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full of Indian corn; and a large bundle of backs being galled; taking our saddle-bags Indian corn leaves, the substitute for hay in for pillows, and placing our pistols by our this country, being tied behind me on my side. horse, half as high as my shoulders.
In the course of the night, a few Indians On the banks of several streams, we saw paid us a visit ; walking round us, and exparties of Indians, who had settled themselves amining us very attentively, but without there for a few days, to assist travellers in speaking. The novelty of the scene, howswimming their horses ; but, as the waters ever, prevented my sleeping much. On my had subsided, we did not require their as- left hand, were my friend the Alabama plansistance. Their rude dwellings were formed ter, and his daughter with her coffee-pot of four upright saplings, and a rough cov- and her “ Tales of my Landlord,” at ber ering of pine bark, which they strip from the father's feet. About 100 yards from us, trees with a neatness and rapidity which we were the emigrants from Georgia and Carcould not imitate. Before them, the women olina, with their five or six little fires; alwere sitting, dressing Indian corn or wild ternately decaying till they almost disappearvenison; the men lying by their side, with ed, and then bursting forth with a vivid flame, intelligent and happy countenances, graceful which illuminated the intervening space, and in their attitudes, and grave and dignified in flashed on the horses and wagons ranged their address. Some of the parties whom we around: on our right, were the Indian wig. passed in the glens at sunset, had a very pic- wams; and, before us, at a great distance, turesque appearance.
some acres of pine woods on fire. Yet, notWe rode nearly two hours, by moonlight, withstanding the strong light which occasionbefore we could find water for our horses; ally emanated from so many sources, and the at length, observing some fires at a distance features of the grotesque which the picture in the woods, we struck toward them; but certainly contained, the stillness of the night, they were surrounded by Indians, to whom the deep blue of the sky above us, and the we could not make ourselves intelligible.- sombre colouring of the heavy forests in At last we discerned a stream of water, and which we were enveloped, imparted to this near it two or three parties of travellers; who novel scene a character of solemnity, which had already lighted their fires, by which they preponderated over every other expression. were toasting their bacon, and boiling their We set off as soon as it was light; and, coffee. We invited ourselves to join one, passing several creeks, arrived at the ex, consisting of a little Alabama cotton planter tremity of a ridge, from which we looked and his daughter, whom we had met in the down into a savannah, in which is situated course of the day. He was in a situation of the Indian town of Cosito, on the Chatahoulife corresponding, perhaps, with that of our chy. It appeared to consist of about 100 second or third rate farmers ; and was bring- houses, many of them elevated on poles from ing his daughter from school at Milledgeville two to six feet high, and built of unhewn in Georgia, from 300 to 400 miles from logs, with roofs of bark, and little patches of hence. They travelled in a little Jersey Indian corn before the doors. The women wagon (or dear-bon, or carry-all, or carry- were hard at work digging the ground, poundhall, as this humble vehicle is variously de- ing Indian corn, or carrying heavy loads of nominated) — camping out” every night, water from the river : the men were either and cooking their bacon and coffee three setting out to the woods with their guns, or times a day.
lying idle before the doors; and the children Some stragglers from the other parties were amusing themselves in little groups, joined us, for a little chat before bedtime; The whole scene reminded me strongly of and were consulting on the propriety of pro- some of the African towns, described by Munceeding directly to the end of their journey, go Park. In the centre of the town, we or staying for a season, as is very common, passed a large building, with a conical roof, to "make a crop” on some of the unappro- sipported by a circular wall about three priated publick lands. When they were feet high: close to it was a quadrangular gone, our Alabama friends sat reading by space, inclosed by four open buildings, with the fire, for an hour or two, before they re- rows of benches rising above one another : tired to rest ; when the little girl ascended the whole was appropriated, we were informthe wagon, and her father covered her with ed, to the great council of the town, who a blanket, and spead an umbrella over her, meet, under shelter or in the open air,accordto protect her from the dew.
As for our. ing to the weather. Near the spot was a selves, having secured our horses and given high pole, like our May-poles, with a bird at them their supper, and contributed our sup- the top, 'round which the Indians celebrate ply to the stock of wood for the night, we their green-corn dance. lay down in the blankets which we always
(To be continued.) put under the saddles to prevent our horses?
Knowing that I am set for the defence of the Gospel.” Phil. i. 17.
[No. 7. Vol. II.
ON THE CONTROVERTED TEXT, 1 JOHN from being terminated. We shall not
at present enter into it, and shall wait
patiently to see if any new light can The controversy respecting the ce- be thrown on the subject. Hitherto, lebrated passage of the three heavenly we are obliged to confess, we have witnesses has of late revived in Eng. seen nothing to shake our conviction, land with a degree of vigour, which, that the verse is spurious. On the after the labours of Porson, Marsh, and contrary, that conviction has been renGriesbach, we hardly supposed it ca. dered firner by the forcible reasoning pable. It seemed as if the learned contained in the sixth part of the had either abandoned the text as inde. theological lectures of Dr. Marsh, the fensible, or considered it at the least bishop of Peterborough, which we as doubtful ; and until other manu. have lately received through the kind scripts should be discovered and col. attention of the same frieup to whom lated, or some additional proofs obtain
we have just expressed our obligations ed with regard to the minor points of in the margin. The bishop has, we discussion,
we had thought that the li; think, exposed more strongly than we terary combatants would have retired
ever recollect to have seen, the suspiexbausted from the field of warfare.— cious character of the only Greek But our expectations have not been realized. The laboured work of Mr. mation, in a letter dated March 6, 1822. Nolan, on the integrity of the Greek “ There is very little new in biblical literature. Vulgate, published in 1815; the pali. Bishop Burgess has just announced that he node of Dr. Hales, the chronologist, in has in the press, 1 Marci Presbyteri Celedenhis work on the trinity, which came separately published, with an English trans
sis Explanatio Fidei ad Cyrillum, now first to a second edition in 1818; the late lation, notes, and various readings. 2. Dr. vindication by bishop Burgess, of which Mills? annotation on 1 John, v. 1, with adour readers have seen an account in ditions from his prolegomena, and from Wetthe 52d number of the Quarterly Re- stein, Bengel, and Sabatier ; together with view; the republication of old treatises additional observations, by Dr. Bentley, Sel
den, Christopher Matthias Pfaff, and Chris. on the same subject, which we under- tian Frederick Schmidt. 3. Observations stand he has been preparing for the press, on the government of the African church, by and has by this time probably publish- Dr. Maurice, Mr. Bingham, and bishop ed ;* all show that the controversy is far Stillingfeet ; with remarks on the testimony
of the African bishops, at the 33d council of
Carthage, (held A. D. 434,) to the authen • A learned and attentive correspondent ticity of 1 John, v. 7, made by Calamy and in London has given us the following infor- Berriman, and Charles Butler, Esq.” 26
ADVOCATE, VOL. II.
witness which the advocates of this visions and disputes which arose in text have of late attempted to produce the Christian church, and wbich made -the Dublin manuscript.
each party watchful to preserve the He has also placed in a clearer point integrity of those writings to which all of view, the source from which the in- appealed ; 2. by the rapid increase of terpolation has proceeded. He has the number of copies ; 3. by the sepalaid down an important rule in criticism rate existence of the original autowith respect to the value to be attach- graphs, and the dispersion of the coed to internal evidence, wben it is at pies made from them through Palesvariance with external. And above all, tine, Egypt, Asia Minor, Greece, and he has shown the danger of sacrificing, Italy ; 4. by the ancient versions disfor the sake of this one verse, the im- persed throughout the Roman empire ; portant principle on which alone the and 5. by the quotations contained in general integrity of the new testament the voluminous writings of the Greek can, with perfect success, be maintain. fathers. " The mutual and general ed. The bishop inakes a just distinc. check, therefore, which was afforded tion between the complete perfection of by the joint operation of manuscripts, the text, as containing in all cases pre. fathers, and versions, must have precisely the same words as were written served to us the new testament in the by the authors, and the integrity of the same state, upon the wbole, whịch was text, with regard to the facts originally given to it by the writers themselves." recorded and the doctrines originally The bishop then proceeds as fol. delivered. If the latter are the same lows : in the existing copies, we have all the “ But there is another argument, in integrity which is wanted to make the favour of the position that the manunew testament the basis of our faith scripts of the Greek testament have and morals. “ Though the criticism descended to us without any material therefore of the Greek testament is," alteration, either in facts or in doctrines. he observes, “ on various accounts, a The Greek manuscripts, which we matter of high importance, and has now possess, were received, not through accordingly been treated as a primary any channel which came from the anbranch of theology, we must not suffer cient hereticks, but from the ortbodox the imperfections, to which all human members of the ancient Greek church. exertions are exposed, to influence our And this church maintained the docreasoning upon subjects, to which those trine of the trinity, of the incarnation, imperfections do not apply. That in. of the atonement, and other leading tegrity, which is necessary to establish articles of the Christian faith, in comcredibility, does not depend on a vari. mon with the church to which we ouration of words, if there is no variation selves belong. And though the Greek in the sense. It will be sufficient, church could not guard against those therefore, if we can prove, that the accidental mistakes, which unavoidanew testament has descended to us, bly arise from a multiplication of writupon the whole, in the same staté, in ten copies, we bave sufficient reason to which it was originally written; and believe, that the ancient Greek church that we may justly confide in every abstained, with the most scrupulous and thing wbich relates to facts and to conscientious exactness, from every doctrines.”
wilful corruption of the sacred text. He then proceeds to state, in proof We cannot have a stronger proof of of such an integrity, that a general this assertion, than the conduct of the corruption of the sacred text was ren- ancient Greek church, in regard to the dered impracticable, 1. by the di- seventh verse in the fifth chapter of St.
John's first epistle. That verse, which the manuscripts in the hands of the oris wanting in the most ancient manu. thodox, no less than the manuscripts seripts even of the Latin version, and belonging to the hereticks.
It must was no more known to Augustin, than have equally affected the manuscripts it was to Chrysostom, was gradually of the ancient versions. It must have introduced into the Latin Vulgate by equally affected the quotations of the the church of Rome. But it was never Greek fathers, who quote the sixth and admitted by the ancient Greek church. eighth verses in succession, without the Not a single Greek manuscript was words which begin with or tea cupavo and ever known to contain the passage, end with oy tu gimo Now if it was till after the invention of printing : and really possible, that such corruption that solitary manuscript, which does could, in spite of every impediment, contain it, was certainly not written in be thus generally extended, what beGreece. Now the conduct of the comes of all the arguments, which have ancient Greek church, in regard to been employed in this lecture, to prove that memorable passage, shows its con- the general integrity of the new testascientious regard for the purity of the ment ? Those arguments are founded sacred text. And hence we may sase on the supposed impossibility of doing ly conclude, that the manuscripts of that, which must have been done, if the new testament, which we have re- the passage in question originally existceived from that church, have descend- ed in Greek manuscripts. ed to us untainted by wilful corruptions,
“If it be true in regard to that passage, either in matters of fact, or in matters that the ancient Greek manuscripts, of doctrine.
which have descended to the present “I am aware indeed, that this argu- age, with the works of the ancient ment, and not only this argument, but Greek fathers, and the manuscripts of every argument for the integrity of the the ancient versions, the oldest of the new testament, which bas been used in Latin version not excepted, have dethis lecture, must fall at once to the scended to us in a mutilated state, ground, if it be true, that the passage there is an end to that security, which in question proceeded from the pen of is derived from their mutual agreeSt. John. If that passage existed in ment, for the integrity of the new tesGreek manuscripts anterior to those tament in all other places. And we which have descended to the present are brought at length into this dilemage, and was expunged by adversaries ina : either to relinquish a part, or of the doctrine which it contains, the abandon the whole.t extinction of the passage must have been universal. It must have affected
6* Bengelii Apparat. Crit. p. 458, edd. ada.
Wetstenii Libelli ad Crisin. N. T. ed. Sem«• By Erasmus it was called codex Bri- ler, p. 91: and the note of Matthäi to 1 John tapnicus, from the country where it was When the Greek fathers quote the found, and where it was probably written. words of the Sth verse with the words that Having belonged to one Froy, a Franciscan precede it, they quote in the following manfriar, it came many years afterwards into ner. OuX ev toideti povov, ana? sy too idet og the hands of Dr. Montfort, whence it ac- και το αίματι και το πνευμα εστι το μαρτυquired the name of codex Montfortianus.
ρουν ότι το πνευμα εστιν η αληθεια οτι τρεις OF Dr. Montfort the MS. was purchased by ισιν οι μαρτυρουντες, το πνευμα, και το ύδωρ archbishop Usher, with whose other Mss.
και το αίμα και οι τρεις εις το εν εισι. In this it was removed to Trinity College, Dublin, passage there is consistency of reasoning : whence it is now called the Dublin MS. and certainly no insertion is wanted, to imThe codex Ravianus, which used to be prove the text of St. John. quoted with the codex Montfortianus, has been abandoned since the discovery, that it 66+I am here speaking in reference to the is a copy of a printed edition.
commop printed editions. For 1 John v.
“ Whether the passage be genuine, or passage is wanting, not only in the not, the doctrine of the trinity stands, manuscripts of all other ancient verin either case, unshaken. For the sions,* beside the Latin : it is wanting sake, therefore, of the passage itself, I also in the most ancient manuscripts should think it unnecessary to make of the Latin version itself. Latin mananother remark on it. But if the de- uscripts, which have not the passage in fence of that passage requires the sac- the text, are still preserved to the rifice of a principle, without which we amount of more than fifty. Some of cannot maintain the general integrity them indeed have the passage in the of the new testament, it then behooves margin, added by a later hand; but it us to inquire, whether the passage de- is the reading of the text, which conserves to be maintained, and maintain- stitutes the reading of the manuscript. ed at so great a price.
And as the oldest Latin manuscripts Though every library in Europe has were destitute of the passage, so it was been searched for Greek manuscripts never quoted by the Latin fathers durcontaining the catholick epistles, there ing the four first centuries. is only one Greek manuscript in which th passage
has been found : and this 66 * \ designedly use the expression manu. solitary manuscript, as will presently scripts of all other ancient versions :' for it
has been inserted in printed editions of the appear, has no pretension to be num
Syriack and Armenian versions in opposition bered among the ancient Greek ma
to the Syriack and Armenian manuscripts.-nuscripts. As all other Greek manu
See preface to my letters to archdeacon scripts, which are now extant, are Travis, notes 8, 9, 10, 11. destitute of the passage, it is of less " + Forty was the number of which I gave importance to know the precise num. an account in the 13th note of the preface to ber of those which have been quoted my letters to archdeacon Travis, which were by, name, especially as they do not Griesbach's last edition, published in 1806,
published in 1795. But it appears from constitute the whole number. They that many more Latin MSS. have been disamount, however, to not less than one covered, which have not the passage in the
The text. Greek fathers have never quoted the “An exception has been claimed for Cypassage, which they certainly would prian, who lived in the middle of the third have done, if it had existed in their century. Now there is really no pretext for manuscripts. Now the manuscripts The utmost that can be said is, that he re
saying that Cyprian quoted 1 John, v. 7.which were used by Irenæus and Cle- ferred to it: and it will presently appear, that ment of Alexandria, could not have even in so saying we should be mistaken. been written later than the second The words of Cyprian, in his treatise de uni. century. The manuscripts used by been laid, are as follows.
tate ecclesiæ, on which so much stress has
Dicit Dominus, Origen, could not have been written Ego et Pater ucum sumus. Et iterum de later than the third century. The Patre et Filio et Spiritu Sancto, scriptum est : manuscripts used by the Greek fathers, Et bi tres unum sunt. The passage is so who attended the Nicene council, could worded in bishop Pearson's edition, tom. i. not have been written later than the p. 109. but manuscripts of Cyprian have
tres unum sunt, without hi. The first quotafourth century. In this manner we tion which Cyprian has here made is, Ego may prove that the Greek manuscripts et Pater unum sumus, which is taken from in every century were destitute of the Jobn x. 30. His second quotation is, hi tres passage, till we come to the period unum eunt, or as manuscripts have it, tres
unum sunt. For the words. de Patre et Filio when the oldest of our existing manu
et Spiritu Sancto scriptum est' are Cyprian's scripts were written. Further, the
own words, and can, in no sense, be called a
quotation. Since then the words which Cy: is no part of the Greek original, as represent- prian has quoted from the place in question ed by the Greek MSS. and the Greek are not only words of the eighth verse, but fathers.
are quoted by Augustin from the eighth