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"As I had previously learnt that my journey would not be extended by visiting the missionary settlement among the Cherokees, I determined to take Brainerd in my way; and proceeded through Alabama and East Tennessee, to the northeast corner of the state of Georgia, where it is situated."

"At the foot of the Cumberland mountains we slept in a solitary hut, where we found a neat old woman, of 70 or 80 years of age, very busily engaged in spinning. A young clergyman, who had been visiting Brainerd, was also driven in by heavy rain; and his offers to conduct family worship were thankfully accepted by our hostess and her son.

"We reached Brainerd early on the 1st of June, [1820] and remained till the following morning. The manner of proceeding was so similar to that at Elliot, that it is unnecessary to describe it. Indeed, this institution was originally formed by some of the missionaries, who afterward went on to establish the settlement at Elliot.

"The number of Cherokee children amounted to about eighty; and, in addition to these, were two little Osage Indians, who had been rescued from captivity by benevolent interference. One of them was a little girl, whose owner, at the time she was found, was carrying the scalps of her father and mother. He was induced to part with her for about 301. generously advanced for her ransom by a lady at New Orleans. Her simple tale of sufferings was a long and melancholy one, and the little boy's constitution was nearly broken by ill usage.

"I was informed here, that many of the Indians evinced, at first, an indisposition to labour in the field, especially as the females were entirely exempted from the task: but they soon acquiesced; and exhibited, on this Occasion, the docility and good-humour, of which their teachers (perhaps with excusable partiality) represent them as possessing a more than common share. One of the chiefs offered to find a slave who should work all day, if the missionaries would excuse his son from agricultural labour between schoolhours; but he was easily convinced of his mistake, and apologized for his ill-judged request.

"I was much gratified by hearing the children sing their Cherokee hymns: and many ancient prophecies came forcibly to my re

collection, when joining, in this Indian coun-
try, with Americans, Indians, and Africans,
in singing the following verse of one of our

"Let every nation, every tribe,
"On this terrestrial ball,
"To him full majesty ascribe,

"And crown him Lord of all.

"Some negroes attended family prayer; and many come from a considerable distance to publick worship, on Sunday. I was told, indeed, that there were instances of their walking twenty miles over the mountains, and returning the same day.

"What animation would an occasional glance at Elliot or Brainerd infuse into our missionary committees! and how cheering to many a pious collector of one shilling per week, would be the sight of her Indian sisters, rescued from their degraded condition, and instructed in the school of Christ! What, though we are but the hewers of wood or drawers of water for our more honoured and enterprising brethren, our humble labours, feeble and desultory as they are, and ever attended by imperfections by which their efficiency is much impaired, are still a link in the chain of human agency, by which God is pleased to accomplish his purposes of mercy to a fallen world.

"With respect to the degree in which the efforts of the missionaries have already been successful, in reference to the spiritual interests of their heathen brethren, they do not expect the harvest, when only beginning to break up the soil. They are aware, also, that, in a subject in which their hopes and fears are so sensibly alive, they are in danger of being misled by very equivocal symptoms, and even where they believe that they discern the fairest promise, they shrink from the idea of blazoning forth to the world, as decisive evidence of conversion, every favourable indication of a change of heart. Still, however, even in this respect, and at this early stage of their exertions, they have the gratification of believing that their labour has not been in vain.

"Soon after leaving Brainerd, I crossed the river Tennessee, which here forms the boundary of the Cherokee nation.

"Reflections on the State and Prospects of the Indians.

"I now bade a last adieu to Indian territory; and, as I pursued my solitary ride through the woods, I insensibly fell into a train of melancholy reflections on the eventful history of this injured race.

"Sovereigns, from time immemorial, of the

interminable forests which overshadow this vast continent, they have gradually been driven, by the white usurpers of their soil, within the limits of their present precarious possessions. One after another of their favourite rivers has been reluctantly abandoned, until the range of the hunter is bounded by lines prescribed by his invader, and the independence of the warriour is no more. Even their present territory is partitioned out in reversion; and intersected with the prospective boundaries of surrounding states, which appear in the maps, as if Indian title were actually extinguished, and these ancient warriours were already driven from the land of their fathers.

"Of the innumerable tribes, which, a few centuries since, roamed, fearless and independent, in their native forests, how many have been swept into oblivion, and are with the generations before the flood! Of others, not a trace remains but in tradition, or in the person of some solitary wanderer, the last of his tribe, who hovers like a ghost among the sepulchres of his fathers-a spark still faintly glimmering in the ashes of an extinguished


"From this gloomy review of the past his tory of these injured tribes, it was refreshing to turn to their future prospects; and to contemplate those missionary labours, which, under the blessing of God, are arresting the progress of that silent waste, by which they were fading rapidly from the map of nations. Partial success, indeed, had followed the occasional efforts of the American government for the civilization of the Indians, but it was reserved for the perseverance of disinterested Christian love, to prove, to the world at large, the practicability of an undertaking which had often been abandoned in despair. "Moral obstacles, which had bid defiance to worldly policy or interested enterprise, are yielding to a simple confidence in the promises of God, and a faithful compliance with the divine commands-Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. Christians, of different denominations, are sending labourers to the task; and it is animating, indeed, to contemplate the United States in the name, as it were, and as the representative of the various nations who have participated in the wrongs inflicted on this injured race-preparing to offer the noblest compensation in their power, and to diffuse the gospel throughout the Aborigines of this western world.

"And, surely, if any arguments were necessary in support of missions, in addition to those derived from the force of the divine commands, and the suggestions of diffusive charity, we should find them in the history of the early intercourse of Christian Europe with Asia, Africa, and America. Or if, viewing

the wide range and growing energies of British missions, a deep sense of our defective efforts should at any time be insufficient to repress every feeling of self-complacence, we have but to recollect how large a portion of the past labours of our missionaries has been consumed, in eradicating the vicious habits which we have introduced into some heathen nations, or in dispelling the prejudices which our inconsistent conduct has diffused through others."


It is with great pleasure that we lay before our readers the following prospectus of "the Family Prayer Book," which the bishop of Connecticut intends to publish, if the design should meet with that patronage which it doubtless will deserve, and which, we trust, it will obtain. The prospectus itself, toge ther with the subsequent approbation and encouragement of the design by the other bishops, renders any further remarks superfluous. We wish only to express our own conviction of its utility, and warmly to recommend the work to the notice of our

readers. We understand that a person will shortly visit this part of New England, for the purpose of obtaining subscriptions.

of Common Prayer, &c. accompanied by a The Family Prayer Book: or the Book General Commentary, historical, explanatory, doctrinal, and practical. Compiled from the tions and additions accommodated to the most approved liturgical works, with alterathe United States. By Thomas C. Brownell, liturgy of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Bishop of the diocese of Connecticut.


The church of England has been eminently distinguished in the Christian world, by the labours of her scholars and divines, for the advancement of sacred learning, and the promotion of piety. No work, with the exception of the bible, has profited so richly by these labours, as her Book of Common Prayer. The history of its several offices has been successfully defended and established, and the whole has been commended to the judgment by the most ample illustration, and enforced upon the conscience and the heart, by the most earnest practical appeals. But the works of these writers, on the liturgy, are diffused through a great number of volumes. Some of them have become, in a measure, obsolete in their style; and some of the most valuable of them are hardly to be obtained, even in England; while no complete work on the liturgy has yet been published in this country. The result has been, that those who wished to profit by such works could only gratify their inclinations at great ex

pense, and with much difficulty; while a very large portion of the members of our church remain but imperfectly instructed in the full import of those services which constitute the formulary of her worship, and the administration of her sacraments.

A judicious compilation from the works of the best English writers on the liturgy, so comprehensive as to contain all that would be most interesting and useful, and yet at so moderate a price that it might be brought into general use, would be a valuable acquisition to the church. It will be the object of the editor to endeavour to supply this desideratum, in the best manner that his judgment and his leisure will permit.

The title of his contemplated work (in the preparation of which he has made considerable progress) is placed at the head of this prospectus. In the prosecution of such a work, originality of composition would be less valued than a judicious selection from the writings of others. It is his intention to present the commentary on the morning and evening prayers of the church, in his own language, and somewhat at large; condensing what has been said by many writers into single articles, attached to each particular part of the service. As this portion of the work will probably be most frequently read in a devotional way, such an arrangement would seem to be useful, to preserve the connexion, and to prevent those interruptions which must otherwise occur, in passing from the observations of one writer to those of another. In most other parts of the work, and always, when any doctrinal point is involved, the name of the authors will be annexed to the remarks and on all controverted questions, those writers will be appealed to, who have been most distinguished for their judgment, learning, and piety, and whose opinions have received the most unanimous sanction of the church. Those comments, for which the editor may feel himself responsible, either as their author, or as having collected them from various sources with alterations, will be designated by the initials of his name subjoined to them.

It will be a leading object in the proposed work, to notice all the alterations of the English liturgy, which have been made by the compilers of our American book; and to state, as far as practicable, the considerations on which they were founded. In the performance of this task, the venerable presiding bishop has kindly promised his assistance. It is well known, that this excellent prelate took a principal part in the re-organization of our church, at the close of the revolution. No other man living is so well qualified to explain the views by which our first general conventions were actuated, in their revision of the liturgy. From his promised aid, as

well as from information he has already communicated to the publick in his valuable Memoirs of the Church, of which a free use will be made, it is hoped that this subject will receive a satisfactory elucidation; and that, on this account, the present work will acquire an interest to which it could not otherwise aspire.

In the use of the English commentators, it is intended to make alterations and additions, accommodated to the state of the American branches of the church; and on some subjects, illustrations will be sought, in the writings of American bishops, and other clergy.

The several parts of the liturgy will afford a wide range for comment and reflection. The history of their respective derivations, the ideas they were severally designed to convey or to excite, the doctrines of faith and practice which they inculcate or recognise; all these topicks will, as occasion may offer, occupy the attention of the compiler; but it will be his main design to give the whole work a practical character, for the purpose of recommending it to the use of families, and as a help to their domestick devotions. He is persuaded that many, who habitually use the book of common prayer, have a very imperfect apprehension of the full import of its several offices, and catch but a faint inspiration from that spirit of piety which animates them.

If, by collecting together the lights which have been shed upon it, he can become a guide to its clearer comprehension, and a more pious use of it, his labours will not have been in vain. THOMAS C. BROWNELL. New Haven, April 4, 1822.

The views of the bishops of our church, in relation to the publication of this work, may be collected from the following letters

and extracts.

Philadelphia, Dec. 29, 1821. Rt. Rev. and Dear Sir,

I have just now received your letter of the that you twenty sixth instant, informing me, contemplate the preparing and the publishing of a book of common prayer, with a commentary on the different services, accommodated to the alterations of the English liturgy by our American church. The last circumstance is especially desirable, there being as yet nothing of the kind. And your connecting the commentary with the text, will very much further the purpose of introducing the former into families, and of promoting a more general information of the grounds of our institutions. Wishing you success in your undertaking, I remain your affectionate brother, WM. WHITE.

I do cordially concur in the foregoing sen timents of the presiding bishop.


Though we have several commentaries on our prayer book, and explanations of the liturgy, I am decidedly of opinion, that no one of them is exactly what is wanted in families, and for common use. A work of this kind, so judiciously compiled as to comprise what is most essential and interesting in the history and exposition of the book of common prayer, with the addition of a much larger proportion than we usually have of practical remarks, calculated to promote the right use of it, would be a valuable acquisition to our theological libraries; and I rejoice to learn, that you think of devoting some part of your time to such a work. I am, respectfully, your friend and brother, ALEX. V. GRISWOLD,

Bristol, Jan. 4, 1822.

Richmond, Virginia, Jan. 19, 1822.
Rt. Rev. and Dear Sir,
I have received

your communication upon the subject of the liturgy, and shall be happy in affording you every encouragement in the accomplishment and circulation of your intended work.

Never was there a system of devotional exercises constructed with so much piety, or so well calculated to meet the views of an intelligent worshipper. It is my fervent prayer, that the same spirit which animated those who arranged the service of the church, may accompany your efforts in the explanation of its beauties, and the recommendation of its observance.

With sentiments of unfeigned regard, believe me, right reverend and dear sir, your affectionate friend and brother,


Baltimore, Jan. 3, 1822.

Rt. Rev. and Dear Sir,

I am very much pleased to learn, that you have determined to carry into effect the design you were pleased to intimate to me, at the last convention, with regard to the commentary on the book of common prayer. It will be a most valuable acquisition to the Episcopal families in the United States. The "family bible," and this commentary, will constitute a very complete domestick library. With sincere regard and affection, I am your brother in Christ, JAS. KEMP.

New Brunswick, Jan. 8, 1822.

Rt. Rev. and Dear Sir,

The compilation of a commentary on the common prayer book of our church, which you express a design to undertake, will doubtless be a very useful and laudable work. For, though many excellent commentaries already exist, they are in the hands of but few persons; partly from the circumstance, that they are not adapted to the book of common prayer of the American church, as altered from that of the church of England; and partly from the scarcity of copies.

Besides; but few people can conveniently bear the expense of purchasing a number of works on the same subject. A careful and judicious compilation from the most esteemed among them, adapted to the common prayer book of the American church, would therefore put it in the power of many persons, especially clergyman with small salaries, to furnish themselves with whatever is most use

ful of such necessary information. Your design, therefore, meets with my approbation, and I heartily wish you success in the per

formance of it.

With very great regard and affection, I am, right reverend and dear sir, your friend and brother, JOHN CROES.

Charleston, Jan. 20, 1822.

Rt. Rev. and Dear Sir,

The work which you are contemplating is certainly a desideratum; and may be made the vehicle, throughout our church in these states, of a kind of information which is too little found among its members. The old standard works on the common prayer are not to be had by people in general; and the more recent popular works, of which I esteem Shepherd's (unhappily left unfinished) the most, having not been reprinted in this country, are very little known. Persuaded that practical Christianity can in no way be better promoted, than by causing the book of common prayer to be rightly understood and used, I look upon your design with very great satisfaction, and trust it will be blest to a result both honourable and useful to the church.

I am, dear sir, with very great regard, your friend and brother, N. BOWEN.


Several communications, besides those already noticed, have been received, and will be inserted as our limits will permit. The remarks of a Parish Minister will be given in our next. They would have had an earlier insertion, but the review, which embraces in part the same subject, was already in type when this communication was received.



"Knowing that I am set for the defence of the Gospel." Phil. i. 17.

No. 18.]

JUNE, 1822.

[No. 6. Vol. II.

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To the Editor of the Gospel Advocate.


I HAVE lately been reading with much satisfaction, and I hope instruction, a commentary on the passages of the new testament, relative to the gospel ministry, designed for candidates for holy orders," which was published in several numbers of the "Episcopal Magazine."


The usefulness of this commentary is not confined alone to the candidates for orders; but those already ordained, and the lay members of our church, are equally interested in the admirable elucidation of these important texts of scripture. The number for October, 1821, particularly arrested my It contains a commentary on 1 Tim. iv. 16, where the words xa Tn didaonania, are rendered "and to thy doctrine." The bible which I am accustomed to use, is an Oxford edition, and gives "the doctrine," as the meaning of the original. On consulting every copy within my reach, I found thy in the greater number; but the authorized editions, published at the universities in England have the. This appears to be the true rendering of the passage; for although d daxaa signifies teaching generally, yet it likewise means doctrine, the sub. stance of teaching. It appears that St. Paul intended an explicit reference ADVOCATE, VOL. II.


to "the faith which was once delivered unto the saints."* Timothy, though consecrated to the highest office in the Christian church, was to have no doctrine of his own. He was to preach that which he had learned of St. Paul. "The things that thou hast heard of me among many witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men, who shall be able to teach others also." The great doctrine of Christ's atonement, in its original purity, was to be the constant theme of his discourse. This doctrine he was to teach, and to cause others to teach it also.

The celebrated bishop Horsley, in one of his admirable charges, has some interesting remarks on this subject. Reprobating the corrupt reading of thy, instead of the, he shows the importance of the apostle's meaning, and lays down the duty which TM διδασκαλια embraces. His remarks are so judicious, and so important to every preacher of the gospel, that I shall, I trust, be excused for quoting them at length, before I proceed to what was principally my object in making this communication.


"Our meditations have insensibly, think," says the bishop of Rochester, "made a transition from the topick of 'take heed unto thyself,' to the topick of take heed unto the doctrine.' The terms of this admonition are very remarkable-Take heed unto the doctrine,' not unto thy doctrine;' al

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Jude 3.

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† 2 Tim. ii. 2.

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