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14.

denn is in reality a mere expletive; we may, however, translate 'thus, therefore'.

15. wenn auch, even if, though.
16. Jagsbefugniß, right of chase.
17. verfümmern, to injure, to spoil; from Kunımer,, sorrow, grief.
18. wohl gar, it might be, even.

19. eine zahme Wildbahn, a park of tame deer. (The 'Zoological Gardens' opened at Frankfort-on-the-Maine in 1856 may now be said to fulfil this desideratum.)

It is, perhaps, more usual to say, zu unseren Zeiteu or in unserer Zcit.

20.

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The boy was fond of this room, because it awakened in his breast longings (Sehnsucit) for the open country that could be espied from it.

2. Sommerszeit is a somewhat rare employment of the accusative, instead of zur Sommerzeit (omitting also the 8 in the compound). Sanders (Wörterb.) quotes from Bahrdt (a writer of the eighteenth century): nur Sommerszeit wurten sie auf den freien Plaß geführt, ‘only in summer-time were they led out into the open space'; and from Zinkgräff (17th century): ein Schalk gieng Winterszeit über die Gas, “a roguish fellow was walking across the road in winter-time'.

3. ein Gewitter abwarten, to wait until a thunder-storm is over. aba in the compound means 'to the end'.

4. sich an etwas satt sehen, to look one's fill at something, to satisfy one's self with looking at something.

5. wanteln= lustwandeln, to walk (pace) up and down (for the sake of enjoyment and recreation).

6. besorgen is said emphatically of 'tending' the flowers.

7. sich ergeben, 'to enjoy oneself', is now commonly both spelt and pronounced with an ö instead of e; but we have thought it right to preserve Goethe's own mode of spelling, which is, moreover, borne out by etymological reasons.

8. The student will do well to observe that Goethe is fond of using the neuters of adjectives instead of abstract nouns—which is indeed à peculiarity of the German language as well as of the Greek (tó kalóv, tas Schöne, which Lord Lytton ventured to translate the

IO.

II.

12.

BEAUTIFUL'.)—as Ahnungsvolle means a tendency towards presenti. m.ents, a presaging mind.

9. die Folge =bie Folgezeit, is especially used in the phrase we have in the text. The citations in Grimm's Wörterb. 1873 show how fond Goethe was of this word.

der Prospect, here 'the view'.

der Vater is more stately because less usual, than mein Vater.

ein Stich means “an engraving'. 13. Vorgänger, “predecessor'; but “successor' is Nachfolger. There is no word Nachgänger; a similar word, Nachtreter, denotes a servile imitator, who follows in the track of another.

•The Roman painter Giambattista Piranesi (or Piraneze) published a splendid work Le Antichità Romane (Rome 1756, 4 vols. fol.) with the designs of Roman buildings and monuments, and with explanations of them. Von LOEPER. Piranesi, a celebrated architect and engraver, was a native of Venice, but resided at Rome during the greater part of his life. 'He was remarkable for a bold and free style of etching...he worked with such rapidity and diligence, that the magni. tude and number of his plates almost exceed belief, and they are executed with a spirit and genius which are altogether peculiar to him... Antichità Romane comprised in 218 plates of atlas paper, commencing by a topographical view of ancient Rome, made out from the fragments of a most curious antique plan of the city found in the pavement of the temple of Romulus, and now preserved in the museum at the Capitol.... The exact time of his death we have not been able to learn, but it is supposed to have happened in, or near, the year 1780. From the Biographical Dictionary (1798), vol. XII p. 243—245, where 12 great works of Piranesi are enumerated.

14.

15. sich auf etwas verstehen, to be skilful in something. These men were masters of perspective and architecture.

16. Nadel = Ratirnadel, etching-needle. The etchings of these masters were very clear and valuable, i.e. they were valuable on account of being so very clear and distinct.

17. The Piazza del Popolo (“Place of the People') is a large open place at Rome, at the foot of the Monte Pincio. From this place four streets diverge, which are among the most frequented of modern Rome, especially the Corso and the Strada Riparia.

18. Coliseo is the modern appellation of the immense amphitheatre erected by the emperor Vespasian (70—79 A. D.). Now

A ruin-yet what ruin! from its mass
Walls, palaces, half-cities, have been reared;
Yet oft the enormous skeleton we pass,

And marvel where the spoil could have appear'd. These words of Byron's (Childe Harold IV 143) contain an allusion to the fact that Pope Paul II. employed the stones of the Coliseo for erecting part of the Palace of S. Marco at Venice; in the same barbarous manner, the ruins of the Coliseo were despoiled for the erection of the present Palazzo Farnese and of the Cancellaria. In the middle ages, these extensive ruins served as a kind of quarry for the feudal pobles of Rome—and after all these spoliations they are still immense !.

19. die Petersfirche, St Peter's Church at Rome, the most important monument of the architectural style of the Renaissance, commenced under Pope Nicolas V. in the middle of the fifteenth century according 10 a design by Rossellini, recommenced in 1506 under the direction of Donato Bramante, and then after various interruptions finished by Michel Angelo and his successors, though the present immense building was not completed before the 17th century, the last parts having been carried out by Bernini in a very doubtful taste. Der Petersplaß is in front of the church. The proudest Church of Roman Catholicism may at the same time be said to have not a little contributed to the Reformation, inasmuch as Luther's indignation was roused by the impudent and impious manner, in which the indulgences granted by Leo X. were sold and hawked about in Germany by a monk of the name of Tetzel—the profits of which shameless iraffic were to go towards the erection of St Peter's Church.

die Engelsburg, Castel San Angelo, the modern name of the vast structure originally erected by the emperor Hadrian (117–138) as his sepulchre; in the middle ages it served as a kind of stronghold for the Popes in their numerous feuds with the Roman nobles and citizens, and was finally converted into its present shape under the direction of the architect Giuliano da San Gallo (di Bartolo), who had also a certain share in the erection of St Peter's Church. The name is derived from the figure of the angel loftily surmounting the whole fabric.

21. lafonisch, laconic, originally denoting the brevity and terseness of expression peculiar to the Lacedæmonians (AáKwves). The well.

20.

known Greek writer Plutarch (second century after Christ) has left us a collection of such ‘Laconic' sayings.

22. Gefälligkeit, kindness'. Er thut mir dies zu Gefallen, he does this to please me, as a favour.

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ausgesprochen, 'pronounced'; the German bearing all the different shades of meaning of the English word.

Redaction denotes the careful and detailed correction and elabora. tion of an original rough sketch. Redacteur is in German frequently used to denote the editor of a newspaper or journal.—We may add that Goethe's father had travelled in Italy in 1740.

3. heftweise, 'one book after the other'. Heft is a number of sheets stitched together (zusammen geheftet); hence Heft often used in the sense of the French cahier, 'a copy-book', and for the numbers of a publication (livraison, lieferung).

4. The German editor v. Loeper observes that no Italian teacher of that name has hitherto been traced by the Frankfort scholars, who have been very careful in their investigations concerning this period. But I should suspect that Giovinazzi was merely the 'sobriquet' by which the merry old man was known in the Goethe family: 'a youth'.

5. Instead of daran, it would perhaps have been more usual to say tabei.

6. sich bequemen etwas zu thun means that you must needs do something for certain considerations which you would not have done of your own free will.

7. Goethe has preferred the foreign expression to the German begleiten, which we use in the same sense.

8. Goethe alludes to a stanza by Metastasio, a famous and fertile Italian poet of the 18th century (born at Rome Jan. 6, 1698, died April 12, 1782), who wrote many opera-books. The stanza is as follows

Solitario, o bosco ombroso,
A te vien l'afflitto cor,
Per trovar qualche riposo

Nel silenzio e nell' orror. O shady bushes, to your solitude comes the sad heart, to find some rest in your silence and in your awe.' This was a favourite song of the period.

9. By means of the suffix Haft we form adjectives denoting tendency, bent, inclination : lehrhaft, inclined to teach, of a didactic nature; lebřaft, inclined to live, lively, vivid, etc.

10. Goethe means that his father had not much real work to do, and was therefore glad to find an occupation to fill up his time.

II. wissen denotes the theoretic, and vermögen the practical side of his accomplishments.

12. nothdürftig, “just enough for urgent necessity'; she acquired just enough to satisfy her husband's expectations, not a whit more.

13. tie Freistunre, leisure-hour, leisure-time. 14. hinlänglich, sufficient'; es langt means 'it suffices, it will do'. 15. Compare the Latin phrase finis coronat opus.

16. Puppenspiel, “puppet-show'. We have still many of the puppetplays that used to be exhibited on the stages of these theatres: they have been collected by Carl Engel, Deutsche Puppenkomödien, Oldenburg, Schulze. (Puppe by itself means 'a doll'.) It may be interesting to know that the beaux restes of the Puppenspiel which the good grandmother presented to her grandsons, at Christmas, 1753— the last she lived to see —are still to be seen among the curiosities of the Public Library at Frankfort-on-the-Maine.

17. nachtlingen denotes the weaker vibrations of the sound, after the chief tone has passed away. The use of the prep. in with the acc. is peculiar, to denote the result into which the sounding is finally resolved. A very free, but still not an incorrect translation would be 'which continued to vibrate with a great and lasting effect'. (Oxenford).

18. das stumme Personal, 'the mute (speechless) personages' are the dolls (marionettes), by means of which the plays are acted. Observe that Personal, being a foreign word, is pronounced with the accent on the last syllable.

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1. dramatische Belebung, 'dramatic vivification’; by being employer! for acting, a kind of life was breathed into the lifeless actors' of the puppet-show.

2. mußte should be translated with an adverbial expression ('of necessity, of course'), and the infin. sein should become the finite verb.

3. Frau Cornelia Goethe was born in 1668, and died on March 28, 1754, about three months after she had so greatly rejoiced her grandi.

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