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They deny the prince's authority in Christian magistrate is bound to receive making laws ecclesiastical ; which they this government by pastors, doctors, el. do attribute to their synod.
ders, and deacons, into the church within Though in words they will not his dominions, whatsoever inconvenience deny the oath of supremacy, yet in may be like to follow the receiving of it; very truth they take it away ; for they that those who withstand it, bold it to say she is supreme governour over all be lawful for her majesty and the state, persons, and all causes ecclesiastical, to bid God to batile against them; and but not in causes ecclesiastical, for they that they make our prince and goverattribute no more to her, but to establish nour wage war against God. their discipline, and to defend them, " Against her majesty's safety in the from time to time, in the execution of it, kingdom. which is nuda potestas facti et non juris; That the government of the church an authority attributed by the papists is aristocratical or popular ; and that unto their princes.
the government of the commonwealth “ That her majesty, being a child of must be framed according to the governthe church, is subject to the censures of ment of the church ; even as the hangings excommunication by their eldership, as to the church, [the house. ] well as any other people ; and that no “ Against the state and policy of the man ought to aid, comfort, salute, or realm. obey, an excommunicate person; and “ That the judicial law of Moses, that so long as one is excommunicated, for punishing divers sins by death, is he cannot exercise his magistracy. in force, and ought to be observed in
“ That all persons, as well as meaner every coinnonwealth, as commanded persons, must willingly be ruled and by Gol; and therefore, that no prince governed, and must obey those whom nor law can, or ought to save the lives God hath set over then, that is, the just of wilful offenders, not offending by authority of ecclesiastical magistrates, ignorance only; nor of blasphemers of and must lick the dust off the feet of the God's name ; nor of conjurers, soothchurch.*
sayers, persons possess’d with an evil “ Tbat the eldership and synods are spirit; HERETICKS, perjured persons, to call and proclaiın publick fasts ; that wilful breakers of the sabbath day, negthe offices of this church of England are lecters of the sacraments, without just invented by the magistrate, and so no reasons ; disobedient to parents, or members of Christ's body; that she that curse them. doth injure the church to keep the true * That ministers of duty, not only officers out; that she maimeth and de- may, but ought to determine and decreo formeth the body of Christ; that every of all, both civil and ecclesiastical
causes ; though not of the very fact, as These again are the words of Cartwright, civil magistrates do, yet touching the the great leader of the puritans; the force of which cannot be well perceived, but by give right, and what the law is ; for that ing a more enlarged extract from his defence thereof they are appointed of God to of the admonition : "It must be remember'd be administrators. that civil magistrates must govern the church " The second sort of puritans now according to the rules of God, prescribed in
called Barrowists. his word, and that, as they are nourises, (nurses,] so they be servants unto the church;
“ They do hold all the former posi. and as they rule in the church, so they must tions; and besides, they also hold ihese remember to subject themselves unto the church, errours following. 10 submit their sceptres, to throw down their 1. That it is not lawful to use the crowns before the church; yea, as the pro- Lord's prayer publickly, in the church, phet speaketh, to lick the dust of the feet of
for a set form of the church.” Def. of Adm. p. 180. A very
prayer. 2. That all palatable doctrine this to Elizabeth.
set and stinted prayers are neer bab.
bling in the sight of the Lord; and not clesiastical authority; in a word, to to be used in publick Christian assem- arrogate to themselves the whole power blies. 3. That the publick prayers of the nation.
The references conand worship of God in England, as it tained in the first statement are exis by law, in the church of England pressed so briefly, that their seditious established, is false, superstitious, po- character is not as obvious as it would pish, and not to be used in any Chris be, if the quotations were given at tian congregation. 4. That the church length; but in this way we might fill of England, as it is now establish'd, is a volume. A few examples must sufno lawful government, nor Christian, fice. but anti-Christian, and popish. 6. That In the town of Bury, where the the sacraments of baptism and the ministers and justices of the peace were Lord's supper, as they are adıninistered puritans, and the whole town, as Strype 1 in the church of England, be not true says, “ remarkably affected to puritan. sacraments. 7. That infants ought not ism," they painted in the churchi, under 1 to be baptized according to the form of the queen's arms, this sentence from baptism, administered in the church of Rev. ii. 20. “ Notwithstanding I have England, but are rather to be kept un- a few things against thee, that thou baptized. And that such as have been sufferest the wonden Jezebel, wbich baptized according to that form, are maketh herself a prophetess, to teach noi rightly baptized. 8. That the and to deceive my servants ; make laws ecclesiastical, that are established them commit fornication, and to eat by authority of the queen and realm, meat sacrificed unto idols.” This, be not lawsul. 9. That if the prince Strype informs us, was done after conor magistrate do refuse or defer to re. sultation and advice upon it, when they form such faults as are amiss in the had suffered no severities, but their church, the people may take the reform- non-conformity had been treated with ing of them into their own hands, before great indulgence. or without his authority. 10. That "Kings, princes, and governours," the presbytery and eldership say, for says Gilby," have their authority of sonie causes, after admonition, (if there the people, and upon occasion the
no reforination) excommunicate people may take it away again, as the queen. 11. That the church of men may revoke their proxies, and England (as it standeth pow by law letters of atturney. It is lawful to kill established) professeth not a true Cbrist, wicked kings und tyrants ; the subjects nor true religion ; that it halh no minis- did kill the queen's highness Athalia : ters indeed, nor sacraments indeed; Jehu killd the queen's majesty Jezaand therefore, they will communicate bel: Elias, being no mugistrute, kill'd with us neither in prayer nor sacra- the queen's mojesties chaplains, Baal's ments ; nor' come to our churches, priests : These examples are left for our which they call popish parish assem- instruction. Where justice is not exe. blies."
cuted, the state is most corrupt. If It will be seen, from these state- neither the inferiour inagistrates, nor ments, that the government looked the greatest part of the people will do upon the puritans in the same light in their offices; then the ministers must which the radicals are considered at excommunicate such a king.” This the present day; as persons who were Gilby was one of the English exiles, disposed to subvert the whole consti. with Knox, and Goodman, and Whittution. It was evidently their design tingham, at Geneva. It is well known to set up a government like that of the that Knox openly maintained the same Jewish theocracy, in which the civil doctrine, that princes might be deposed should be under subjection to the ec. and put to death by their subjects;
and in his “Blast against the monstrous right sorry to understand, that the regiment and empire of women,” he order of common prayer, set forth by maintained, that it was altogether un- the common consent of the realm, aud lawful for women to reign. “ To by the authority of the parliament, in promote a woman to bear rule, superi- the first year of her reign, wherein was ority, dominion, or empire, above any nothing contained but the scripture of realm, nation, or city, is repugnant to God, and that which was consonant nature, contumely to God, a thing most unto it, was, now of late, of some men
contrarious to his revealed will, and despised and spoke against, both by i approved ordinance; and, finally, it is open preachings and writings; and of
the subversion of all equity and justice." some bold and vain-curious inen, new Such was the first sentence and princi- and other rites found out and frequentpal proposition of the work. Queen ed, whereupon contentions, sects, and Elizabeth took so much offence at it, disquietness, did arise among her peothat she would not grant permission to ple, and for one godiy and unitori Knox to pass through her dominions. order, diversity of rites and ceremonies,
My first blast,” says be, in a letter disputations and contentions, schismis from Dieppe, in 1559, “ hath blown and divisions, were already risen, and from me all my friends in England." more like to ensue ; the cause of which Goodman, Whittingham, and Gilby, disorders her majesty did plainly underavowed the same obnoxious opinion ; stand to be THE NEGLIGENCE OF THE and as it came from Geneva, and was BISHOPS and other magistrates, who thus supported by some of the principal should cause the good laws and acts of puritans, there is every reason to be- parliament made in this behalf to be liere, that the queen considered it as a better executed, and not 'so dissembled part of their system.
The state of and winked at, as hitherto it might apaffairs in Scotlani tended to confirm pear that they had been." ber in this belief. She saw ere the Very important and strong testimony prostration of the royal authority at the to the mildness of the bishops is given, feet of the same system, which the in a letter from the lords of the council puritans were labouring to introduce to the archbishop. “ After our hearty into England ; and it was natural for commendation to your lordship. By so sagacious and resolute a defender of her majesty's proclaination, dated Ocber prerogative, to anticipate a similar tober 20, it appears how careful the result, and to take active measures to queen's majesty is, that the order set present it.
forth in the book of common prayer, The puritans cast all the odium of allowed by parliament in the first year her severities upon the bishops, be. of her majesty's reign, should be secause, by so doing, they served a verely and uniformly kept throughout
purpose ; they could attack the the real!n; and that the fault why such diepiscopal character with greater safety rersities have of late been taken up in than the royal, and by rendering the many churches, and thereupon conten- )bishops odious, the way would be pre- tions and uniseemly disputations risen, pared for the elevation of the presby. in her bighness's opinion, is most in terian platform. But the bishops were you, to whom the special care of ecso far from being the prime movers in clesiastical matters doth appertain, and the severities against the puritans, that who have your visitations, episcopal, they actually incurred the displeasure archidiaconal, and your synods, and of the queen for what she was pleased such other meeting of the clergy, first to consider their remissness. In the and chiefly ordaind for that purpose, year 1573, she issued a proclamation, to keep all churches in your diocese in in which she declared, that she “ was one uniform and godly order. Nothing is required, but that godly and seemly be attributed to the proper cause, and orders, allow'd by the queen's majesty let the obloquy fall upon the real auand whole realm, be kept, the which, thors. except you did wink at and dissemble, There is no disposition to justify the there needed not these new proclamations arbitrary notions, which then existed, and strait calling upon,'' &c.
of the royal prerogative, or to defend They conclude their letter with that servility which would tamely surthese strong and pointed expressions : render the liberties of the subject. “Wherefore if now you would take, The contest which arose between the for your part, care and beed, and government of England and the puriso the rest of your fellow hishops, the tans, was directed by the good proviquiet of the realm might soon be pur- dence of God, so as to subserve the chased in our mind, touching any such cause of civil liberty, in the same manmatters, which should be great pleasure ner as storms and hurricanes restore to her majesty, and comfort unto us. salubrity to a vitiated atmospbere. But The neglecting whereof, how grievous in conteniplating the blessings which it will be to her highness, and what have followed this mighty concussion, danger may be to you, her highness let us not attribute undeserved credit hath express’d in the said proclamation. to the subordinate agents by whom it Thus praying you to consider these has been accomplished. things, and withal speedily to put order Though the purilans had correct in them, and from time to time to cer- views upon the abstract questions of tify us what you have done herein, to the civil polity, and were right in deriving fulfilling of her majesty's desire, we the autbority of the governour from bid you most heartily farewell. From the consent of the governed, yet they Greenwich, the 7th of Novem. 1573.” had no idea of religious freedom. On It gives great weight to this testimony that subject, even papal infallibility to the mildness and indulgence of the could not be more exclusive or bishops towards the puritans, that it arbitrary. Their discipline they conwas signed by the lord Burleigh, lord sidered as the law of Christ, and, thereLeicester, and sir Francis Knollys, the fore, as binding upon the conscience. awo last of whom were remarkably at. A departure from it was, therefore, an tached to the puritans, and the earl of act of rebellion against God, and, as Leicester, in particular, was considered such, must be punished by the secular as their great patron).
To use the quaint, but forcible The bishops, from their office, were language of one of the writers of Newobliged to preside in the ecclesiastical England, “ To authorize an untruth by courts, and thus to appear prominent toleration of the state," was, in their in the rigorous proceedings against the estimation, “to build a sconce against puritans; but they were no more to the walls of heaven, to batter God out le blamed for this, than the civil judges of his chair.” In tracing the causes, would have been, in the like case, for therefore, which have led to the freecarrying into effect the law of the land. dom of religious profession in this counIn every instance, in which it could be try, very little credit is to be given to done, they interceded with the queen the puritans. If the United States had for the mitigation of punishment, and been settled entirely by men of the it would be easy to produce many in- same sentiments as the Plymouth colostances, in which, under the greatest nists, is it likely that the present freedom personal provocations, they sought to of the different religious denominations turn aside the seferity of the law. would have existed ? Is it likely that Whatever, therefore, inay have been there would have been such a total disthe hardships of the puritans, let them memberment between the church and
more 4 a
the state ?-_or that there would have Heylin and Neal may be considered as been even a toleration for men of dif- the antipodes of the controversy, beferent sentiments ?
tween the church of England and the No. Tbe real cause of the present dissenters, nothing has been adopted state of things has been the heteroge- on the single authority of either. neous character of our primitive popu. lation. Tbe establishments made here by the mother country, being often the preference of a few to the many, as in [The following communication has Ireland, created a prejudice against all almost tempted us to congratulate our. establishments; and situated as this selves and our readers, on the publica
tion of the ill-natured pamphlet to which country was, after the revolution, it was wise in our statesmen to give pro given occasion to so elegant and spirit
it refers ;, since the perusal of it has tection to all, but support to none.
ed a version of the 108th psalm.] What may be the result of an experiment, hitherto untried among the
To the Editor of the Gospel Advocate. nations of the earth, time only can de. The spirit of the Christian religion is termine. Perhaps, the indulgence and assuredly a pure and a holy spirit. expansion of religious feeling, to use Yet, in controversy, on the most bailowthe beautiful thought, and, as nearly as ed subjects, this principle is almost unipossible, the beautiful language of Mr. versally forgotten. The gospel, which Webster, like the elemental fires, will came to us in purity and peace, can only agitate and purify the atmosphere; only be successfully preached and deand when the fatal tendency of religious fended, in a spirit as pure and holy as dissension has been sufficiently felt, and its own. men bave grown wise by suffering, The rack and the faggot have done Christians will again be “ of one heart just nothing to retard its progress; and as and of one soul,” and will continue little has been effected in its favour, by “steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine, the rage and the ribaldry of polemicks. and fellowship, and in breaking of I am a layman, and would most subbread, and in prayers."
missively inquire of any pope, or carBoston, January 11, 1822.
dinal, or controversial divine, could I
be permitted to approach, under safe ** If your readers should be dis- conduct, or in some happy interval of posed to become further acquainted peace, from which of the evangelists is with this subject, or should be desirous to be selected the most elegant example of examining the authorities, from which of satirical composition ! Which of the the statements, contained in this and the apostles has most effectually promoted last communication, have been taken; the ends of Christianity, by expressions they will derive great satisfaction from of acrimony and ridicule against its ada comparison of Neal's bistory of the versaries ! Is there one drop of gall, puritans, with the answer to that very in the whole matter, of which the new unfair and uncandid work, by bishop testament is made ! And, if there be Maddox and Dr Grey. Reference has not, am I to attribute this remarkable occasionally been made to Strype, Bur. deficiency to the affluence, and ease, net, the second volume of Collier's and undisturbed repose of the apostles, ecclesiastical history, Heylin's history contrasted with the “necessities and of the presbyterians, Fox's book of distresses, the stripes and imprisonmartyrs, volume third, Stillingfleet's un- ments, the tumults, the labours, the reasonableness of separation, M'Crie's watchings, and fastings" of our polemilife of Knox, and Calderwood's his- cal divines ! tory of the church of Scotland. As The most eloquent and popular ora12
ADVOCATE, VOL. 11.