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a catalogue, lord bishop, suffragan, dean, consciences condemn that court ; that - archdeacon, &c. they add, “ All which, it should be easier for Sodorn and Go

together with their offices, as they are morrha in the day of judginent than for strange and unheard of in Christ's such a parliament ; that there is no church; nay plainly in God's word for other thing to be looked for tban some bidden, so are they utterly, with speed, speedy vengeance to light upon the out of the same to be removed." Ib. p. 4. whole land, let the politick Machiavils "You (the parliament) inust displace of England provide as well as they con, those ignorant and unable ministers though God do his worst ; and finally, already placed, and in their rooms ap- that if they of that assembly would not point such as both can and will, by follow the advice of the first admoniGod's assistance, feed the flock." Ib.p. tion, they (the puritans] would infalli5. “ To redress these, your wisdoms bly be their own carvers in it; the have to remove, as before, ignorant church being bound to keep God's order, ministers; to enjoin deacons and mid- and nothing to be called God's order but wives not to meddle in minister's mat. their present platform." What would ters; if they do, to see them SHARPLY a legislature, at the present day, think PUNISHED. " Ib. p. 7.

Deacons are of being thus admonished by a number classed with midwives; and sharp pun- of private citizens, and they clergymen! ishments are required to be inflicted on İn another piece, entitled “a supthem for officiating as ministers, when plication to the high court of parliadeacons had been considered, from time inent,"' we find these words : “Unless immemorial, one order of ministers in without delay, you labour to cleanse the the Christian church, and as such were church of all lord bishops, dumb minissolemnly ordained in the church of ters, non-residents, archdeacons, comEngland !

inissaries, and all other Romish officers Again, in the same admonition, "You and offices, there tolerated, and so tolemay not do as heretofore you have rated, as by the consent and authority done, patch and piece; nay, rather go of the parliament they are maintained ; backward, and never labour or contend that you are, both in this life and the 10 perfection. God has by us revealed life to come, likely to be subject unto unto you, at this present, the sincerity the untolerable mass of God's wrath, and simplicity of his gospel; not that the execution whereof is not unlikely you should, either wilfully withstand, to fall upon you and your houses, unor ungraciously tread the same under less you prevent the fierceness of the your feet; for God doth not disclose Lord's indignation.” Supplic. p. 18. bis will to any such end; but that you So again, p. 19. “Shall you of the high should yet now at the length, with all court of parliament be dispensed with, your main and might, endeavour that being guilty (except you labour to reChrist, whose easy yoke and light bur. move the dumb ministry, non-residents, then we have of long time cast off from with the usurped and anti-Christian us, might rule and reign in bis church.” seats of lord bishops, &c.) of tolerating This easy yoke and light burthen was and establishing greater sins, &c.not to the Geneva platform of church disci. be tolerated by your authority, unless you pline.

think that you may tolerate sin by your In the second admonition, written by laws; nor yet once to be spoken for or Cartwright, in the name of the whole countenanced, unless you would plead body of the puritans, the parliament for Baal.” This extract clearly shows, were told, “ That the state did not that their design was, to erect tbeir shew itself upright, allege the parlia- system upon the ruins of that which ment what it will; that all honest men then existed ; to make the Genevan should find lack of equity, and all good platform the establishment, removing 9


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the bishops and all the clergy who were sacrifice of a holy, learned ministry, not of their own party, and refusing that he may smell a savour of rest ; toleration to episcopalians, however then, undoubtedly, he will be appeased conscientious they might be, because towards this land." The foulest of all it would be unlawful to tolerate sin. the queen's sins was the dumb ministry,

Similar language was used in ad. ie. the bishops and conforming elergy: dresses to the queen. In a petition, and when she had confessed and removsaid to be from the commonalty, occur ed this sin, and offered to the Lord in the following expressions : “And to his temple the sacrifice of a boly, learnconceal nothing from your majesty, we ed ministry, i.e. established the puritan are greatly moved at the hearing of the ministers, as rulers of the church, then sermons of the godly preachers; for they the Lord would smell a savour of rest, plainly say, that if the Lord his matters as he did when Noah offered a sacrifice fi. e. the Geneva platform] be not re- after the deluge, and his anger

would garded, but still cast aside, and temporal be appeased. security sought for only by the wisdom The same spirit and temper were of man, that then there is a heavy judg. displayed in the famous libels, under ment provided by the Lord, and a black the signature of Martin Mar-prelate, cloud hanging in the air, for that he will which, it has been already observed, not be continually rejected,': &c. This were written by some of the leading was written at a time when the kingdom puritans. Take the following address was threatened with an invasion ; and to all the clergy, part ii.

My desire that the queen might be looked upon is, to have the matter tryed, whether as the cause of the calamities of the your places ought to be tolerated in nation, because she would not comply any Christian commonwealth? I say with the demands of the party, they they ought not.Thus again: 6 This add, “God hath many times, and by learned discourse is a book* allowed by divers means, heretofore knocked, not all the puritan preachers in the land only by his gracious blessings and sun- who would have all the remnants and dry petitions, but also by his fearful relicts of antichrist banished out of the threatenings. For undoubtedly as often church, and not so much as a lord biskas the Lord hath shaken his iron rod op, (no, not his grace himself,) dumb at your grace, by the sons of Belial, the minister, (no, not dumb John of Lonpapists, so many times hath he shewed don himself,) non-resident, arch-deacon, himself offended and displeased, for abby-lubber, or any such loyterer, tolethat you have not as yet given unto rated in our ministry.Will any one him the honour of bis temple, and the say, after reading these extracts from glory of his sanctuary. Wherefore, the authentick and official documents most gracious sovereign, let him not of the puritans, that their object was have the occasion to shake his rod any to obtain a toleration for themselves,

As to themselves they or to practise toleration towards others ? say, that God had withdrawn his judg. Will any one say, that theirs was a ments upon their account, having re- quiet and peaceable religion, or that spect to his name, and to the prayers of" they had any idea of what is now his little flock." At the same time, meant by the term religious liberty? their injunction to the queen is, "Make an entire and simple confession of your * A treatise, by the puritans, entitled " A sins. If, after this humble confession of learned discourse of ecclesiastical governsins, with a full resolution to remove ment,” which was answered by Dr. Bridges

, them, and, first of all, this dumb minis. dean of Sarum, and afterwards bishop of Öx

ford, in his “Defence of the government try, which is the foulest of all, you shall established in the church of England, for also offer to the Lord in his temple the ecclesiastical matters.” 4to. 1587.

more,” &c.

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Or will any candid map affirm, that the requisitions of government, and ani. blame of those unhappy dissentions and mosities had been suffered to subside severities, is to rest entirely upon the and soften, the whole nation would episcopal part of the church of England ? have been united in one communion.

We are apt to judge of the actions But this goodly design was marred by of past times, by the prevailing opinions the opposition of the small but active of the present; but this inevitably leads party who, while in exile, had become do wrong conclusions. Schism has now attached to the Genevan system of disbecome so common, that it is scarcely cipline.* They in fact made a diregarded as a crime. The smallest version in favour of popery. They and most trifling diversities of senti- established their presbyteries two years ment are now thought sufficient to war- before the papists separated. And rant the separation of Christians into it is a well established fact, that their different communions. In short, the proceedings were a cause of great requestion to what religious society men joicing at Rome; that they encouraged are to belong, is now most generally the popish party to greater exertions ; decided by accidental circumstances, and that they were fomented by emisby taste or fancy, and sometimes by saries, sent expressly, with a license political views, and other motives of from the pope, to assume the character worldly interest. It was not so then. of puritan teachers. The only thing which was then con- Political motives, too, were as strong sidered as justifying separation was the as religious, for the preservation of requisition of sinful terms of communion. unity. The popish party were still In this principle all Christians were strong. Many of the most powerful agreed. When, therefore, queen Eli- and wealthy, among the nobility and zabeth came to the throne, and the gentry, were still wedded to the faith, church of England was to be settled in and ceremonies, and external splena permanent form, and its rules made dour, of the Romish ritual. Great numthe law of the land, not a single indi. bers of the bishops and clergy still vidual in the nation had any idea of a remained, who, though deprived and separation into different communions. overawed by the strong hand of governFor ten years after her accession, the ment, would bave been ready to take papists continued to attend the parish advantage of another revolution, as they churches, and receive the communion did in the days of Mary. The most from the parish clergy. Nor was it powerful governments of Europe, Spain, till the pope had issued his bull of ex- France, and Austria, were subject to communication against Elizabeth, in the influence of the pope, and ready to 1568, that they withdrew and formed invade England, whenever a favourable separate assemblies. In settling the opportunity should be presented. church, therefore, it was the object of Unity, therefore, being required by the queen, and of the wise statesmen by the strongest motives which could opewhom her councils were chiefly direct- rate on the human mind, and being the ed, to conduct all the details of the sole object of all parties in the state, ecclesiastical establishment in such a the question between the government manner as might harmonize the discordant materials of which her king, that the English exiles at Geneva, who

* It is computed, by bishop Maddox, dom was composed. If all who had were the germ of the puritans, did not renounced the errours of the church of amount, ministers and people, to more than Rome bad united in effecting this great one hundred. And of these ministers, seveobject, it was probable, as far as human ral, though they preferred the Geneva model,

yet could, and actually did, comply with the perspicacity could judge, that, after a established form, and were beneficed in the few years had given strength to the church.



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and the puritans was reduced to a sin. of great consequence to the queen to gle alternative Either the puritans be able to give so good a reason, when were to be put into power, and the she refused a favour importunately askGenevan system established by law; ed by such formidable powers.

All or else the existing establishment must these advantages would have been lost, be supported, and the puritans required if the Genevan system had been adoptto conform to it. If the first part of ed, after the lapse of a few years.

It the alternative had been adopted, what would have justly exposed the English would have been the consequence ? reformation to the charge of instability; Episcopacy would have been proscrib- would have destroyed the respect of ed; Calvinism would have been made foreign nations, and rendered the queen the law of the land ; the great majority contemptible even in the eyes of her of the clergy would have been expelled, own subjects. or forced to compliance from unworthy The question, therefore, which premotives ; the great body of the nation sented itself, even in a political point would have been made to yield to the of view, to the then existing governhumours of a few; the papists would ment, was not whether there was to have een strengthened by the co-ope- be any establishment at all, for on this ration of the Lutherans and Episcopa- point puritans and papists did not differ lians; the foreign potentates would from the reigning authority ; but whehave received a powerful support in ther king Edward's reformation, as retheir projected invasion; and the gove established by queen Elizabeth, was ernment might have been overturned, more proper and comprehensive than and popery again established. the Geneva platform ? Was it better

On the other hand, the reformation accommodated to take in the generality of the church of England, as it had been of the nation, and unite protestants ? established by king Edward, was held If so, the exclusion of those who were in great esteem abroad; was looked unalterably attached to another form, upon by the most temperate protestants, was an effect that necessarily followed as a happy inedium between the Calvin- the establishment of the better plan. ists and Lutherans ; had been settled Whether the government were guilty upon very mature advice and conside- of excessive rigour in the prosecution ration ; had not only been twice before of their design, is a question which is confirmed by parliament, but had also not to be determined in the abstract, been universally complied with. This but must be viewed in connexion with gave the queen a great advantage the temper and the principles of the when the popish bishops advised her times, and the peculiar dangers to which

not to be led astray and persuaded the government of England was exto embrace schisms and heresies, in posed.

J. lieu of the catholick faith,” for she justly Boston, January 5, 1822. replied, that she should embrace wbat they themselves had formerly complied with; and then asked who were the

PRAYER FOR WINTER. TRANSLATED sehismaticks and hereticks? When the emperor and the popish princes warmly O God, most wise, Maker and Go. interposed for the popish bishops and vernour of the universe, obeying whose clergy, she was able to return for an- commands the world is changed by set swer, that they opposed the laws and seasons, and through them ever peace of the realm, by wilfully reject- volves-behold, winter, as if the old ng what many of them had publickly age and death of the year is come ; owned and declared in their sermons, whose gloom and inclemency, that we suring the reign of Edward. It was may the more lightly bear them, the



grateful spring is made quickly to suc- Tell, Sionition, what th' unearthly strains ceed. So, after the manner of the That heaven's inhabitants now poured forth : year, this our corporeal man flourisheth Breathes but God's presence ; where our

llail clipe of holiness, they sung, where all in infancy, glows in youth, matureth in

ravish'u sight a riper age; as time glides on, de. Beholds him, as he was, or is to be ; clineth and expires. But the horrours Beholds th' ineffable without that veil,

That imitative worlds must never pierce. of death are stilled by the hope of a resurrection, which hath been made. And bless them, with thy looks of purest love.

We see thee, King, 'mid thy redeemed stand, most sure to us, through the promise of How art thou perfect, God: true names thee thy Son, who is truth eternal, and heaven who can no more be deceived, or de. Jehovah ! inexpressible ! unseen! ceive, than cease to be thy Sun.- Our notes, that charm each seraph, strive in

vain Through him, our spiritual man know. To express thy majesty! O! can the thought eth not old age nor death ; but by bis Of e'en immortals dare to speak thy glory? continual

grace, buds in innocence, O power mysterious! Eternal thou ! advanceth in piety, beareth fruit and Thou, sole amid thy wonders, perfect shio'st. disseminates to others, what it hath re

Each smallest thing, that thou imaginest, ceived from him; and the more the Than all the thoughts, which slowly agitate

Teems with omniscience; sublimer far vigour of the body declineth, So Thine angels' breasts, mid stili revolving much the more doth the spirit flourish. hours. We pray, that those things, which O God! and deign'st thou to behold before

thee, thou hast seen fit to grant by thine only Son, thou wouldst deign to fos- Who, at thy word, were scatter'd forth to

And shed thy kindly influence upon those, ter and to increase, through him, who nought; liveth with thee, and reigneth for ever. Those, whom a breath could bid to live again. Amen.

First hast thou fram'd the heavens! then

thine hand Stoop'd to form us, to walk them forth with


Thou wert not then, thou younger universe ! For the Gospel Advocate.

Nor thou bright sun, and silver-streaming


How was't with theet creation's first proTranslated from the original German of duce; K lopstock.

Thou that sprang new from out eternity ;

On whose full orbit sits the all-avenger's (Continued from vol. i. p. 382.)

throne. Such a way pursu'd E’en thy immeasurable round partook Gabriel, and soon approach'd the seats of God. The greatness of thy Maker; him, whose 'Midst where the suns conjoin their radiance,

voice Rears itself heaven; a round unmeasur'd orb; Spake the first rushing of thy chrystal seas ; The prototype of earth. Like flowing streams, Their climes, extended like a countless world Each charm of eye pours o'er the unknown of mountains heap'd together, heard his space:

words ! Each time it movęs, upon the wings of winds, Angel immortal, yet had heard them never: Tunes forth, among the suns, a harmony. Still but one Being! Ruler of the world, That earth knows pot. The harps of spirits Thou stood'st, and lonely look’dst upon thythere

self, Emit those sounds, which floating towards Sole on thy throne of might: Refulgent pow'r,

Then formed thou the seraphs, and the bands Sooth him that formed all ; be, who appoints Of countless spirits full of awe, and thoughts The prize of each bright chorister ; who looks, That the Eternal had himself inspir’d. With eye of joy, upon his works! Thus swell’d Praises to thee, thou first of beings ! sing Their grateful notes the choristers of God : Thou harp, a strain unending! Let the voice Thou who bast taught us songs of heavenly Of hallelujahs wake th’ Eternal's praise ! Thou who see'st God; who hear'st the words * The tutelar genius of Sion or Jerusalem.


his ear

+ The heavens.


of angels;

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