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niemals variirt?. Genug, dieser Tag dünfte ihm, so wie der sorgenvollste, so auch der glorreichste seines Lebens.

Der Sönigslieutenant wohnte noch immer in unseren Hause. Er hatte sein Betragen in nichts geändert, besonders gegen uns; allein es war merklich, und der Gevatter Dols metsch wußte es uns noch deutlicher zu machen, daß er seint Aint nicht mehr mit der Heiterkeit, nicht mehr mit dem Eifer verwaltete wie anfangs, obgleich immer mit derselben Rechtschaffenheit und Treue. Sein Wesen und Betragen, das eher einen Spanier als einen Franzosen ankündigte?, seine Launen, die doch mitunter Einfluß auf ein Geschäft hatten, seine Unbiegsamkeit gegen die Umstände, seine Neizbarkeit gegen Alles, was seine Person oder Charakter berührte, dieses zusammen mochte ihn toch zuweilen mit seinen Vorgesepten in Conflict bringen. Hiezu karn noch, daß er in einem Duell, welches sich im Schauspiel entsponnen hatte, verwundet wurde und man dem Königslieutenant übel nahm, daß er selbst eine verpönte* Handlung als oberster Polizeimeisters begangen. Alles dieses mochte, wie gesagt, dazu beitragen, daß er in sich gezognerø lebte und hier und da vielleicht wenis ger energisch verfuhr.

Er verließ die Stadt und erhielt stufenweise' noch ver: schiedene Chargen, doch wie man hörte, nicht zu seiner Zufriedenheit. Er hatte indeß das Vergnügen, die so emsig von ihm besorgten Gemälde in dem Schlonie seines Bruders glüdlich angebracht zu sehen, schrieb einigemale, sendete Maaße und ließ von den oben genannten Künstlern Verschiebenes nacharbeiten. Endlich vernahmen wir nichts weiter von ihm, außer daß man uns nach mehreren Jahren vers fichern wollte, er fei in Westindien, auf einer der französ sischen Kolonieen, als Gouverneur gestorben.



The motto prefixed by Goethe to his autobiography is derived from the fragments of Menander, a Greek comic poet who flourished in the second half of the fourth century B.C. (see Comic. gr. fragm. ed. Meineke IV. 352); Hugo Grotius, a famous Dutch scholar of the seventeenth century, has thus expressed this line in a Latin verse: male eruditur ille qui non vapulat. It should of course be understood here in a wider sense as applied to the 'sweet uses of adversity'.

I have followed the example of Mr G. H. Lewes in adding Goethe's well-known lines as an appropriate motto of the experiences of his boyhood.

das Führen=die Führung, “the guidance'; compare the phrase, er führt ein gutes Leben, he leads a good life.

die Frohnatur is a compound far more expressive than die frohe Natur would be; it denotes a cheerful, merry temper.—The dim. Mütterches expresses affection. Though in the record of his life Goethe speaks of his father much oftener than of his mother, it is well known that he cherished and loved his mother with much greater affection. It may almost be said that the elaborate description he gives of his father's manners and intentions conveys an impression as if Goethe in his later years, when he came to write his life, endeavoured to do justice to a father whose severe and austere rule had been distasteful to the impetuous boy.

fabuliren, lit. 'to invent fables', is used in a wider sense of poetic invention.

Erstes Budy.




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mit dem Glodenschlage Zwölf, when the clock was just striking twelve; precisely at 12 o'clock.

We say both auf and in die Welt fommen.—We may add that Goethe's parents had been married on Tuesday, the 20th August, 1748, when his father was thirty-nine, and his mother eighteen years old.

3. The sentence begins with the general pronoun man, but goes on in the pronoun of the first person plural, wir. Though it would, perhaps, have been preferable to say at once wenn wir uns erinnern wollen, we should observe that Goethe varies his style in this manner in more than one passage, and there is indeed a certain ease, if we may say so, a grata neglegentia, in this construction which does not disgrace a great writer.

in einen Fall kommen, to come into a position. 5. anschauen means 'to behold', to look at something with much attention; hence the adj. anschaulich, that which becomes quite clear on ocular inspection, lucid; er hat uns die Sache mit viel Anschaulichkeit auseinander geseßt, he has explained the subject with much lucidity, very

rly. Anschauende Erfahru may, therefore, be translated by direct experience'.

6. ohnehin, as it is, after all.

7. turchgebrochen, 'broken through’; doors had been broken through the intervening middle wall, and the two adjoining houses had thus been thrown into one. Observe the difference between durchbrechen (v. trans., ich breche durch in the original, mechanical sense) and durchbréchen (ich durchbréche which is used metaphorically); the first forms the past participle turchgebrochen, the second durchbrochen, though this may also be formed from vúrchbrechen; e.g. Grimm explains the present passage in his Wörterb. 2, 1592 by adding man hatte die Wände durchbrochen, and ib. 1591 he quotes from Goethe: die legte Mauerede durchbrochen zeigt einen anınuthig beschatteten Afaziensiß, “an aperture broken (made) in the farthest



edge of the wall shows a pleasant seat shaded by acacia-trees'. But it is only possible to say, er hat alle Schranken des Anstantes durchbrochen, ‘he has broken through all restraints of decency', because this is metaphori. cal; and again, in the reflective, the only possible form is durchgebrochen, e. g. der Dieb hat sich turchgebrochen, 'the thief has broken out.'

8. thurmartig, lit. 'tower-like'; the stair-case was spiral, as is often the case in towers.

9. unzusammenhängend, 'disconnected', i.e. the rooms were not on the same level.

10. ausgleichen, lit. 'to make even', is often used metaphorically of 'smoothing over' a difficulty or remedying' a defect.

eine jüngere Schwester : Goethe's sister Cornelia, who will be mentioned again below, was born on Dec. 7, 1750; she married a clergyman, Schlosser, in 1773 (Lewes b. III ch. 4) and died in 1777 (ib. b. IV ch. 6); in 1779 Goethe, who was then travelling with his friend Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, visited her grave at Emmendingen (ib. b. v ch. 3). She was a gentle creature, and very dear the poet's heart.

12. weitläuftig, very extensive, spacious. In this word the t before the suffix is not justifiable on etymological grounds, and indeed the more correct form remains weitläufig; but besides Goethe, such writers as Klopstock, Lessing, Wieland, and others have used the form with the t.

13. Gitterwerk, lit. ‘framework’; Gitter is, perhaps, more frequently used of an iron trellis-work, an iron gate. There is also another form, Gatter, which evidently approaches the English gate.

14. Vogelbauer, 'bird-cage'. The word Bauer (commonly m., less correctly n.) is the same as the E. bower: M.H.G. der bûr, A.S. bûr, in Gothic probably báurs, from the verb báuan 'to build'. It will thus be seen that the word originally denotes a kind of aviary, in which the birds can build their nests.

15. “In one corner of the hall there is a kind of lattice, opening by an iron or wooden grating upon the street. This is called the Geräms etc.' Lewes, Life of G. b. I ch. 2. This peculiar Southern word consists of the common prefix ge + Rahmen 'a frame'; v. Loeper quotes the cognate words Ofengeräms (from Kurz) and Eisenfrems (from B. Auerbach).

16. lesen is used in the sense commonly borne by the compounds belcsen, auslesen, 'to pick'.


17. ein südliches Ansehen, a southern look; the streets then resembled the streets of a southern town, where much business is transacted outside and in the open air, while in northern towns all is limited to indoor life.

18. sich frei fühlen, to feel free and easy.




lieb gewinnen, to become fond of some one.—gar is more colloquial and affectionate than sehr.

Schultheiß denotes the highest magistrate of the city-of the dignity itself we shall hear more below. The word is a genuine old Teutonic term, derived from Schuld (O.H.G. scult) and the verb heißen, orig. one who orders that duties be fulfilled.

3. In E. we should say, 'in whose house we properly dwelt', or rather 'whose house it properly was in which we dwelt'. Comp. the phrase bei Iemanden zur Miethe wohnen, 'to rent a (or tenement) of some one'.-Goethe's rand other, Cornelia, was 81 years old at the time of the birth of our hero.

4. hinten hinaus, looking towards the back.

5. hin is, strictly speaking, unnecessary, but it enforces the meaning of bis much in the same way as usque does that of ad.

6. gleichsam, as it were, if I may say so. 7. Hager is more than thin' or 'spare’; it means 'tall and thin'

8. Hirschgraben, not 'Stag-Ditch', but rather “Stag-Foss', Graben meaning the ‘moat defensive of a town'. This old moat had been dried up in 1333, and converted into a kind of park, in which deer were kept. The custom mentioned by Goethe was abandoned about the year 1556.

9. "We wished to get an explanation of this expression.'

10. unterhalten, to keep, maintain. Observe the omission of the verb seien or wiren.

II. bewahren, to preserve. The technical expression for this is, however, hegen'.


tas Hérkommen, the tradition, custom. 13. Observe the full form of the past participle, instead of which it would, however, be more common to say verspeist. The verb verspeisen means to eat deliberately and in a dignified manner, while essen is the same process in its everyday aspect.


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