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our late queen Elizabeth, which by the public act of the CHARLES Church of England, and by the general and current expositions of the writers of our Church, have been delivered unto us.


thirty ArtiAnd we reject the sense of the Jesuits, and Arminians, and cles. all others wherein they differ from us."

The commons being thus decisive in points of religion and mystery, was somewhat surprising: it was thought the resolution of these matters, in which the most learned clergy were so much divided, had been more proper for a provincial council ; that the setting a rule for belief was foreign to the business of the commons; that their profession had not qualified them for inquiries of this kind : and that they had neither character or authority for settling the controversy. To instance, in one clause of their declaration, “ they vow for truth the sense of the articles, which were established by parliament, in the thirteenth year of queen Elizabeth.”

But, by the way, neither the sense of the articles, nor the articles themselves, are established either in that parliament, or in any other. We hear of no committee of religion appointed to examine the orthodoxy of these credenda, or any resolution of the house upon their report. The design of the statute, as has been already observed, was only to provide 13 Eliz. against non-conformity; for which purpose the clergy are cap. 12. obliged to subscribe the articles, and read them in their parish churches.

The commons were by no means pleased with the administration; they insinuated Popery and Arminianism were in a concert to undermine the constitution, and make way for arbitrary government. That the juncture called for an inquiry into 748. the pardon that had been granted, and the ecclesiastical preferments bestowed since the last session: that the work of the Lord” must not be “done negligently ;” and that the business of religion ought to have the preference to that of tonnage and poundage. And the committee being settled, Mr. Pym spoke to the following effect :

Religion,” he said, “ was distressed with Popery and They comArminianism. As to the first, they ought to inquire into three plain of things. First, The non-execution of the laws against Papists. in religion. Secondly, How much these recusants had been employed and countenanced. Thirdly, They were to take notice of the


ABBOT, breach made upon the law by bringing in superstitious cereAbp. Cant.

monies.” And here he instances in the innovations pretended to be practised at Durham, by Mr. Cozens : such as angels, crucifixes, saints, altars, candles on Candlemas-day burning in the church.

Now, if Pym meant invocation of saints and angels, and worshipping the cross, or the altar, it was a downright calumny on Cozens : but if this is not his meaning, his charge is trifling, and nothing to the purpose. Then speaking to the point of Arminianism, he passes the “ Lambeth Articles" for the doctrine of the Church of England : taking this for granted, he would have a test for examining the late contrary opinions : and moves that an inquiry may be made what men have been since preferred, who have professed these heresies : what pardons they have had for false doctrine: what books have been prohibited that appeared against them, and how much those on their side have been suffered to pass.

Pursuant to this speech, the committee excepted to the par

dons of Montague and Manwaring, complained of Neile, bishop Idem. of Winchester, for procuring them, and call an Arminian the March A.D. 1628-9. spawn of a Papist. And thus the humour rising high against The parlia- the court in the lower house, the king dissolved the parment dissolved.


This year Toby Mathew, archbishop of York, departed this

life, and was succeeded by Montaign. Leighton's

Before the breaking up of the parliament, one Leighton, a scandalous Scotchman, and doctor of physic, dedicated a scandalous book pamphlet.

to the two houses, entituled, “ Sion's Plea." In this frantic performance he solicits his patrons to “kill all the bishops, and smite them under the fifth rib.” His manners to the queen are of the same extraordinary rudeness : for he salutes her majesty in no better language than that of an idolatress, a Canaanite, and

a daughter of Heth. For these coarse liberties he was taken A, D. 1629. up, brought into the Star-chamber, and sentenced to have his

ears cropped, his nose slit, his forehead branded, and to be whipped. Between the sentence and the execution, he made

his escape out of the Fleet; but was seized in Bedfordshire, Cyprian. and suffered the punishment'. Anglic.

1 The punishment of this Leighton has frequently been called unjustifiably severe ; but surely his conduct was criminal and offensive in the bighest degree, and perhaps deserved still worse treatment.


Laud, who had now the ascendant at court, being sensible CHARLES the discipline and revenues of the Church were mismanaged, and out of order, was intent in projecting a remedy. To this purpose he consulted Harsenet, who succeeded Montaign in the see of York: these two prelates threw their scheme into ten articles, and presented them to the king. This draught was signed by his majesty, and published under the title of his “ Instructions to the Most Reverend Father in God, George, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, containing certain Orders to be observed and put in execution by the several Bishops in his Province.” The instructions are these following:




The king's “ I. That the lords the bishops be commanded to their instructions several sees, there to keep residence ; excepting those which bishop of

Canterbury, are at necessary attendance on the court.

“ II. That none of them reside upon his land or lease that he hath purchased, nor on his commendam, if he hold any; but in one of his episcopal houses, if he have any such: and that he waste not the woods where


left. “ III. That they give charge in their triennial visitation, and at other convenient times, both by themselves and their archdeacons. That the declaration for settling all questions in difference, be strictly observed by all parties.

“ IV. That there be a special care taken by them all, that their ordinations be solemn, and not of unworthy persons.

“ V. That they take great care concerning the lecturers in their several dioceses, for whom we give these special directions following:

“1. That in all parishes the afternoon sermons be turned into catechizing by question and answer, where and whensoever there is not some great cause apparent to break this ancient and profitable order.

“ 2. That every bishop ordain in his diocese; that every lecturer do read divine service according to the Liturgy, printed by authority, in his surplice, and before the lecture.

“ 3. That where a lecture is set up in a market-town, it may be read by a company of grave and orthodox divines near adjoining, and in the same diocese, and that they preach in gowns, and not in cloaks, as too many


АВВОТ, “ 4. That if any corporation do maintain a single lecturer, Abp. Cant. he be not suffered to preach till he profess his willingness to

take upon him a living with cure of souls within that incorporation, and that he do actually take such benefice or cure, so soon as the same shall fairly be procured for him.

“ VI. That the bishops do encourage and countenance the grave and orthodox divines of their clergy, and that they use all means by some of their clergy, or others, that they have knowledge how both lecturers and preachers within their dioceses behave themselves in their sermons, that so they may take order for any abuse accordingly.

“ VII. That the bishops suffer none under noblemen, and men qualified by the law, to have any private chaplain in his house.

“ VIII. That they take especial care that divine service be 749.

diligently frequented, as well for the prayers and catechism as sermons; and take particular notice of all such as absent themselves, as recusants or otherwise.

“ IX. That every bishop, who by our grace and favour, and good opinion of his service, shall be nominated by us to another bishopric, shall not from that day of nomination presume to make any lease for three lives, or one-and-twenty years, or concurrent lease, or any way renew any estate, or cut any wood or timber, but merely to receive the rents due, and so quit the place ; for we think it a hateful thing that any man's leaving a bishopric should almost undo his successor. And if any man shall presume to break this order, we will refuse him our royal assent, and keep him at the place which he hath so abused.

“X. And, lastly, we command you to give us an account every year, on the 2nd of January, of the performance of these

our commands." Bibl. Regia,

About this time the king sent an order to the lords justices of Ireland for improving the revenues of the Irish clergy: it is in these words:

Right trusty and well-beloved cousins and counsellors, we The king's

greet you well : lords-justices “ Whereas our late dear father of blessed memory, did (by of Ireland, in behulf of his instructions for the good and welfare of holy Church in our the clergy. realm of Ireland,) ordain and command that all such impro

sect. 3. num, 7.

letter to the


priate parsonages as were his own inheritance, and held by CHARLES lease from the crown, ever as the said leases expired, should be thenceforth let to the several curates and ministers of all such churches that were to attend the cure of souls, and from time to time should be incumbent upon the several parsonages, they securing his majesty the rents, duties, and services reserved upon such leases, which order we also, out of our own like zeal to God's glory and advancement of true religion, have likewise heretofore confirmed, by our royal letters of the 8th of July, 1626, all which notwithstanding we are now, to our great displeasure informed, that since the giving of our said father's letters and our own, sundry leases of tithes, upon expiration, surrender, or otherwise, have been again let to laymen, and not to the incumbents of the said churches, to the wrong of our religion and breach of our commandment; whereof we shall not fail to take account in time convenient : but for your better assurance of such our pious and princely grant unto the Church of that our realm in time to come, we have thought good to declare, and by these our letters do declare unto you, that our princely will and pleasure is, for us, our heirs and successors, to give and grant the reversion of all such reservations only as formerly have been expressed irrevocably unto Almighty God, and to the particular churches within that our kingdom, unto which such tithes did anciently belong, and to the several incumbents which shall happen to be in the said churches when such leases shall expire or otherwise be determined, and to their successors for ever, giving hereby the several incumbents and their successors, which shall be when it shall happen the said leases to expire or otherwise to determine, full power to enter into possession of the whole tithes, paying only unto us, our heirs and successors, such rents, duties, and service as are now payable out of the same respectively; and charging our officers of our exchequer in that kingdom, to receive the same in such manner and form as now they are received, without any further charge or exaction upon the said incumbents. And for the effecting this our godly purpose and princely donation, we do hereby authorize and require you, that upon the sight hereof, you, by the advice of our learned council there, do forthwith make out, under the great seal of that our kingdom, such grant and grants as shall be necessary and requisite for the settling and

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