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Her father died of a broken heart on learning her cruel fate. Her mother, for twenty years, was supported by an alms from the citizens of Orleans-three francs a month' (so states the official document in the archives of the city), 'to help her to live. Of her brothers, John and

' Peter, we know little. One petitioned the Duke of Orleans (when he was restored from his thraldom in England) for assistance, pleading that he had been with his sister from an early part of her military career, and that it was in consequence of her victory the Duke had preserved his estates in Orleans. The Duke, in acknowledgment, made him a grant of land. Both John and Peter had taken the name of Du Lis from the lily given them for their armorial bearings when Charles ennobled the whole family, during his short fit of gratitude, after Jeanne had conducted him to receive his crown at Rheims. Of these brothers, and of her aged mother, we shall hear more in due place, especially when we come to speak of that great event, twenty-five years after Jeanne's death, when her cruel trial was examined into, and pronounced to be perfidious and unjust,' and the innocence of the glorious Maid established throughout the world.1

1 Monstrelet; Hollingshed; Histoire de France; Henri Martin ; Barante; History of France; Universal History; Précis Histoire de France; Dictionnaire de France; Moreri.


The Martyrdom of the Maid of no Advantage to the English-Bedford

brings the Boy Henry to be crowned in Paris-returns to Rouen -Suffering State of Paris—Bedford loses his Duchess-his Second Marriage - Conspiracy against Trémoille – Richmond true to Charles-Duke of Orleans ransomed-returns to France-a New Government arranged-Marie of Anjou Wife of Charles—Yolande and Agnes Sorel — Influence of Agnes over Charles- Jacques Caur the great Merchant-his extraordinary Career—the Conference at Arras–Nothing settled-Deaths of Bedford and Isabella of Bavaria - Paris taken by Richmond's Plan-surrenders to Charles.

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T does not seem that the martyrdom of the

Maid proved of much advantage to the
English. Their troops, though no longer dis-

heartened by superstitious fear, were by no means eager to be led on to fresh contests of aggression. They always hated, more especially the archers (who were principally drawn from the rural population), to cross the seas for continental warfare. 1 Charles, on his part, soon found that it would have been well for his cause had he attempted to save Jeanne; for though the spirit which her heroism had called forth continued to burn throughout France, several among his captains and friends looked on her loss as ominous of evil, and many a severe reverse had he still to sustain whilst the strife of arms was going on.

1 Hollingshed.

We are not about to inflict on the reader the detail of sieges, battles, conferences, truces, and negotiations which took place till the English were finally driven from the land. From this multitude of events we propose merely to select the most striking; knowing that, after the death of Jeanne, little interest can be felt for the sovereign who requited her services with such signal ingratitude.

At this time the Duke of Burgundy had many political difficulties. He had long entertained a growing dissatisfaction with his allies, and had no affection for the Regent to render him desirous to support the claims of the child Henry. His own subjects, who had lost men, towns, and money by the war, were heartily tired of it, and as with one voice demanded peace-peace with France. Bedford soon observed the shadow of the cloud which, in the withdrawal of Burgundy's friendship, was pending over him. He feared, likewise, that the gathering storm was extending to Paris; for, when last there, he had observed the sure symptoms of a change in the public mind towards himself. Bedford was

a deep - thinking man, and knew the character of the Parisians-gay even in misery, excitable, fond of the splendid and the sensational. He

He determined, therefore, in the hope to regain their favour, to give them the spectacle of a grand coronation at Notre Dame; and



for this purpose he would bring the little Henry to the capital. He did so in the December of 1431, and the boy was crowned with all the magnificence of the period -with feasting, pageantry, and revelry.

But no one seemed much moved by the event except Queen Isabella, the mother of Charles vii. She was at the Hôtel St. Pol, attended by her ladies, to see the procession in honour of her grandson, the little King. As it passed, she approached a window; he looked up, took off his cap, and saluted her. She bent her head, then turned aside, and wept bitterly. Did she weep for the sorrow of her wicked deeds? for having, from a feeling of resentment, conspired with his enemies to procure the disinheritance of her own son in favour of her son-in-law, the father of the child who doffed his cap to her, to secure whose succession the best blood both of England and France had been spilt? Or did Isabella weep for the loss of that power she had abused ? for that splendour which had passed away, and left her unregarded to a solitude rendered doubly bitter by the neglect of those she had sinned to serve? Those

" English,' says the Parisian chronicler, to whom she had given a kingdom, now hardly allowed her daily bread.'1

Soon after, the newly made King of France and his Regent returned to Rouen, leaving much dissatisfaction, and as much poverty and misery behind them as existe in Paris before their arrival. The attempt to dazzle and

Journal du Bourgeois du Paris; Monstrelet.



win back the favour of the people had utterly failed; and Bedford had a new source of trouble in the death of his estimable wife, Anne of Burgundy. He did not long sorrow for her: for in a short time after her decease he married a near relative and vassal of her brother Philip of Burgundy, without asking his consent; and the proud Duke never forgave him.

In 1432, an event occurred which entirely changed the aspect of Charles' affairs. A conspiracy was formed to rid him of his worthless minister and favourite, La Trémoille. The head of it was Charles d'Anjou, Count de Maine, brother of Marie, wife of the King. He was encouraged to take a part in it by his mother, the Duchess Yolande. We know how highly she estimated the Constable Richmond, who, though exiled from Court by Charles himself, had refused the most splendid offers of wealth and command if he would join the English cause, and remained faithful to his country and his sovereign. Yolande recommended the conspirators to gain over Richmond to head their plot, and conduct the execution of it. There was certainly much to admire in his character of undaunted courage and loyalty. But Richmond was a feudal lord of the severest type; vindictive, violent, even cruel; of a fierce superstition, ever seeking out and burning witches and sorcerers without pity or remorse. He was nothing loth to join the conspiracy. One dreary winter's night of 1432, there arrived at the

1 Mémoires de Richemont, p. 414.

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