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parchus, Eratosthenes, Autolycus, and Meton; Manetho, and the elder astronomers of Egypt; Berosus, and the Chaldean astrologists: each mark successively one or more steps of progress, from the dawn of astronomical science on the Assyrian plains, where the first shepherds were abiding in the fields, keeping watch over their flocks. by night. Here it is obvious we are dealing with no incomprehensible series of cycles of time. There are, indeed, difficult questions still requiring the illumination which further observation and discovery may be expected to supply; nor have such been evaded in those researches; but the present tendency is greatly to exaggerate such difficulties. The first few steps in the progress thus indicated cannot be reduced to a precise chronology. The needful compass of their duration may be subject of dispute, and the precise number of centuries that shall be allowed for their evolution may vary according to the estimated rate of progress of infantile human reason; but I venture to believe that to many reflecting minds it will appear that, by such a process of inquiry, we do in reality make so near an approach to a beginning in relation to man's intellectual progress, that we can form no uncertain guess as to the duration of the race, and find, in this respect, a welcome evidence of harmony between the disclosures of science and the dictates of Revelation.

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APPENDIX A.-Vol. ii. p. 347.



1. What is the number of the half-breed Indians? and from what tribe, or tribes, are they chiefly or wholly derived by their Indian parentage?

2. In what respects do the half-breed Indians differ from the pure Indians, as to habits of life, courage, strength, increase of numbers, etc.?

3. Do marriages ever take place between an Indian husband and white wife? If so, does the offspring differ in any noticeable degree from that of a white husband and Indian wife?

4. Is any difference discernible in half-breeds descended on the one side from French, and those on one side from British parentage? If so, what is the difference?


1. What is the number of the settled population, either halfbreed, or more or less of Indian blood?

2. What Indian characteristics, physical and mental, are longest traceable in successive descendants of Indian and white

blood? e.g., hair, form of head, of mouth, of cheek bones, colour and character of eyes, and any other features?

3. Are those of partial Indian blood liable to any diseases which do not affect the whites or the pure Indians? Or,

Are they more or less liable to such diseases?

4. Are the families descended from mixed parentage noticeably larger or smaller than those of whites or of Indians?

5. State any facts tending to prove or disprove, that the offspring descended from mixed white and Indian blood fails in a few generations.

APPENDIX B.-Vol. ii. pp. 354, 418.


IN all the departments of ethnology, the want of a generally recognised terminology is a serious impediment. Such words as race, stock, family, etc., are excluded, because their use in any strictly defined sense involves the affirmation of opinions most keenly disputed; and nearly the same objection lies. against the adoption of such scientific terms of natural history as order, class, species, etc. In relation to hybridity, however somewhat has been already done by means of popular designations of the more noticeable varieties of mixed blood. Dr. Tschudi, after noticing the diverse characteristics of the pureblood population of European, Asiatic, African, and American descent to be met with in Peru, gives a list of the very varied degrees of mixed blood, with the names by which they are there designated. Of the term Creole, he observes, "The designation properly belongs to all the natives of America born of parents who have emigrated from the Old World." The children of pure-blood African parents are accordingly Creoles, as much as those of unmixed European blood. The Spaniards do not even limit the term Criollo to the human race, but apply it to all animals propagated in America of pure European parentage. They have, accordingly, Creole horses, bullocks, asses, poultry, etc.

The following is Dr. Tschudi's list of half-castes, with a few additions from other sources :

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The above deals with the results of hybridity with considerable minuteness. Nevertheless, it makes no distinction between Spanish, Portuguese, and English blood, and only once discriminates among the equally strongly marked diversities. of red and black blood. But we want a no less comprehensive series of distinctive names to indicate the offspring of intrusive races of pure blood. Lieber suggests the term Europidian for the American of pure European descent; but something much more minute is required to supply the want of definite terms constantly felt. The following suggests a series of terms,

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