEL- the language and order of the act, “ the clergy and nobility Abp. Cant. met together in the inner exchequer-house; and, having shown

their elections to each other, they jointly made choice of eight

barons and eight commissioners of boroughs, who were likewise 892. named. After this, they represented the whole election to his

majesty's commissioner, the earl of Rothes, who, being satisfied therewith, did then with the clergy and nobility return to the parliament-house, where the list of eight bishops, eight noblemen, eight barons, and eight burgesses being read, it was approven. To this list his majesty's commissioner added the

officers of state, and appointed the lord chancellor to be presiCharles 2. dent in the meetings of the lords of the articles.” parl. 1.

I shall give the reader part of one act more passed this session, relating to the establishment and constitution of a national synod. By this statute it is enacted, there shall be a national synod of the Church of Scotland: “and that this synod for the lawful members thereof shall consist and be constitute of the archbishops of St. Andrew's and Glasgow, and the remanent bishops of these two provinces, of all deans of cathedral churches, of archdeacons, of all the moderators of meetings for exercise allowed by the bishops of the respective dioceses, and of one presbyter or minister of each meeting to be elected by the moderator and plurality of presbyters of the same, and of one or two from the university of St. Andrew's, one from Glasgow, one from the King's-college, one from Marshall's-college of Aberdeen, and one from the college of Edinburgh. And this synod, thus constitute, is to meet at such places and times as his majesty by his proclamation shall appoint, and is to debate, treat, consider, consult, conclude, and determine upon such pious matters, causes, and things concerning the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government of this Church, as his majesty shall from time to time, under his royal hand, deliver or cause to be delivered to the archbishop of St. Andrew's, president of the said national assembly, to be by him offered to their consideration. It is likewise declared, that, unless his majesty or his commissioner is present, no national assembly can be kept. It is farther enacted, that no act, canon, order, or ordinance, shall be owned as an act of the national synod of the Church of Scotland, excepting that which shall be considered, consulted, and agreed upon by the president and major part of the members above specified."

I. 1664.







I am now to remark an extraordinary change in the manner CHARLES · of taxing the clergy. Soon after the planting of Christianity in England, the Church, as has been observed, was largely The clergy endowed, and the estates of the clergy covered in some mea- to be taxed sure from the common burthens. It is true, in the Saxon mons in parreigns they were charged with contributing towards pontage, murage, and expedition ; and the Conqueror afterwards put the bishops and religious houses under knight's service. This, notwithstanding the credit of the tenure, was reckoned a great oppression. However, this imposition affected but a few of the Matthew rectories, or other ecclesiastical endowments of lesser value. No small part of the clergy being therefore exempt from public charges, farther projects for making them more serviceable to the government were set on foot. Sometimes the

Sometimes the popes taxed the Church for the king's use; and sometimes, upon an extraordinary emergency, the bishops were prevailed with to enjoin their clergy the granting a subsidy to the king, by way of benevolence ; and, that their property might not be encumbered, they had letters of security from the crown to prevent this aid being drawn into a precedent against them. These contributions to the public were commonly made at diocesan synods; and here, either their bishops, their archdeacons, or other proctors of their own choosing, were empowered for this purpose.

Thus the matter rested, till the reign of king Edward I. This prince, after some other experiments, fixed at last upon an establishment which has in some measure been ever since continued. His method was this: having issued out his customary writs for the bishops to come to the parliament, he inserted a new clause in the writs directed to these prelates, which, from the first word, is called the “præmunientes” clause. It runs thus : the bishop is required “to give notice to the prior or 'dean and chapter of his cathedral church, to the archdeacons and all the clergy of his diocese, that they, the said prior or dean, and archdeacons, in their proper persons, the chapter by one, and the clergy by two well qualified proxies sufficiently empowered by the said chapter and clergy, should by all means be present at the parliament with him, to do and consent to those things which, by the blessing of God, shall by their common advice happen to be ordained in the affairs specified : and the executing this command he was Prynn's

Register, by no means to omit.” The design of this new assembly was part 1.


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