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to appearance, a wounded Indian had been weltering in his blood, and near this, marks of blood on the canoe. Poor creatures! being disarmed; as they, with those of Gnadenhutten, had freely given up their guns, axes, and knives, to those who had solemnly promised, that on their arrival at Pittsburg, all should be returned to them again. But had they even been in possession of their arms, they could not conscientiously, and probably, would not have attempted to resort to these in their defence. Being taken over to the town, O how the prospect was changed! the language now held to them, was the reverse of what it had been at Salem, and on the road hither. The Gnadenhutten brethren, sisters, and children, were already confined for the purpose of being put to death; they were no longer called Christians as before, but warriours!-the same language was also held to the Salem Indians, all were declared enemies and warriours, and all they could offer in their defence, was of no avail. They were further told: that the horses found with them, had been taken from white people, they being branded with letters, with which Indians were unacquainted; that the axes found with them, had the names of white people stamped upon them. Pewter basins and spoons were stolen property; the Indians making use of wooden bowls and spoons. Tea-kettles, pots, cups, and saucers, were also declared stolen property. In short, every thing they possessed, was said to have been taken from the white people whilst at war with them; and to this they would
initials of their names, to enable them to know the horses and colts belonging to each other. But many of these accusers knew well, that the Christian Indians were becoming an agricultural people-were making use of the plough, raised large crops, and lived chiefly by the produce of the field, and the cattle they raised. That more or less of them could set a decent table to a stranger, furnished with bread, meat, butter, cheese, milk, tea, coffee, chocolate, &c. together with such other articles as the season afforded. Besides this, the Christian Indians were well known by their dress, which was plain and decent, no sign of paint to be seen on their skin or clothes, they wore no feathers about their heads, neither did they shave and trim them as every Indian warriour does; but wore their hair as the Christians did. These, with other marks on them, were alone sufficient to prove that they were not warriours. But the number of horses and other property which they possessed, was an object with these murderers, who concluded, that when they killed the Indians, the country would be theirs; and the sooner this was done, the better!"* Accordingly they told the poor creatures that they must die.
"Finding that all entreaties to save their lives was to no purpose-and that some, more bloodthirsty than their comrades, were anxious to begin upon them, they united in begging a short delay, that they might prepare themselves for death-which request at length was granted them. Then asking pardon for whatever offence they had given, or grief they had occasioned to each other, they kneeled down, offering fervent prayers to God their Saviour-and kissing one another, under a flood of tears, fully resigned to his will, they sang praises unto him, in the joyful hope, that they would soon be relieved from all pains, and join their Redeemer in everlasting bliss.
* The language of backwoods-men.
"During the time of their devotion, first victim. After they had finished the horrid deed, they retreated to a small distance from the slaughter houses, but after a while returning again to view the dead bodies, and finding one of them, (Abel) although scalped and mangled, attempting to raise himself from the floor, they so renewed their blows upon him, that he never rose again; then having set fire to the houses, they went off, shouting and yelling, on having been so victorious.
the murderers were consulting on the manner, in which they would put them to death. Some were for setting fire to the houses they were in, and burn. ing them alive. Others wanted to take their scalps home with them, as a signal of victory; while others remonstrated against either of these plans, declaring, that they never would be guilty of murdering a people, whose innocence was so satisfactorily evinced, and these proposed to set them at liberty, or, if they would not do that; at least to take them as prisoners, and deliver them up to the proper authority; but, finding that they could not prevail on these monsters to spare their lives, they wrung their hands and calling God to witness, that they were innocent of the blood of these harmless Christian Indians, they withdrew to some distance from the scene of slaughter.
"The murderers, impatient to make a beginning, came again to them, while they were singing, and inquiring whether they were now ready for dying, they were answered in the affirmative; adding that they had commended their immortal souls to God, who had given them the assurance in their hearts, that he would receive their souls:'One of the party now taking up a cooper's mallet, which lay in the house (the owner being a cooper) saying: 'how exactly this will answer for the business,' he began with Abraham, and continued knocking down one after the other, until he had counted fourteen, that he had killed with his own hands. He now handed the instrument to one of his fellow-murderers, saying, my arm fails me! go on in the same way! I think I have done pretty well!'* In another house, where mostly women and children were confined, Judith, a remarkably pious aged widow, was the
*So related by a lad who escaped out of this house, and who understood English well -and confirmed by several of the party.
"The number of Christian Indians murdered by these miscreants, exceed. ed ninety; all of whom, except four, were killed in the slaughter houses. The four, were young Shabosh, who was killed before the murderers reached the town, Jacob, who had been shot down in the canoe, and two young brethren, Paul and Anthony, who perceiving the murderers' intentions, were shot down under the bank of the river, whilst attempting to escape."
Your readers will lament to learn, that the chief, of whom an account has been given, Isaac Glickhican, was among those who were thus cruelly murdered. The following is the character which Mr. Hecke welder gives of the principal sufferers: "Of the above number, sixty-two were grown persons, one third of whom were women; the remaining thirty-four were children. Five of the slain were respectable national assistants, viz. Samuel Moore, Tobias, Jonas, Isaac and John Martin. The two former, had been members of the pious missionary Brainard's congregation in New Jer sey, and, after his death, had joined themselves to the Christian Indians living on the Susquehanna. The first, (Samuel) was a very useful member of the church; he had received his education from or under Mr. Brainard, could read well, and understood the English language so well, that he was for many years, and until his death, an interpreter of the sermons preached. He was, perhaps, never seen without being at some occupation. Of reading
he was very fond, especially in the bible or hymn book. Tobias' appearance alone, commanded respect: he also led the life of a true Christian. The same may be said of Jonas, and of Isaac Glickhican, the reader of this narrative has already been informed, how useful a member of the congregation he was-how prudently he acted on all occasions, and how ready and fearless he was in time of dangerhow faithful to his teachers, and doubtless he would have risked his life for them if occasion had required it. John Martin, one of the chapel interpreters at Gnadenhutten, was an exemplary and worthy man. Three of these five brethren were above sixty, and the other two about fifty years of age. Many of the brethren and sisters who were murdered, were born of Christian parents in the society, and were part of those who in the years 1763 and 1764 had been taken under the protection of the Pennsylvania go vernment, while the Paxton boys (as they called themselves) daringly threatened to murder them. Here they were now murdered! together with the children!-the loving children!-who so harmoniously raised their voices in the chapel-at their schools, and in their parents' houses, in singing praises to the Lord!—those, whose tender years, innocent countenances, and tears, made no impression on these pretended white Christians, were all butchered with the
It is not necessary to make many comments upon this narrative. The doctrine of passive submissson, and non-resistance under the infliction of injuries, is undoubtedly carried to an extreme; but this very circumstance renders the change of character the more surprising. These Indians, before their conversion to Christianity, were as brave and fearless, as pas sionate and revengeful, as unshackled and uncontrollable, as averse from labour, and impatient of domestick life as any of their heathen brethren. How
powerful, then, was that principle, which, while they retained all their former power of inflicting injuries, could render them so mild and patient and forgiving under injuries, so confiding and submissive, so industrious and regular, so ardent in their love towards God, so constant in their friendship for mankind ! J.
To the Editor of the Gospel Advocate. A WEEKLY paper, called the Roman Catholick Miscellany, is published in Charleston, South Carolina, which I sometimes see and peruse. It is, as might be supposed from its title, devoted to the interests of the Roman church, but, in addition to this, is filled with the local concerns of the Irish. In this paper of July 10 last, p. 46, is the following paragraph :
"To this moment, many well-dis. posed, and otherwise well-informed people, in the south, are really under the impression, that catholicks believe the pope can dispense with the obligation of oaths, contracts, and agreements."
Upon this passage, I ask permission to subjoin a few remarks.
If the pope be infallible; if the unity of the Roman catholick church, in her faith, her discipline, and her conduct, be the same in all ages of the world, as the catholicks teach, and, I presume, believe, then the infallibility of his holiness, and the principles of the church, must be the same, in every respect, now, as they were in days of old. If the Roman catholicks do not now believe that the pope " can dispense with the obligation of oaths," it is a gratifying evidence of the increased illumination of their mind, of their honesty, their good sense, and their obedience to God, and the laws of the country in which they live. But, in this respect, I apprehend, his holiness and they will be at issue; for we find it upon record that the popes not only claimed the right, but exercised the
power of dispensing with the obligation of oaths."
I am, Mr. Editor, one of the " people in the south," who, from my course of reading, have believed in this fact. If my impressions are wrong, I freely declare, I shall take great pleasure in abandoning them. It is my desire to think well of all churches, which are built upon the Rock of ages;" and I take more delight in viewing the bright, than the dark side of a picture. On the present subject, I would wish that the fact could be proved against me. It is my wish to think differently from what I do; and if the following facts can be disproved, I shall cheerfully yield my opinion.
"For the dignity and defence of God's holy church," says pope Gregory VII., "in the name of almighty God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; I depose from imperial and royal administration king Henry, son of Henry, sometime emperor, who too boldly and rashly hath laid hands on thy church; and I absolve all Christians subject to the empire, from that oath whereby they were wont to plight their faith unto true kings for it is right, that he should be deprived of dignity, who doth endeavour to diminish the majesty of the church. Go to, therefore, most holy princes of the apostles, and what I said, by interposing your authority, confirm; that all men may now at length understand, if ye can bind and loose in heaven, that ye also can upon earth take away and give empires, kingdoms, and whatsoever mortals can have."
Pope Urban II. declared, that "subjects are by no authority constrained to pay the fidelity which they have sworn to a Christian prince, who opposes God and his saints, or violateth their precepts."
Pope Paschal! II. deprived Henry IV. and excited enemies to persecute him; telling them that they could not offer a more acceptable sacrifice to God, than by impugning him, who en
deavoured to take the kingdom from God's church."
Pope Innocent III. deposed the emperor Otho IV. when a council, held at Rome, ordained that, if a "temporal lord, being required and admonished by the church, should neglect to purge his territory from heretical filth, he should, by the metropolitan, and the other comprovincial bishops, be noosed in the band of excommunication; and that if he should slight to make satisfaction within a year, it should be signified to the pope, that he might from that time denounce the subjects absolved from their fealty to him, and expose the territory to be seized on by catholicks."
Pope Innocent IV. declared the emperor Frederick II. to be his vassal, and in his general council of Lyons,. denounced a sentence of deprivation against him in the following words: "We having, about the foregoing and many other his wicked miscarriages, had before a careful deliberation with our brethren, and the holy council, seeing that we, although unworthy, do hold the place of Jesus Christ on earth, and that it was said unto us in the person of St. Peter the apostle, whatever thou shalt bind on earththe said prince (who hath rendered himself unworthy of empire and kingdoms, and of all honour and dignity, and who for his iniquities is cast away by God, that he should not reign or command, being bound by his sins, and cast away, and deprived by the Lord of all honour and dignity,) do show, denounce, and accordingly by sentence deprive; absolving all who are held bound by oath of allegiance, from such oath for ever."
Pope Boniface VIII. hath a decree extant in the canon law, running thus; “We declare, say, define, pronounce it to be of necessity to salvation, for every human creature to be subject to the Roman pontiff;" and that he might not be misunderstood, he declares that
the spiritual power-whence if the earthly power doth go astray, it must be judged by the spiritual power." This was confirmed by pope Leo X. and the Lateran council.
Pope Clement V. declared, in the great synod of Vienna, that the emperor was subject to him.
Pope Clement VI. pretended to depose the emperor Lewis IV.
Pope Pius V. begins his bull against queen Elizabeth in these words: "He that reigneth on high, to whom is given all power in heaven and in earth, hath committed the one holy catholick and apostolical church, out of which there is no salvation, to one alone on earth, namely, to Peter, prince of the apostles, and to the Roman pontiff, successor of Peter, to be governed with a plenitude of power: this one he hath constituted prince over all nations, and all kingdoms, that he might pluck up, destroy, dissipate, ruinate, plant and build." And in the same bull he declares, that "he thereby deprives the queen of her pretended right to the kingdom, and of all dominion, dignity, and privilege whatsoever; and absolves all the nobles, subjects, and people of the kingdom, and whoever else have sworn to her, from their oath." ·
The bull of pope Sixtus V. against Henry, king of Navarre, and the prince of Conde, contains the following passage: "By the authority of these presents, we do absolve and set free all persons, as well jointly as severally, from any such oath, [of allegiance] and from all duty whatsoever in regard of dominion, fealty, and obedience, and do charge and forbid all and every of them, that they do not dare to obey them, or any of their admonitions, laws, and commands."
The above extracts are taken from Barrow's Works, tom. i. p. 540–543. fol. ed. Lond. 1741; where the ori ginal Latin is quoted. I shall make but one quotation more.
"The bull of deposition," says bishop Burnet," is printed in Cherubin's
Bullarum Romanum, which, since many have the confidence to deny matters of fact, though most publickly acted, should be found in the collection of papers, the substance of it is as follows: The pope, being God's vicar on earth; and according to Jeremy's prophecy, set over nations and kingdoms, to root out and destroy; and having the supreme power over all the kings in the whole world, was bound to proceed to due correction,' &c.And declares, that if the king [Henry VIII.] and his complices do not appear, [at Rome] he has fallen from the right to his crown, and they from the right to their estates; and when they die, they were to be denied Christian burial. He puts the whole kingdom under an interdict; and declares all the king's children by the said Anne, [queen Anne Boleyn] and the children of all his complices, to be under the same pains, though they be now under age and incapacitates them for all honours or employments; and declares all the subjects or vassals of the king or his complices, absolved from all oaths or obligations to them, and requires them to acknowledge them no more.' This bull was dated at Rome, Aug. 30, 1535, and was carried into execution by another bull, dated Dec. 17, 1538." Burnet's Hist. of the Reformation, vol. i. p. 245, fol. ed. Lond. 1681. likewise Father Paul's Hist. of the Council of Trent, p. 86, 87, Lond. 1629, or in the Latin edition, A. D. 1622, p. 97, 98.
The foregoing extracts, I trust, will be deemed sufficient to warrant the "people in the south," in believing that the pope does, or did, claim and exercise the right of "dispensing with the obligation of oaths."
The pope is a temporal sovereign, with troops at his command, as well as a bishop directing the spiritual concerns of the church of Rome. In which capacity he pretends to this dispensing power, I am at a loss to determine. I do not see in the scrip