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“ The Twenty-fifth. CROFT,
“ The example of Phinehas is to us instead of a command : Abp. Cant.
for what God hath commanded or approved in one age, must needs oblige in all.”—Goodman, Knox, Naphtali.
“ The Twenty-sixth. King Charles I. was lawfully put to death; and his murderers were the blessed instruments of God's glory in their generation.”—Milton, Goodwin, Owen.
“ The Twenty-seventh. “King Charles I. made war upon his parliament: and in such a case, the king may not be resisted, but he ceaseth to be king."-Baxter.
“We decree, judge, and declare all and every of these propositions to be false, seditious and impious, and most of them to be also heretical and blasphemous, infamous to Christian religion, and destructive of all government in Church and State.
“We farther decree, that the books which contain the aforesaid propositions, and impious doctrines, are fitted to deprave good manners, corrupt the minds of uneasy men, stir up seditions and tumults, overthrow states and kingdoms, and lead to rebellion, murder of princes, and atheism itself. And therefore we interdict all members of the university from the reading of the said books under the penalty in the statutes expressed. We also order the before-recited books to be publicly burnt by the hand of our marshal, in the court of our schools.
“ Likewise we order, that, in perpetual memory hereof, these our decrees shall be entered into the registry of our convocation; and that copies of them being communicated to the several colleges and halls within this university, they be there publicly affixed in the libraries, refectories, or other fit places, where they may be seen and read of all."
13 & 14 Charles 2.
The rest may be omitted.
Those who blame these gentlemen of the university, as if they set the obedience of the subject too high, do not seem to
have fully considered that the homilies and statutes make sub14 Charles 2.
mission to the crown no less absolute, the passive chain alto
13 Charles 2.
25 Edw. 3.
gether as heavy, and strike the resisting principle as strong, CHARLES as any inference which can be drawn from the Oxford decree.
The Cambridge address, published about this time, is particularly remarkable for loyalty, and elocution, and deserves to 14Charles 2. be remembered : it was presented to the king at Newmarket, Homil
. 10. by the vice-chancellor Dr. Gower. It is this :
Exhortation to Obedience. Homil. 33. Against Dis
“We your majesty's most faithful and obedient subjects of and Wilful the university of Cambridge, have long, with the greatest and Rebellion,
904. sincerest joy, beheld. what we hope is in some measure the effect of our own prayers, the generous emulation of our bridge unifellow-subjects, contending who should first and best express address. their duty and gratitude to their sovereign, at this time especially, when the seditious endeavours of unreasonable men have made it necessary to assert the ancient loyalty of the English nation, and make the world sensible, that we do not degenerate from those prime glories of our ancestors, love and allegiance to our prince.
“ That we were not earlier seen in those loyal crowds, but chose rather to stand by, and applaud their honest and religious zeal, we humbly presume will not be imputed to the want of it in ourselves, either by your majesty, or your people; for it is at present the great honour of our university, not only to be steadfast and constant in our duty, but to be eminently so, and to suffer for it, as much as the calumnies and reproaches of factious and malicious men can inflict upon us: and that they have been hitherto able to do no more than vent the venom of their tongues ; that they have not proceeded to plunder and sequestration, to violate our chapels, rifle our libraries, and empty our colleges, as once they did, next to the overruling providence of Almighty God, is only due to the royal care and prudence of your most sacred majesty.
“But no earthly power, we hope, no menaces or misery, shall ever be able to make us renounce or forget our duty. We will still believe and maintain, that our princes derive not their title from the people, but from God; that to him only they are accountable, that it belongs not to subjects either to create, or censure, but to honour and obey their sovereign, who comes to be so by a fundamental hereditary right of
SAN- succession, which no religion, no law, no fault, or forfeiture, CROFT, Abp. Cant. can alter or diminish.
“ Nor will we ever abate of our well-instructed zeal for our most holy religion, as it is professed and established by law in the Church of England, that Church that hath so long stood, and is still the envy and terror of her adversaries, as well as the beauty and strength of the reformation.
“ It is thus that we have learned our own, and thus we teach others their duty to God and their prince: in the conscientious discharge of both which, we have been so long protected and encouraged by your majesty's most just and gracious government, that we neither need nor desire any other declaration than that experience, for our assurance and security for the future.
“ In all which grace and goodness we have nothing to return. We bring no names and seals, no lives and fortunes, well capable of your majesty's service, or at all worthy of your acceptance ; nothing but hearts and prayers, vows of a zealous and lasting loyalty, ourselves and studies, all that we can or ever shall be able to perform, which we here most sincerely promise and most humbly tender at your majesty's feet,—a mean and worthless present, but such an one as we hope will not be disdained by the most gracious and indulgent prince that Heaven ever bestowed upon a people."
Michaelmas Titus Oates, now in the declension of his credit, was indicted Term, A.D. 1684. at the King's Bench and at the Old Bailey for perjury; but his Oates indicted for
trial was deferred till Hilary term. And, since thus much of perjury. Oates's history has come in the way, the reader may probably
expect not to be left in suspense about the issue. Oates' Trial. observe therefore, that, in May, the next summer, he was
prosecuted for the same crime upon two indictments, and found guilty. The particulars upon which he was convicted are the disproof of some material circumstances sworn by him at the trials of Ireland, Whitebread, and others. Oates lived to a favourable juncture for reversing these judgments, and brought his writs of error for that purpose. However, after a
full debate upon the cause, the lords could not be prevailed Complete
with to blanch his character, or restore him to the capacity of England, being an evidence in any court.
To return : at the latter end of this year, the king fell sick
of an apoplexy, and died at Whitehall, on the 6th of February. CHARLES To conclude in a word or two, by way of character : he was a prince of extraordinary natural endowments, of great quickness 4 D1684-5.
. and penetration, and admirably qualified for the station he was death. born to. But these advantages were not without abatements in private life. It must be granted his pleasures were too strong for him.
These sallies proved unserviceable to his exchequer, and drove him upon inequalities in the administration. Thus, being sometimes exhausted, he stooped his authority to disadvantage, and caressed a party, no friends to the crown. However, in the latter end of his reign, he recollected himself for business, recovered his ground, and died with the faction at his feet. He married Donna Catharina, infanta of Portugal, but had no issue by her.
NOTE.-As Collier is very brief in this part of his history, I select from Lingard's graphic narrative the following particulars illustrative of Charles's death and character:
“On Monday, the 2nd of February, after a feverish and restless night, the king rose at an early hour. To his attendants he appeared drowsy and absent: his gait was unsteady; his speech embarrassed. About eight, as he walked across his room, he fell on the floor in a state of insensibility, with his features strongly convulsed. It fortuned that two physicians were within call, of whom one, who had practised as a surgeon, instantly opened a vein; the blood flowed freely. The most stimulating remedies were subsequently applied, and the royal patient gradually recovered his consciousness and the use of his speech. In the evening he suffered a relapse, but unexpectedly rallied the next morning, and improved so much in the course of the day, that his physicians began to cherish the hope of his recovery; but in twenty-four hours the prospect changed. The king's strength was exhausted. He repeatedly fell into a state of stupor; and on the fifth evening it became evident that his dissolution was rapidly approaching. The impression which these changes made on the public mind furnishes a strong proof that Charles, with all his faults, was beloved by his subjects. The announcement of his malady spread a deep gloom over the metropolis. The report of his convalescence the next day was received by the citizens with expressions of joy, the ringing of bells, and numerous bonfires. When at last the danger became manifest, crowds hastened to the churches to solicit from Heaven the health of their sovereign; and we are assured that repeatedly the service was interrupted by the sighs and sobs of the congregation. In the two royal chapels the ministers succeeded each other in rotation;
and the prayers were continued without intermission till his death.
“After the first attack, the moment the king recovered his speech, he had asked for the queen, who came immediately, and continued to wait on him with the most affectionate attention, till the sight of his sufferings threw her into fits, and the physicians forbade her to leave her own apartment. Interest, as well as affection, prompted the duke of York to be present; nor did he ever quit the bed-side of his brother, unless it were for a few minutes to receive reports concerning the state of the city, and to give orders for the maintenance of tranquillity and the securing of his own succession. In like manner the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishops of London, Durham, Ely, and Bath and Wells, were constantly in attendance, and one of them watched in his
SAN- turn during the night in the king's chamber. Early on the Thursday morning, Kenn, CROFT, of Bath and Wells, seized a favourable moment to warn the monarch of his danger; and Abp. Cant, the air of resignation with which the announcement was received, encouraged him to
read the office appointed for the visitation of the sick. When he came to the rubric respecting confession, he paused, -observed that it was a matter not of obligation, but of choice,-and, receiving no answer, asked whether the king repented of his offences against the law of God. Charles replied in the affirmative; and the prelate, having pronounced the usual form of absolution, asked if he might proceed to the administration of the sacrament? The king appeared to take no notice of the question ; but Kenn renewed the proposal with a louder voice, and Charles replied, in a faint tone, that there was still time enough. The elements were, however, brought and placed on a table; and the question was repeatedly asked by the bishop, who could extort no other answer from the dying man, but that he would think of it.'
“ The duke of York, though aware of his brother's preference of the Catholic worship, and reminded of it by the French ambassador, at the instance of the duchess of Portsmouth, had hitherto abstained from speaking to him on the subject of religion. He heard, however, the discourse between him and the prelate, and perfectly understood the import of the king's reluctant and evasive language. Motioning to the company to withdraw to the other end of the room, he approached the pillow of the sick monarch, and asked, in a whisper, if he might send for a Catholic priest. 'For God's sake, do," was the king's reply; 'but,' he immediately added, "will it not expose you to danger ?! alluding to the penalties enacted against those who were instrumental in the reconciliation of others to the Church of Rome. The foreign clergyman, to whom the duke sent, could not be found; but Huddleston, the same who waited on the king at Moseley after the battle of Worcester, was desired to supply his place. James ordered all present to quit the room except the earl of Bath, lord of the bed-chamber, and the earl of Feversham, captain of the guard, whose attendance he thought necessary, to prevent any sinister reports; and then introduced Huddleston with the words, “Sir, this worthy man once saved your life; he now comes to save your soul.' The priest threw himself on his knees, and offered the monarch the aid of his ministry. To his inquiries Charles replied, that it was his desire to die in the communion of the Roman Catholic Church; that he heartily repented of all his sins, and in particular of having deferred his reconciliation to that hour; that he hoped for salvation from the merits of Christ his Saviour; that he pardoned all his enemies, asked pardon of all whom he had offended, and was in peace with all men; and that he purposed, if God should spare him, to prove the sincerity of his repentance by a thorough amendment of life. Huddleston, having received his confession, anointed him, administered the eucharist, and withdrew. It was desirable that the object of his visit should be concealed. But the eyes of all had been fixed on the royal bed-chamber; the exclusion of the physicians and attendants during three-quarters of an hour awakened suspicion; and in a short time the real fact was whispered throughout the palace.
“During that night the king suffered at times the most distressing pain; but in the intervals between the paroxysms his mind was calm and collected, and he spoke of his approaching death with composure and resignation. The queen by a messenger excused her absence, and begged him to pardon her any offence which she might have given. * Alas, poor woman !' he exclaimed, she beg my pardon ? I beg hers with all my heart. Take back to her that answer. Looking on the duke, who was kneeling at the bedside and kissing his hand, he called him the best of friends and brothers ; desired him to forgive the harsh treatment which he had sometimes received; and prayed that God might grant him a long and prosperous reign. The name of Monmouth never passed his lips; but he sent for his other illegitimate sons, recommended them to James, and drawing each to him by the hand, successively gave them his blessing. At this sight, one of the prelates observed, that the king, the Lord's anointed, was the common father of all his subjects; every one present instantly threw himself on his knees, and Charles, being raised up, pronounced a blessing over them. He then expressed a hope to his brother that 'poor Nelly (Gwynne) would not be left to starve;' recommended