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say, that all our expectations of ac- grievously have committed, by thought, ceptance for our persons, prayers, and word, and deed, against God's divine praises, are built on his merit not our majesty, provoking most justly bis own, and that we are conscious that wrath and indignation against you.” our every service must have been re. You have declared, in his awful presjected, had he not died for our sins, ence, your earnest repentance, and and did he not live to make interces. hearty sorrow - for these your misdosion for us.
ings ;" adding, “ the remembrance of But though the general tenor of the them is grievous to me, the burden of church service is sufficient plain, it is them is intolerable,"—it cannot be desirable, on a subject so immensely borne. You then appealed to God's important as is the spirit and temper mercy, repeating in the most anxious in which we may approach God with terms your application for it-" Have acceptance, to be as particular as pos- mercy upon me, have mercy upon sible, and more especially as pride me, most merciful Father.” And, and self-righteousness are natural to us finding no reason in yourself but your all in our unconverted state. Let us, misery, why God should show you then, attend more minutely to the lan- mercy, you referred your grievous guage which our church has prepared case to him in whom alone God can for our use, and inquire if that lan- show mercy," For thy Son our Lord. guage concur with the habitual con. Jesus Christ's sake, forgive us all that victions and feelings of our hearts. is past, and grant that we may ever
You, perhaps, my fellow-worship- hereafter serve and please thee in newper, who have now this little monitor ness of life, to the honour and glory of in your bands, are also my fellow. thy name, through Jesus Christ our communicant. You are in the habit Lord. Amen." of going, more or less often, to the Now in this confession, which is Lord's table, and of receiving the “ made in the name of all those that sacrament of his last supper. As our are minded to receive the holy comchurch expects that all her members, munion,” (rubrick,) the clearest eviafter they have been confirmed, or are dence is given that “the forms of the arrived at years of maturity, should church are directly opposed to forcome to the Lord's table, it is right mality," and thereby “the self-righthat I should consider you as one of teous churchman is convicted and those who have obeyed her directions. condemned out of his own mouth.” Indeed if you have hitherto neglected Every word seems important, and this ordinance, disobeying the positive should lead us to the rnost serious selfcommand of Christ, “ this do in re examination, whether the feelings of membrance of me,” and pouring con. our hearts be in unison with the lantempt on the order of your own church, guage we use with our lips, lest we you can hardly, I should suppose, con. be found dissemblers with God; or, sider yourself, till you have repented in other words, hypocrites before him. of this grievous sin, either as a church- A hypocrite is one whose heart and man or a Christian.
lips do not concur, who says one But, supposing you to be a com• thing and means another. Now if you municant, I request your attention to have said all these things with your tbat frame of mind in which you have lips, without feeling them, what are ostensibly gone to the Lord's table. you but a hypocrite ? And what is You have gone thither prosessing to the portion" of hypocrites ? It is
" " “ acknowledge and bewail your main- “ weeping and gnashing of teeth" for fold sins and wickedness, which you ever and ever. Matt. xxiv. 51. (individually) from time to time most Remember, my dear reader, with whom you have to do in all the solemn ing of your soul ? I say, the habitual services of the church in which you feeling; for unless humiliation and join. God is the searcher of the self-renunciation be habitual, it is not heart. From him “no secrets are to be supposed that this temper can be hid.” Now if you have assured him called into exercise in any devotional that you" bewail” your sins, when they engagement. It must be implanted, have never given you any concern ; before it can be brought into increasif you have told him that you are con- ed action. The same spirit that is rescious that your sins “have most just. quired in partaking of the Lord's suply provoked his wrath and indigna- per, is required every day, in every tion against you," while you are un- engagement. It is the distinguishing conscious of having ever incurred his spirit of a real Christian. And though displeasure, and would think God un- it is our duty and privilege, by selfjust in punishing you for your sins ; if, examination,
meditation, and prayer, to while you have declared the remem- cultivate the emotions of self-abasebrance of sin to have been grievous to ment when we partake of the symbols you, and its burden intolerable, you of “ the sacrifice of the death of never felt grief about it, nor laboured Christ,” these emotions must be cheunder this burden ;-what must your rished continually and be brought into guilt be in thus dissembling with God, every employment of our lives. and how false your pretensions to the But, perhaps, you will say, “ all character of a true member of our this reasoning does not touch my case, church. Have you not mocked God nor affect my conscience ; for I have
; to his face, and proved yourself an un-, never been at the Lord's table.”sound member of his church ? On this confession I am at a loss, my
There is also another prayer which is friend, to conceive on what ground, said " in the name of all them that re- professing yourself to be a Christian ceive the communion,” which shows and a churchman, you can justify your what is the acceptable state of mind be conduct.
You would not, I apprefore God. The minister who officiated, hend, with equal case of mind, acyou will remember, has thus address knowledge your habitual neglect and ed the throne of grace, speaking for contempt of any other divine com
“ We do not presume to come mand ; and how can you satisfy yourto this thy table, o merciful Lord, self while neglecting that most positive trusting in our own righteousness, but and affectionate injunction, “this do in thy manifold and great mercies. in remembrance of me?" But leaving We are not worthy so much as to this inquiry on your conscience, I gather up the crumbs under thy table. proceed to observe, that the services of But thou art the same Lord, whose the church in which you do join, are property is always to have mercy; in strict conformity with her commugrant us, therefore, gracious Lord, so nion service. They are equally in. to eat the flesh of thy dear Son Jesus consistent with every self-righteous Christ, and to drink his blood, that our feeling, and convict those who with sinful bodies may be made clean by such feelings unite in them, of hypocrihis body, and our souls washed through sy in their own confessions. Let us his most precious blood, and that we quote a few passages which will remay evermore dwell in him and he quire no comment. in us."
“ Almighty and most merciful FathNow what is the plain import of er ; we have erred and strayed from this prayer ? It speaks for itself; its thy ways like lost sheep. We have follanguage cannot be further explained. lowed too much the devices and deBut has it expressed the habitual feel. sires of our own hearts. We bave
offended against thy holy laws. We plate our natural state as being a state have left undone those things which of condemnation, and pray that we we ought to have done ; And we may be delivered from it, so that it have done those things which we ought may not be “ everlasting," as it would not to bave done : And there is no be without redemption by Christ's health (no spiritual health) in us. But most precious blood, and pardon vouchthou, O Lord, have mercy upon us, safed to us by divine mercy on his ac. miserable offenders. Spare thou those, count. Now are we conscious of be. O God, who confess their faults. Re- ing justly liable to "everlasting dam
. store thou those who are penitent, ac. nation,” and are we in earnest to be cording to thy promises declared unto delivered from it? It would be better mankind in Christ Jesus our Lord.” to throw our prayer-books aside, and On this confession which we use never open them, than to make such, whenever we appear on ordinary oc- confessions, and to use such prayers in casions in the house of God, I shall a hypocritical manner before God the only ask two questions. Are you, my Searcher of our hearts. All the deprefellow-worshipper, “a miserable of- cations of the litany, and especially fender,” in your own estimate of your- the solemn appeal to “the agony and self? Or how, if you have no such bloody sweat, the cross and passion,' opinion of yourself, can you so de- of our Lord Jesus Christ, made in scribe yourself wben speaking to God order to enforce our application for dein prayer? Do you feel a need of spar. livering mercy, imply our guilt and ing mercy in order to exemption from danger; and surely, if that appeal punishment deserved by your sins ? If passes over unmeaning lipsil we not, why do you ask for it?
plead our Lord's “ agony and bloody I go on to the litany, which is also sweat, his cross and passion," in arrest used every Lord's day morning, and of judgment, while we have no conat other appointed times, in which the sciousness of danger, or concern to minister and people are all to join with escape from it; or while we are trust, heart and voice, the petitions being ing in some supposed worthiness of adapted to the case of all mankind. our own; the affront to the divine
"O God, the Father of heaven, Majesty, and the trifling with the most have mercy upon us, miserable sin. awlul of all mysteries, are too shock
ing to be dwelt on by any considerate "O God the Son, Redeemer of the mind. And this will be more striking, world, have mercy upon us, miserable when it is remembered, that, almost sinners."
at the commencement of the litany, "O God the Holy Ghost, proceed. we profess to pray that God would ing from the Father and the Son, have “ deliver us from hypocrisy" in his mercy upon us, miserable sinners." service.
" O holy, blessed, and glorious I shall call the attention of the readTrinity, three Persons and one God, er but to one passage more in his have mercy upon us, miserable sin- prayer-book, though I might quote the
whole, from page to page, in proof And that it may not be supposed that “the forms of the church are opthat the misery to which sin exposes posed to formality ; and that the selfus is merely that of the present life, righteous churchman is convicted and we are taught to add to other petitions condemned out of his own mouth.”
The passage to which I now allude, is “From everlasting damnation, good, not, indeed, in that part of the service Lord, deliver us."
which is designed for daily use : it is In this petition we clearly contem- used but once in the year. But as the 48
ADVOCATE, VOL. II.
church expects all her members to at- church, cannot be satisfied with himtend her service on that day,* it is self in any point of view! Can plain that she considers the confessions miserable sinner” he satisfied with appointed to be made before God, as himself, or rest his hope on his own suited to the lips of all her worshippers. duties? O no! he can only find peace Let us inquire, then, if the following in his conscience, while his soul has agree with the sincere conviction of recourse to divine mercy, and is apour hearts.
pealing to the “ agony and bloody “O most mighty God, and mercifulsweat, the cross and passion,” of bis Father, who bast compassion upon all redeeming Saviour. men, and hatest nothing that thou bast Lay tben, my brother, this sin of made ; who wouldest not the death of a hypocrisy on your conscience; charge sioner, but rather that he should turn yourself with it, for of it you are from his sins and be saved ; mercifully verily guilty. Pray in earnest that forgive us our trespasses ; receive and God, who requireth truth in the incomfort us, who are grieved and weari- ward parts,” (Psalm li. 6,) would ed with the burden of our sins. Thy. “ create in you a clean heart," that property is always to have mercy ; to. you may benceforth pray in private, ihee only it appertaineth to forgive and in publick worship “ accompany” sins : spare us, therefore, good Lord, your minister, “with a pure (or sin. spare thy people, whom thou hast reo: cere) heart and humble voice unto the deemed: enter not into judgment with throne of beavenly grace," saying after thy servants, who are vile earth and · bim, “ thou O Lord, have mercy upon miserable sinners ; but so turn thine: us, miserable offenders. Spare thou anger from us, whoireekly acknowledge those, O God, who confess their faults.
vileness, and truly repent us of Restore thou those who are penitent; our faults ; and so make haste to help. according to thy promises declared unto us in this world, that we may ever mankind in Christ Jesus our Lord. live with thee in the world to come, And grant, О most merciful Father, through Jesus Christ our Lord.?? for his sake, that we may hereafter
O what depth of humiliation, and live a godly, righteous, and sober life, what earnestness of desire are here to the glory of thy holy name.” expressed! Is it possible that such
Thus, my friend, will you enjoy words can ever pass over feigned lips ! the sweetness of the absolution that folIt is, alas, possible ; nay, it may be. lows. You will know of a truth that feared that they often do.:
- 4 God pardoneth and absolveth all I have the more anxiously brought this those who truly repent, and unfeignedsubject before you, my Christian brother, ly believe bis holy gospel." You will because I fear that our excellent“ book be able cordially to join in all the of cominon prayer" is often used by prayers and praises of the church. persons
who do not enter into its You will be enabled to testify to gainmeaning. The words pass into their sayers that the spiritual use of forms is ears, or over their lips, as a weekly not formality, and that your church is, matter of course; and when they have by her doctrines and devotions, a safe gone through the routine, they think guide to God and glory. they have done their duty, and return If the members of our church were to their several homes, well satisfied spiritually minded, they would find no with themselves. But how contrary cause of complaint in a precomposed to self-satisfaction is all that I bave form of worship, awakening, spiritual, quoted to you, and how plain is it that and heavenly, as our form is. They a man who feels the service of our would enjoy their union with the con
gregation of the faithful in its recital, • Ash Wednesday.
whenever the opportunity is afforded
them of visiting the house of God, and offerings unto the Lord to accomplish they would invite others to join with his vow, or a free will offering (Heb. them in it, saying, “O taste and see naub w o lindabáh Lxx. xato ásperos.) that the Lord is gracious.” They in beeves or sheep, it shall be perfect would find all their own sensibilities to be accepted :" &c. In both places, and wants expressed in appropriate the Vulgate reads, "vel vota solvens, language; and would be enabled to vel sponte offerens." The Hebrew anticipate the worship of a better world, word 1973 nedabáh properly signifies a and of a more glorious assembly, spontaneous determination ; whence by while here in the church below “with metonymy it came to signify an offerangels and archangels, and with all the ing to God not demanded by the law, company of heaven, they laud and but made voluntarily. Hence the Greek magnify God's glorious name, ever- translators call it dãpov or Júria xata more praising him, and saying, Holy, a:péruv, an offering or sacrifice accordholy, holy, Lord God of hosts, heaven ing to choice. At a period much later, and earth are full of thy glory; glory not above one hundred and fifty years be to thee, O Lord most high.” before our Saviour, we find it employ,
ed by the Grecizing Jews in the same
original acceptation. 1 Macc. viii. 30. REVIEW
- If hereafter the one party or the OF DR. BANCROFT'S SERMONS. other shall think meet to add, or die (Continued from page 322.)
minish any thing, they may do it at "Oportebat enim hæreses esse (1 Cor. xi. their pleasures, (Toricortar aipériwa 19 ;) nec tamen ideo bonum hæresis, quia aúrã.) Though the word does not esse eas oportebat: quasi non et malum occur in this sense in the new testaoportuerit esse. Nam et dominum tradi ment, yet it is very common in the oportebat, sed vc traditori (Mar. xiv. 21) writings of the Greek fathers. ne quid etiam hinc hæresis defendat." There must be heresies, says the apostle;
It was a natural result of the conbut it no more follows that heresy is good stant change in the modifications of because there must be heresies, than that language, that a word denoting choice evil is good because there must be evils. It or preference, should be used to sig. was fit that the Lord should be betrayed, nify a voluntary association of perbut a wo was pronounced against the betrayer, lest even from this, heresy should seek sons;* and that more especially where occasion of defence, TERTULLIAN. We shall take our leave of Dr. if we mistake not, in the septuagint version
* An example of this use of the word exists, Bancroft, with a few remarks on the of Genesis xlix. 5. Heb. Samo Dan osa nature of heresy.
chelei hhamas mecherotheihem ; which our The Greek word ooperis from which translation renders, “instruments of cruelty
But in all the anthe English, heresy, is derived, in its are in their habitations."
cient versions and paraphrases there is a primary acceptation undoubtedly sig- wide diversity of interpretation. The Lxx. nised choice or preference. In the rendered it thus: Luvetinsoar cdon iver it version of the Lxx. it is used (Lev. xxii. aiposcos autõv, which we venture to trans18, 21) for a voluntary or free will late, “ They completed iniquity by their offering. 18. “Whatsoever he be of compact or agreement; their voluntary asso. the house of Israel, or of the strangers habitants of Shechem. Instead of 5chelei,
ciation for the purpose of murdering the inin Israel that will offer his oblation for instruments or weapons, as it is in the Hebrew all bis vows, and for all his free-will text, the Lxx. must have read as in the Saofferings (Heb. Omag-babi ulchól-nid- maritan, 193 they performed, accomplished, botham. ixx. xatá tãour copstu aitwy) word Saman as a heemantiv noun from
or completed; and instead of considering the which they will offer, &c. 21. “And ng, or a derivative from 3r, which other whosoever offereth a sacrifice of peace translators have done, they looked upon n as