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venant of Salisbury, and Morton of Durham, two bishops CHARLES altogether unsuspected of any bias towards popery, were of the same sentiment. For instance, there happening a dispute between the parson and churchwardens, in Wiltshire, about The bishops placing the communion-table, the business was referred to and Morton
of the archbishop Davenant, who determined in favour of the incumbent :
bishop's and, by a decree under his episcopal seal, ordered the table opinion in should stand in the place of the altar. In this decree there are stances. two remarkable passages : “ First, That by the injunctions of queen Elizabeth, and by the thirty-second canon under king James, the communion tables should ordinarily be set, and stand with the side to the east wall of the chancel. And, Secondly, That it is ignorance to think that the standing of the table in that place does relish of popery."
bishop's Further, for adoration towards the table, bishop Morton's Speech,
June 16, testimony is a sufficient purgation. This prelate, in a tract 1634.
. against the sacrifice of the mass, founded upon the belief of transubstantiation, has these words : “ The like difference, says he, “ may be discerned between their manner of reverence in bowing towards the altar for adoration of the eucharist only, and ours in bowing, as well when there is no eucharist on the table, as when there is, which is not to the table of the Lord, but to the Lord of the table, to testify the communion of all faithful communicants therewith, even as the people of God did in adoring him before the ark, his footstool," Psalm xcix.
To take off some hard imputations upon the king's declaration, concerning lawful sports, two books were published against the Calvinian party: one of them was written by White, bishop of Ely, a learned prelate, who had signalized himself against the Papists in defence of the Reformation: his book, going on the argumentative and scholastic part, was entituled, “ A Treatise of the Sabbath-day, containing a Defence of the Orthodoxal Doctrine of the Church of England against Sabbatarian Novelty.” The other tract, called “ The History of the Sabbath,” was written by Dr. Heylin, prebendary of Westminster: the design is to show the practice of the Church through all ages. In his first part he takes his rise from the creation of the world, and reports matter of fact, to the destruction of the temple : his second part begins with the history of our Saviour and his Apostles, and comes down to the year one thousand six hundred and thirty-three, when
LAUD, the reading the king's declaration was enjoined the clergy. Abp. Cant.
This book must be confessed a learned performance, but that the author has not pushed the controversy towards an extreme and encouraged too great a liberty, is more than I dare determine.
About this time the Scotch bishops were employed in drawcanons for the Scotch ing a book of canons, and forming a library for the use of Church pub- that Church. The canons being finished in the first place, his
majesty was pleased to give these reasons, in his large declaration, for setting them forth :
A book of
“ First, He thought it necessary some book, comprising the rules of ecclesiastical government, should be published : that by this means there might be a fixed measure for stating the power of the clergy, and the practice of the laity.
Secondly, That the acts of their assemblies being only in manuscript, would not reach the generality: besides, these records were so bulky and voluminous, that transcribing them was almost impracticable: and thus few, even of the presbyters, could pronounce upon the authority of the copies, and distinguish between genuine and interpolated passages ; besides the removing of them from one custody to another, and lodging them so uncertainly, they scarcely knew where to apply for information.
“ Thirdly, That by reducing these regulations to a lesser compass, and laying them open to public view, nobody could miscarry through ignorance, or complain of being overcharged.
And, Lastly, That not one in that kingdom governed his practice by the acts of those general assemblies.”
The canons being drawn upon this view, and presented to his majesty, he signed a warrant to the archbishop of Canterbury, requiring him and Juxon, bishop of London, to examine
this draught; to alter and reform at discretion, and bring it as Bibl. Reg. near as might be to a conformity with the English canons. These two bishops having executed the king's orders, and
prepared a book for the press, the king confirmed it under the These letters- great seal. The instrument sets forth, that “his majesty, by patent are
sec. 2. num. 9.
his prerogative royal, and supreme authority in causes ecclesiGreenwich, astical, ratifies and confirms the said canons, orders, and conMay 23,
stitutions, and all and every thing in them contained, and
strictly commands all archbishops, bishops, and others exer- CHARLES cising ecclesiastical jurisdiction, to see them punctually ob
Bibl. Reg. served.” When these canons were published, the Scotch presbyters
763*. declared against them. Their objections were of two sorts : The Scotch they disliked the matter enjoined, and the manner of imposing ministers' them. The canons rejected upon the score of the matter against the were chiefly these following. They neither understood the matter. assertions of some, nor the injunctions of the rest. The canons contested were,
“1. That whoever should affirm the king's majesty had not the same authority in causes ecclesiastical, that the godly kings had among the Jews, (though without question the ungodly ones had the same) or the Christian emperors in the primitive Church; or impugn in any part his royal supremacy in causes eccclesiastical, was to incur the censure of excommunication.
“2. The like censure was to pass upon those who should affirm the worship contained in the Book of Common Prayer, and administration of the sacraments, or that the government of the Church by archbishops and bishops, &c., contained any thing repugnant to the Scriptures; or was corrupt, superstitious, or unlawful in the service and worship of God.
“3. That ordinations were restrained to four times of the year, that is, the first weeks of March, June, September, and December.
“4. That every ecclesiastical person at his admission should take the oath of supremacy, according to the form required by parliament; and the like oath for avoiding simony, required in the Book of Consecration.
“5. That every presbyter shall, either by himself, or by another person lawfully called, read, or cause divine service to be done, according to the form of the Book of the Scottish Common Prayer, before all sermons; and that he should officiate by the said Book of Common Prayer in all the offices, parts, and rubrics of it.
“6. That no preacher should impugn the doctrine delivered by another in the same church, or any adjacent one, without leave froin the bishop.
LAUD, “7. That no presbyter should hereafter be cautioner or Abp. Cant.
surety for any person whatsoever, in civil bonds or contracts, under the penalty of suspension.
“8. That the remainder of the bread and wine, prepared for the communion, should be given to the poorer sort of those who received that day, and was to be eaten and drank by them before they went out of the church.
“ 9. Presbyters are enjoined to administer the sacrament of baptism without distinction of days in sickness and danger; and the people are required to receive the sacrament of the Lord's Supper in a kneeling posture.
“10. That in all sentences of separation, a thoro et mensa, there shall be a condition inserted, and security given : that the persons divorced shall live regularly and unlicentiously, and not marry again during each other's life.
“11. That no private meeting be held by presbyters, or any other persons whatsoever, for expounding Scripture, or debating matters ecclesiastical; things of this nature being only to be discussed in synods of bishops.
“12. That, under the penalty of excommunication, no presbyter or layman, jointly or severally, shall be allowed to make rules, orders, or constitutions, in causes ecclesiastical; or to add or take away from any rubrics, articles, or other things now established, without the authority of the king, or his suc
“ 13. That national or general assemblies are to be called only by the king's authority; and that the decrees of such assemblies in matters ecclesiastical should bind the absent ; and that it should not be lawful for the bishops themselves, in such assemblies, or elsewhere, to alter any article, rubric, canon, doctrinal or disciplinary, without his majesty's leave first had and obtained.
“ 14. That no man should be covered in time of divine service, unless with a cap, or night-coif, in case of ill health ; and that all persons shall reverently kneel at the reading the confession, and other prayers, and stand up at the creed.
“15. That no presbyter, or reader, shall be permitted to pray extempore, or use any other form in the public service, than that prescribed, under the penalty of deprivation.
“16. That all presbyters and preachers shall exhort the
people to join with them in prayer, using some few and CHARLES suitable expressions, and always concluding with the Lord's Prayer.
“17. That no person should teach either in public schools or private houses, unless licensed by the archbishop of the province, or by the bishop of the diocese, under their hand and seal; and that none are thus to be licensed unless men of orthodox belief, and conformity to the orders of the Church.
“18. That none should be admitted to read in any college without qualifying themselves by taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy.
“19. That nothing shall be printed, unless first perused and allowed by the visitors appointed for that purpose; the penalty of contravention being left (as in all other cases where no penalty is expressed) to the discretion of the bishops.
“ 20. That no public fasts shall be appointed upon Sundays (as has been customary), and that the appointment of such humiliations be made by none but his majesty.
“21. That for administering the sacrament of baptism, font shall be prepared and fixed near the church porch, according to ancient usage ; that a fine linen cloth should likewise be provided for this purpose, and all decently kept.
“22. That a decent table for celebrating the holy commu- 764. nion should be provided, and set at the upper end of the chancel or church; that at the time of divine service, the table shall be covered with a handsome stuff carpet; and, when the holy eucharist is administered, with a white linen cloth; and that basons, cups, or chalices, of some fine metal, shall be provided to furnish the communion table, and used only for that purpose.
“ 23. That such bishops and presbyters, as shall happen to die without issue, shall leave their effects, or a great part of them, to pious uses ; and in case they had issue, they should bestow some legacies, as a mark of their affection, upon the Church, and for promoting the interest of religion. 56 24. That no sentence of excommunication should be
pronounced, or absolution given, by any presbyter, without the leave and approbation of the bishop ; and that no presbyter should discover any thing told him in confession, to any person whatsoever, excepting the crime is such, that by the laws of the realm, his own life may be in danger by concealing it.