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sequence is, that they become either Christ and cominunion with Christians, so blindly prejudiced as to think noth- taking their leave of all religion, this ing right but what they themselves be. is to separate themselves by plain lieve and practise, or so indiscrimi- apostacy." (Serm. on St. Jude.) The nately latitudinarian as to be indiffer- unity of the Christian church, therefore, ent to all, and put the smallest and the in its external communion and order, weightiest matters of religion on the the conductors of the Gospel, Advocate same level. In either case, all inquiry consider as essential to the promotion of is precluded. Contempt, before exami- godliness; and any principle which nation, effectually prevents the renun- tends to perpetuate the divisions, now ciation of errour, and the acquisition existing among Christians is, in their of truth.
view, fraught with incalculable evils. To that liberality, then, which is, It is not, then, the spirit of party, in fact, an indifference to religious but a spirit which would blend and truth, they lay no claim. Where harmonize all parties, which leads there are so many discordant opinions, thein to insist upon the necessity of they can neither consider all as equally external order. It is a deep convicright, nor can they think it a matter tion, founded on the declarations of of little consequence, what religious God, and the experience of ages, that sentiments are adopted. In their view schism is the parent of confusion, and the scriptures are to be approached the greatest impediment to the progress with awful reverence; and examined, of the Christian faith. Like the build. and searched into, with all the lights ers on the walls of Jerusalem,who held which the Christian church can afford, a weapon in one hand, and wrought and with a continual recollection that with the other, half the energy of our we shall render an account at the bar lives is lost in the labour of defence. of God, for the manner in which we If Christians were united ; is priesthood interpret his word.
were not erected against priesthood, When the points about which '
men and altar against altar; how much differ, are confessedly of small impor. would the cultivation of religious affectance; or when they are such as de- tions be enlarged, and how much pend upon human judgment, then stronger would be our efforts for the diversity of sentiment is to be borne extension of the Redeemer's kingdom ! with mutual toleration, and Christians But while the conductors of the Gos. are bound by the most sacred obliga- pel Advocate lament that the unboly tions not to separate from each other. passions of men have thrown so many “ Men do separate themselves," says obstacles into the path of Christianity, Hooker, “ either by heresy, schism, or they are are not so visionary as to supapostacy. If they loose the bond of pose that an immediate stop can be put faith, which then they are justly suppos- to these disorders. That there will be ed to do, when they frowardly oppugn a time, when not only political animoany principal point of Christian doc- sities will cease, but when the weapons trine, this is to separate themselves by of religious warfare will also be exheresy. If they break the bond of changed for the implements of God's unity, whereby the body of the church husbandry, they firmly believe ; but is coupled and knit in one, as they do the time is not yet; and while the great which wilfully forsake all external com principles of Christianity are warmly munion with saints in holy exercises, and obstinately assailed, they consipurely and orderly established in the der it as their duty to put on the church, this is to separate themselves armour of God, and contend earnestly by schisin. If they willingly cast off for the faith once delivered to the and utterly forsake both profession of saints. For religious controversy, as such, they have no relish, and if called investigator, of which they will easily to engage in it, will do so with reluc- understand the value. tance; but they should consider them. It is not, however, to these alone selves as betraying their trust, if they that its advantages, are confined ; it did not point out, whenever occasion was, therefore, equally hailed by the requires, the dangers which menace admirers of sound truth and orthodoxy, their faith; if they did not endeavour for that which was announced in the to detect the covert approaches of in- very title as the professed object of its sidious errour ; if they did not fortify publication--the illustration and critithe points of attack; if they did not cism of the new testament. That it utter the cry of the sentinel upon the has thrown light upon passages whose watch-tower, and rouse their fellow beauty was comparatively hidden; Christians from the slumbers of igno- confirmed dubious expositions ; estabrance and apathy.
lished contested doctrines ; and settled Happy shall they think themselves these tov upon irrefragable arguments, when they can be permitted to imitate founded in the very nature of lanthe example of the illustrious Roman guage; will, in a majority of cases, dictator,* by retiring from the combat by the unbiassed and candid inquirer, to the labours of the field. Happy be admitted without hesitation. In shall they think themselves when they these, therefore, we may remain satiscan be occupied solely in gathering fied with what the luminous writer has those fruits of the tree of life, which effected : there are, however, unfortuare for the healing of the nations, and nately, some exceptions to his general which will make men live for ever. rules, which, though converted, by his
peculiar explanation, into new illustrations of his plan, must strike, almost at
first sight, as contradictory to what he For the Gospel Advocate.
has, in his first part, so successfully enWORD Nóuss, AS IT deavoured to establish. These contraOCCURS IN THE AN ARTHROUS FORM IN dictions, if I mistake not, will be ST. PAUL'S EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS. rather found in omissions, than in inIT
was, I believe, with no small feel- sertions of the article ; and indeed in ings of delight, that every lover of the the former rather than the latter would Greek language welcomed some years
errours of this nature at all times be ago the
appearance of bishop Middle. likely to consist. Now in some of the ton's acute and elaborate work, on the instances to which I have alluded, no nature and uses of the article. The exposition but that which is forced and knowledge before that tiine revealed unnatural can in any way obviate the on this most interesting philological difficultyand in others I think none point
, was extreinely scanty and unde- can be admitted, which does not carry fined; and where truth did in reality
its own refutation upon its very face.
We are reduced then to admit the exexist, it was not systematized into any methodical rules. Our learned author,
istence of some anarthrous words in the condensing all that was best from the new testament, which, from whatever materials already afloat, reducing it to cause they arise, must in some measure, one comprehensive plan, and adding to invalidate Middleton's theory of the uses the stock the fruits of his own observa. of the article by the sacred writers, tion, has formed a book of reference for except by adopting solutions which are the classical scholar, and the critical either improbable or impossible.
Yet, if these things be so, are . Cincinnatus.
not at once deprived of all certainty of
REMARKS ON THE
calculation, drawn from the article as are allowed to words even where they a ground of argument? This might at occur in the most definite sense, and first appear to be the case: there is, which have been so ably stated and however, a distinction to be made be arranged in the first part of Middleton's tween the different inodes of its occur. treatise. The learned bishop affirms rence and omission, which will throw the uniform appearance of the article considerable light upon our inquiries. before this word, where the law, or There are times in which the reasons the body of the Jewish scriptures is of the changes are so obvious and so alluded to by the apostle ; bis reinark precisely marked, that any mind con- being limited by the following terms : versant with the subject would, without “ It is obvious, that were this rule withdifficulty, perceive them. Upon these out exception, an important step would then we inay take a decided stand; be gained; for at least we should as the certainty of grammatical rule no know, when the Jewish law is meant by general reasoning may shake, and no the apostle, which is now so often, sweeping cavils can destroy. And if even among the best commentators, a the question still recurs, why the same subject of dispute : but if there be exprecision did not uniformly prevail in ceptions, and these have no certain the new testament writers, which on character, then plainly they destroy the soine occasions they have observed, we rule, and it is on account of these exare undoubtedly at a loss for an ex- ceptions that the rule seems now to be planation. The possibility of a various pretty generally abandoned. My obreading must often be withheld as a servation, however, has led me to conplea, owing to the silence of every clude, that the rule is liable to no manuscript that is extant: and what other exceptions than those by which, ever other apology may be advanced, as bas been shown in this work, words must be taken according to its value. the most definite are frequently affectThat the article has in some cases been ed." p. 239. It is my intention to attended to, and in others neglected, take up successively every passage in still remains a tact.
the epistle to the Romans in which These observations were suggested voreog occurs in the anarthrous form, by some late inquiries into the much those cases being of course omitted, in contested subject, with which I have which Middleton's rules will account headed this communication. The sig. for the omission of the article ; and to nification of the Nóuos of St. Paul, in endeavour to show how far each of some of its anarthrous cases, will per. these passages may be alleged, either haps be found to corroborate in some as a support, or a contradiction to his measure niy objections to Middleton's hypothesis. theory, as one of universal application. The places in the epistle in which This writer is, I believe, the only one youths without the article occurs, excluwho has laid down any precise stand. sive of the exceptions to which we ard of judgment on a point of such have already adverted, are noted by constant dispute : for Macknight, though Schmidius as the following: ii. 25; iii. maintaining the article to be for the 31 ; v. 20; vii. 1, 23; and xiii. 8. most part prefixed to róulos, when the To each of these in their order. meaning of the laws of Moses is dis- 1. The first of our references, ji. 25, tinctively attached to it, ventures to stands in these words : Neget ouzh per go no farther. He has therefore given γαρ ωφελεί, εάν νόμον πράσσης: έαν δε us no reason for its occasional absence, παραβάτης νόμο ής, η περιτομή του ακροeven where the signification of the Curria géyoven. Our principal concern word remains unaltered; but probably here is with vápcov ; but for the conhe was not aware of the licenses which nexion, we give the whole verse.
Before we proceed to examine di- concerned ; which, taken in connexion - rectly the propriety of Middleton's with its context, defines the extent of signification adopted in this place, it voucos beyond all power of evasion. may be as well to notice a parenthetical Referring to ver. 25, as above given objection which the author advances, in its precise words, we find that upon the supposition of the article being after yomon agárons, immediately occurs in the present case inserted. “ Πράσσειν in opposition παράβατης νόμου. Now TON vópov," says be," would not be very that the same vópos is the subject of intelligible.” The bishop has not defi- each of these expressions, whatever nitely stated wherein the obscurity of meaning it be proved to contain, is the phrase would properly consist: evident at the slightest notice, and inSchleusner however applies to véros deed has never been disputed. But here the usual translation of the Mosa. let it be particularly remarked, that in ick law; and to reárow not the first and ver. 27, almost immediately following, most common, but a very allowable we meet again with παραβάτης νόμου, in and frequent rendering, observo. This which there is a plain reference to the sense is moreover strengthened, not hagabatrs vópou of ver. 25; both these, only by the Purecons of the Codex therefore, are to be considered as one Claromontanus, but still more by the and the same. But these very words opposition of regulérns immediately in ver. 27 contain a direct and pointed following; and answers precisely to opposition to tov vómov Tidoñox' in the 50:6w, as found in Gal. v. 3. öjor còr same verse ; i. e. there is a compari. Vékov toiñou. Upon this passage Mid- son which no explanation can do away, dleton has no remark; I suppose, between the observer and the transtherefore, he admits yópeoy there to be gressor Tš vóus, of the Mosaick law. the Mosaick law, xat' itoxnin; as I do Applying then the same signification to not perceive that o'Xov occurring before the vóred and by consequence to the the article in any way affects its signi- νόμον of ver. 25, νόμων πράσσης is limited fication. The two places then afford to a meaning directly opposed to the ing examples of the same form of ex- hypothesis of the bishop: and the pression, it might easily be established, whole sentence will thus stand, in the if there were no other confirmations of correct language of our version : For its propriety; for moulw and agáriu in circumcision verily profiteth, if thou this sense are equally common in the keep the law ; but if thou be a breaker classick and the sacred writers. of the law, thy circumcision is made un
This being premised, let us look circumcision. into the ground our author takes, in 11. Our next passage in the series, opposition to the more common mode as found in iii. 31, is thus expressed. of interpreting the passage before us. Νόμων ούν καταργούμεν δια της πίστεως ;
Νόμων πράσσης. Here it is plain, that μη γένοιτο. αλλά νόμον ιστώμεν. The by vómoy without the article we are to many and totally distinct interpretaunderstand, not the law itself, but tions assigned by the different criticks moral obedience or virtue, such as it to this place, are of themselves a suffi. was the object of the law to inculcate, cient proof of the danger of all attempts and of which circumcision was the to draw it from its proper reference to outward and visible sign." To say some part, whatever that may be, of nothing of the application of the rese- the old testament scriptures. If we rences given by bishop Middleton, in suppose vópos to contain here, as in support of this signification of the word, other places, the signification of the I rather think that meaning is extreme. Mosaick law, it will perfectly barly rare. The place before us, how- monize with the whole design and arever, is that alone with which we are gument of the discussion immediately
preceding. The chapter is addressed ing this end, he adopts the means most principally to Jews; and its object is likely to promote it, in commending to show them to be, equally with the himself alternately to the Jew and to gentiles, incapable of justification by the gentile; the first tenacious, and the deeds of the law, through the non- the second envious, of the prerogatives performance of a perfect obedience. of the Mosaick dispensation. It is very The present verse anticipates and an easy to perceive, that at the commenceswers the question of an objecting coun- ment of these words St. Paul is qualitryman ; the law is not rendered nuga. fying the observations which had pretory, but established.
ceded, by a well-timed indulgence to I should rather myself, however, in the feelings of an Israelite, and an the present instance, assign to vólcov, acknowledgment of some of the benefits with a German critick, a signification accruing from that law, which was the more broad, but equally well defined ; theme of his exultation and his love. and then connect this concluding verse They are addressed then principally to with the illustrations immediately fol- the Jew; and nothing but anxious zeal lowing. “ Teneo significationem you for an hypothesis could ever have disvópeau eam, quam adhuc constanter fre- torted them from their application. quentatam vidimus, oracula v. t. quæ- But it will be necessary to be rather libet. Jam vero xata YEW doctrinam minute on this point, as the opposite aliquam dicitur etiam is, qui falsam eam conjecture has, it must be allowed, esse declarat, contra eam disputat, eam some weight of plausibility to defend refellit; vicissim eandem ioræver dicitur, it. The objections to my adopted inqui eam tuetur, defendit, novis argu- terpretation may be ranked under two mentis confirmat. Unde sententia loci heads, which I shall examine and en. hæc prodit : num vero pugnat hæc mea deavour to meet. doctrina cum iis, quæ libris vestris ss. The first is of a nature purely phihactenus tradita accepistis? Imo vero lological. Macknight, and with him amice cum iis consentit, variisque ho- Middleton, contends, "that magsioner rum ipsorum librorum locis egregie cannot be said of the law of Moses, illustratur et confirmatur. vid. ad init. since it signifies entered privily,' as cap. iv.” Koppii Nov. Testament. vol. in Gal. ii. 4, the only instance besides iv. Gott. 1806, in loco.--The meaning, the present, in which the word occurs according to either of the above inter- in the whole new testament. So also pretations, would require the pre. the similarly compounded words **sence of the article by Middleton's percaya, 2 Peter ji. 1. Tugevra 1785. Gal. hypothesis. Yet upon this passage, I ii. 4. Tagalodów, Jude, ver. 4. But should not choose to insist ch. There the Alosaick law was ushered into the is certainly no exact criterion of judg. world with all possible pomp and noment to form an opinion upon so nice a toriety.” (Middleton, in loco.) All the point; though probability goes very far difficulty here supposed to exist in the for either of the versions I have noticed. limited sense of the vóros, is founded,
II. In v. 20, the anarthrous voulos is it would seem, upon the assumption, easily reduced to its most definite that Tagaloģ20cv refers simply to the sense, and will admit no other in its act of conferring this law; than which, place. Nópos de Tagaloñadev, tuce #Aso- I must confess, nothing appears to me νάση το παράπτωμα. The apostle's farther from the intention of the apostle. object through the whole of his dis- St. Paul is evidently describing its cussion, and peculiarly in the present operation ; and not any way adverting context, is to establish the necessity of to the exact mode of its entrance upon a justification by faith, as opposed to the earth, and becoming manifest to the works of any law: but in subsery- men. If so, then, Taguionadev is used in