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ABDICATION

ABJURATION

3 for Jesus Hominum Salvator; St. or S. of others, on condition that they should for Saint; D. G. for Dei Gratia; A. C. for live according to their rules. The sect died Ante Christum; A. D. for Anno Domini; out in the reign of Theodosius the Younger. A. M. for Anno Mundi; V. S. for Old Style, -Soames' Mosheim, vol. i. 150 (Stubbs' that is, the reckoning of the beginning of edition). the year as it was before Sept. 2, 1752, and ABEYANCE. Coke explains the term N. S. for new. (See Old Style.) Also with thus: “En abeiance, that is, in expectation, regard to academical degrees: D. D. for from the French bayer, to expect. For Divinitatis Doctor; B. D. for Baccalaureus when a parson dieth, we say that the freeDivinitatis. S. T. P. Sanctæ Theologiæ hold is in abeyance, because a successor is Professor, which = D. D. &c.

in expectation to take it; and here note the ABDICATION OF ORDERS. Although necessity of the true interpretation of the Canon 76 says that “no man ordained words. If tenant pur terme d'autre vis deacon or priest shall voluntarily relinquish dieth the freehold is said to be in abeyance the same nor use himself in the course of until the occupant entereth. If a man his life as a layman upon pain of excom- makes a lease for life, the remainder to the munication," the Clerical Disabilities Act, right heirs of I. S., the fee simple is in 1870, allows one to do so by executing abeyance, that is, in expectation, in rememwhat is called a Deed of Relinquishment, brance, entendment, or consideration of law, after resigning any preferment he may have, in consideratione sive intelligentia legis; in the form given by the Act. He may because it is not in any man living.” (Co. then enrol it in Chancery, and may deliver Litt. 342, b.) And if a man be patron of a a copy of the enrolment to the bishop in church, and presenteth a clerk to the same; whose diocese he last held any preferment; the fee of the lands and tenements pertaining or if none, where he lives : and may give to the rectory is in the parson; but if the notice to the archbishop. Six months after parson die, and the church becometh void, he has so delivered a copy of the enrolment then is the fee in abeyance, until there be to the bishop, the bishop shall

, on his ap- a new parson presented, admitted, and plication, have it registered; and thereupon inducted. (but not before) he becomes for all practical ABJURATION. A solemn renunciapurposes a layman. And as no man can be tion in public, or before a proper officer, re-ordained the step is irrevocable. But if of some doctrinal error. A formal abjuraany proceedings against him as a clergy- tion was often considered necessary by the man were pending, the registration is to be Church, when any person sought to be resuspended till they are terminated; and ceived into her communion from heresy or abdication does not relieve him from any schism. Many forms of abjuration exacted claim for dilapidations or any other debt. from persons convicted of being Lollards or It has been decided that a clergyman may disciples of John Wiclif, may be found stop and change his mind at any of the in the Registers of English Bishops during stages prescribed by the Act, which indeed the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; also was quite clear, as they are all permissive; in the Fasciculi Zizaniorum. The culprit was and the notice to the archbishop seems generally compelled to make his abjuration purely optional, and has no consequences, | in his parish church, in the presence of and may be put in the fire forthwith. [G.] the bishop; sometimes in several parish

ABECEDARIAN HYMNS. Hymns churches in the diocese. A form for adcomposed in imitation of the acrostic poetry mitting Romish recusants into the Church of the Hebrews, in which each verse, or of England was drawn up by one of the each part, commenced with the first and Houses of Convocation of 1714, but did succeeding letters of the alphabet, in their not receive the royal sanction. This may order. This arrangement was intended as be found in Cardwell's Synodalia, vol. ii. a help to the memory: St. Augustine c. 40. composed a hymn in this manner, for the ABJURATION OATH, THE. A form common people to learn, against the error for renouncing the Stuart dynasty, to be of the Donatists. (See Acrostic; Alphabet sworn by every person who took office, civil, Pealms.)

military, or spiritual. It was first proposed ABELIANS, Abelins, Abelites, or Abel- in 1690, but was not made compulsory onites. A sect of heretics mentioned by before the last year of the reign of William St. Augustine as existing in the diocese of III. It was reenforced on the accession of Hippo. Founding their opinions on the George I., and on the death of the Old idea that Abel always continued in a state Pretender (1765), and was not finally of celibacy, they condemned the uses of abolished until 1858. (See Supremacy.) marriage. If married themselves they had ABJURATION OATH for Scotland, Do intercourse with their wives; but to keep 1662. Imposed on all persons holding up their numbers they adopted the children public office, included a declaration that “the Covenant and League are of them- 1 world. (Eph. iv. 12, 13.) When, thereselves unlawful oaths, and were taken and fore, the priest absolves, God absolves, if imposed upon the subjects of this kingdom we be truly penitent. Now, this remisagainst the fundamental laws and liberties sion of sins granted here to the priest, to of the same."

which God hath promised a confirmation ABJURATION OF THE REALM. in heaven, is not the act of preaching, or An oath which might be enforced on any baptizing, or admitting men to the holy one guilty of felony who had availed him- communion. But this power of remitting self of the privilege of sanctuary. It bound sins, mentioned John xx., was not granted the offender to quit the kingdom within (though promised, Matt. xvi. 19) till now, thirty days, and rendered him liable to that is, after the resurrection, as appears the penalty of death if he returned. The by the ceremony of breathing, signifying oath was abolished together with the that then it was given : and secondly, bý privilege of sanctuary in the time of the word receive, used in that place (ver. James I. In the thirty-fifth year of Eliza- 22), which he could not properly have beth a statute was passed by which Pro- used, if they had been endued with this testant Dissenters who refused to attend power before. Therefore the power of divine service according to the Anglican remitting, which here God authorizes, and form, and Roman Catholics, might be forced promises certain assistance to, is neither to abjure the realm, and if they refused or preaching nor baptizing, but some other way returned without licence, might be banged of remitting, viz. that which the Church as felons. The Act of Toleration relieved calls absolution. And if it be so, then, to Protestant Dissenters from the obligation doubt of the effect of it (supposing we be to take this oath, but Romanists were truly penitent, and such as God will legally subject to it until 1791, when it pardon) is to question the truth of God: was removed from the Statute Book' and he that, under pretence of reverence to

ABLUTION. Washing, or purification, God, denies or despises this power, does either of the person or the sacred vessels. injury to God, slighting his commission, and The word is generally used to signify the is no better than a Novatian, says St. rinsing of the chalice, after the Holy Com- Ambrose.—Sparrow. munion, with wine and water, which are “Sacerdotal absolution does not necesreverently drunk by the priest. (Cf. 6th sarily require any particular or auricular rubric after communion office.) [H.] confession of private sins; forasmuch as

ABSOLUTION. The pardon of God for that the grand absolution of baptism was sins, pronounced by the priest to the peni- commonly given without any particular tent, in the name of God. “If our con- confession. And therefore the Romanists fession be serious and hearty, this absolution vainly found the necessity of auricular conis as effectual as if God did pronounce it fession upon those words of our Saviour, from heaven. So says the Confession of Whose soever sins ye remit, they are reSaxony and Bohemia, and so says the mitted unto them: as if there could be no Augsburg Confession; and, which is more, absolution without particular confession; so says St. Chrysostom in his fifth homily when it is so plain, that the great absolution

pon Isaiah, “Heaven waits and expects of baptism (the power of which is founded the priest's sentence here on earth ; the by the ancients upon this very place) re Lord" follows the servant, and what the quired no such particular confession. We servant rightly binds or looses here on may hence infer, that the power of any earth, that the Lord confirms in heaven.” sacerdotal absolution is only ministerial; The same says St. Gregory (Hom. xxvi.) upon because the administration of baptism the Gospels : “ The apostles (and in them (which is the most universal absolution), aii priests) were made God's vicegerents so far as man is concerned in it, is no here on earth, in his name and stead to more than ministerial. All the office and retain or remit sins.” St. Augustine and power of man in it is only to minister the Cyprian, and generally all antiquity, say the external form, but the internal power and same ; so does our Church in many places, grace of remission of sins is properly God's; particularly in the form of absolution for and so it is in all other sorts of absolution." the sick ; but, above all, holy Scripture is - Bingham, Ant. bk. xix. c. 1, 2. sins ye remit, they are remiited unto in it: but he himself says that it was an them.” Which power of remitting sins omission in him at first, and a defect in his was not to end with the apostles, but is a liturgy; which he afterwards would have part ot the ministry of reconciliation, as , rectified and amended, but could not.

He necessary now as it was then, and there- makes this ingenuous confession in one of fore to continue as long as the ministry of his epistles: “There is none of us," says reconciliation ; that is, to the end of the he," but must acknowledge it to be very

, absolution

ABSOLUTION

ABSTINENCE

useful, that, after the general confession, | more authoritative in its language. The some remarkable promise of Scripture formula has come down unaltered from should follow, whereby sinners might be 1549, and seems to have been based on that raised to the hopes of pardon and recon- in the Sarum office. The rubric of 1549 ciliation. And I would have introduced concluded with the direction, “and the this custom from the beginning, but some same form of absolution shall be used in all fearing that the novelty of it would give private confessions.” But this was omitted offence, I was over-easy in yielding to in 1552. The ministerial absolution of them; so the thing was omitted." I must persons unquiet in conscience, before redo that justice to Calvin here, by the way, ceiving the holy communion, is mentioned to say, that he was no enemy to private in the first exhortation on giving notice of absolution neither, as used in the Church the communion; and the absolution of exof England. For in one of his answers to communicated persons in the 65th Canon. Westphalus he thus expresses his mind Bingham (Lib. xix. c. ii.) says with about it: “I have no intent to deny the regard to the indicative form (I absolve usefulness of private absolution : but as I thee) that “Morinas proves that it did not commended it in several places of my take the place of the deprecatory form (Christ Writings, provided the use be left to men's | absolve thee) till the twelfth or thirteenth liberty, and free from superstition, so to centuries, not long before the time of bind men's consciences by a law to it, is Thomas Aquinas, who was one of the first Deither lawful nor expedient.” Here we that wrote in defence of it, and Bishop have Calvin's judgment, fully and entirely, Usher ('Ans. to Jesuit's Challenge,' p. 89) has for the usefulness both of public and private proved the novelty of it from Aquinas absolution. He owns it to be a defect in himself.” (Ant. xix., ii. 5.) Palmer rehis liturgy, that it wants a public absolution. marks, “An absolution followed the confes--Bingham, Tracts, vol. viii. [1840]. [H.] sion formerly in the offices of the English

ABSOLUTION, FORMS OF. I. The old churches, for prime, or the first hour of the forn of absolution at Prime and Compline day. We may perhaps assign to the absoluwas, “The Almighty and merciful Lord grant tion thus placed an antiquity equal to that you absolution and remission of all your of the confession, though Gemma Animæ sins, and space for true repentance, amend- and Durandus do not appear expressly to ment of life, and the grace, and consolation mention it. The sacerdotal benediction of of the Holy Spirit.” This was preceded penitents was in the earliest times conveyed by a form of confession used first by the in the form of a prayer to God for their priest and afterwards by the choir. The absolution; but, in after ages, different present form was composed in 1552. The fornis of benediction were used, both in the rubric originally ran, " The absolution to be East and West. With regard to these pronounced by the minister alone.” The varieties of form, it does not appear that words" or remission of sins” were added they were formerly considered of any imporafter the Hampton Court Conference (1604). tance. A benediction seems to have been This is said to have been a concession to the regarded as equally valid, whether it was Paritans; but the word Absolution was not conveyed in the form of a petition or a superseded, and the addition would seem to declaration, whether in the optative or the show that the divines there assembled held indicative mood, whether in the active or that this was not merely a declaration of the passive voice, whether in the first, God's mercy, but an absolution of penitent second, or third person. It is true that á sinners. The word “minister” in the service direct prayer to God is a most ancient form was changed to priest in 1661; and the of blessing; but the use of a precatory, or word “standing" was also introduced at the an optative form, by no means warrants the last revision, at the instance of Bishop Cosin, inference, that the person who uses it is for though it had hitherto been the custom, devoid of any divinely instituted authority set carelessness was creeping on in this to bless and absolve in the congregation of respect; and as Bishop Andrewes had God. Neither does the use of a direct written, “ as he speaks it authoritative, in indicative form of blessing or absolution the name of Christ and His Church, the imply anything but the exercise of an minister must not kneel but stand up." authority which God has given, to such an

II. In the order for Holy Communion, extent, and under such limitations, as the latter part of the absolution is almost Divine revelation has declared.”—Palmer's an exact rendering of the form in the Sarum Orig. Liturg. vol. i. p. 242. L’se, the first part resembles that in Her- ABSTINENCE. The refraining from mann's Consultation. It was placed in its indulgence especially in the use of food. In fresent position in 1552.

the Roman Church, fasting and abstinance III. The absolution in the Visitation of admit of a distinction, and different days the Sick differs from the other two in being are appointed for each of them. On their days of fasting, they are allowed but one prisonment till he produce the author; and, meal in four and twenty hours; but, on if he cannot produce him, must be punished days of abstinence, provided they abstain at the discretion of the king's council. The from flesh, aud make but a moderate meal, sections of this Act which relate to eating they are indulged in a collation at night. fish on Wednesdays, were repealed by 27 The times by them set apart for the first Eliz. c. 11. are, all Lent, except Sundays, the Ember With us, therefore, neither Church nor days, the vigils of the more solemn feasts, State makes any difference in the kinds of and all Fridays except those that fall within meat; but as far as the former determines the twelve days of Christmas, and between in the matter, she seems to recommend an Easter and the Ascension. Their days of entire abstinence from all manner of food abstinence are all the Sundays in Lent, St. till the time of fasting be over; declaring Mark's day, if it does not fall in Easter in her homilies, that fasting (by the decree week, the three Rogation days, all Satur- of the six hundred and thirty fathers, asdays throughout the year, with the Fridays sembled at the Council of Chalcedon, which before excepted, unless either happen to be was one of the four first general councils, Christmas day. The reason why they who grounded their determination upon the observe St. Mark's as a day of abstinence is, sacred Scriptures, and long-continued usage as we learn from their own books, in imita- or practice both of the prophets and other tion of St. Mark's disciples, the first Chris- godly persons, before the coming of Christ, tians of Alexandria, who, under this saint's and also of the apostles and other devout conduct, were eminent for their great prayer, men in the New Testament) is a withholding abstinence, and sobriety. They further tell of meat, drink, and all natural food from us, that St. Gregory the Great, the apostle the body, for the determined time of fasting. of England, first set apart this day for – Wheatly. (See Fasting.) abstinence and public prayer, as an acknow- ABYSSINIA. The Abyssinian Church ledgment of the Divine mercy, in putting a was founded early in the fourth century, stop to a mortality in his time at Rome. Its first bishop, Frumentius, received conse

We do not find that the Church of England cration from St. Athanasius, bishop of makes any difference between days of fasting Alexandria, and to this day the Abund of and days of abstinence. It is true, in the Abyssinia is always an Egyptian monk, title of the table of Vigils, &c., she mentions chosen and consecrated by the Coptic patrifasts and days of abstinence separately ; but arch. In the sixth century the Christians when she comes to enumerate the par- of Abyssinia fell into the heresy of the ticulars, she calls them all days of fasting Monophysites, in which they still remain; or abstinence, without distinguishing be- and they also agree with the Greek Church tween the one and the other. Nor does she in denying the procession of the Holy anywhere point out to us what food is Ghost from the Son. In the fifth, and proper for such times or seasons, or seem to again in the seventeenth century, attempts place any part of religion in abstaining from were made to reduce the Abyssinian Chrisany particular kinds of meat. It is true, by tians to obedience to the Roman see, but the a statute (5 Eliz. 5) none were allowed to attempt in both instances utterly failed. eat flesh on fish-days (which are there The number of Christians in Abyssinia is declared to be all Wednesdays, Fridays, and said to amount to three millions. Saturdays in the year,) without a licence ACCESS, Prayer of Tumble.

The first obtained, for which they are to pay a prayer offered immediately before the Prayer yearly fine (except such as are sick, who of Consecration in the Office of Holy Commay be licensed either by the bishop or munion. In the Liturgies of 1548 and 1549 minister,) under penalty of three pounds' | the Invitation (“Ye that do truly,” &c.), forfeiture, or three months' imprisonment the Confession, the Absolution, the “Comwithout bail, and of forty shillings forfeiture fortable Words,” and this prayer, were placed for any master of a family that suffers or between the Consecration and the actual conceals it. But then this is declared to be Communion. This order is observed in the a mere political law, for the increase of Scottish Office. The alteration in, the fishermen and mariners, and repairing of English Office was made in 1552, so that port towns and navigation, and not for any the consecration of the Elements, and the superstition to be maintained in the choice riception of the faithful, should come as of meats. For, by the same Act, whosoever, near as possible together. In the Eastern by preaching, teaching, writing, &c., affirms Liturgies the prayer which corresponds to it to be necessary to abstain from flesh for this is called the “ Prayer of Inclination," the saving of the soul of man, or for the and is used immediately before the comservice of God, otherwise than other politic' munion of the people. [H.] laws are or be, is to be punished as a spreader ACCESSION SÊRVICE. The first form of false news. That is, he must suffer im- of prayer, with Thanksgiving to be used on

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ACCESSORIES

ACROSTIC

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the anniversary of the Sovereign's accession of the Egyptian Eutychians, who, after to the Throne, was set forth" by authority Peter Mongus, bishop of Alexandria, had in 1578, and was to be used on Nov. 17, the signed the Henoticon of Zeno, A.D. 482, day of Queen Elizabeth's accession. In formed a separate sect. (See Henoticon.) 1626 a new form was published by the The Egyptians had since the Council of king's authority, and sanctioned by Con- Chalcedon renounced Eutyches as their vocation in 1640. This was superseded in leader and assumed the more appropriate 1661 by the Service of Thanksgiving for name of“Monophysites.” When some of the Restoration to be held on May 29. In them also renounced Peter Mongus, they James II.'s reign the Accession service were indeed “ without a head.” Yet all the was revived, and, with the exception of the branches of this sect continued to bear the prayer, an entirely new form was prepared. name of Monophysites till late in the sixth This was again revived in Queen Anne's century, when they assumed the name of reign (1703-4), and as so revived (with the Jacobites (from Jacobus Baradeus), which exception of the alteration of the first lesson they still bear.–Stubbs' Soames' Mosheim, from Prov. viii. 13 to Josh. i. 1-9, the latter i. 377, and 408, note; Suicer v. åképulo. being the lesson in King James' form) is (See Monophysite.) the form now enjoined for use on June 20, ACEMETÆ. ('Akouuntai, Watchers.) the anniversary of Her Majesty's accession. An order of monks instituted at the begin(See State Prayers.)

ning of the fifth century at Constantinople. ACCESSORIES OF DIVINE SERVICE. They were divided into three classes, who The rule with regard to these is briefly performed the Divine service by rotation, comprehended in the Rubric, " And here it and so continued night and day without is to be noted, that such ornaments of the intermission. Church, and of the ministers thereof, at all ACOLYTH, or ACOLYTE, (åkolovdos,) times of their ministration, shall be retained, in our old English called “Collet,” was an and be in use as were in this Church of inferior church servant, who, next under England, by the Authority of Parliament, the subdeacon, waited on the priests and in the 2nd year of the reign of King Edward deacons, and performed the meaner offices the sixth." This is substantially the same of lighting the tapers, carrying the candleas the rubric in the Prayer Book of 1559, sticks and pot of incense, and preparing the which was incorporated with the Elizabethan wine and water. Acolytes were admitted Act of Uniformity (1 Eliz. c. 2, § 25), was at the age of 14. (See Age.) The order retained in the Prayer Book of James I., and seems not to have existed in the Eastern was re-enacted at the last revision in 1661. Church for more than 400 years, being -Perry in Blunt's Annotated Prayer Book. mentioned for the first time in the age of

ACCUSTOMED DUTY to the Priest Justinian. and Clerk. That which is ordered by the ACROSTIC. A form of poetical comrubric in the Marriage Service to be laid position among the Hebrews, composed of on the book together with the ring, imme- twenty-two lines, or stanzas, according to diately before the solemn placing of the the number of letters in the Hebrew alpharing upon the finger of the bride. In olden bet, each line or stanza beginning with times gold, silver, and a ring were given at each letter in its order. Of the several this part of the service, but the gold and poems of this character, there are twelve silver was not intended as a fee, but as a in all, in the Old Testament, viz. Psalms symbol of dowry. The old form in the xxv., xxxiv., xxxvii., cxi., cxii., cxix., cxlv., Prayer Book of 1549 was “ With this ringi Part of Proverbs xxxi., Lament, i., ii., thee wed, this gold and silver I thee give." iii., iv. Psalm cxix. is the most remarkIn the York Use the form was “ With this able specimen. It still retains in the Bible ringe I wedde the, and with this gold and translation the name of the letters of the silver I bonoure the, and with this gift I Hebrew alphabet, to mark its several honoure the. In nomine," &c. An old divisions. This Psalm consists of twentyManual in the British Museum explains the two stanzas, (the number of the letters object of the gold and silver“ in signifyinge of the Hebrew alphabet,) each division that the woman schal haue pure dower, thi consisting of eight couplets; the first line goods if heo abide aftur thy disces ” (Blunt). of each couplet beginning with that letter Hooker (Ecc. Pol. v. lxxiii

. 6) thinks that of the alphabet which marks the division. the custom may be traced to the old Saxon Psalm xxxvii. consists of twenty-two quapractice of buying wives. The rubric was trains; the first line only of each quatrain changed to its present form in 1552; but as being acrostical : Lam. i. and ii., of twentya rule the fees are not laid upon the book two triplets, the first line of each only beduring the service.

ing acrostical : Lam. iii., of twenty-two ACEPHALI. (à and kepal», literally, triplets also, but with every line acrostical : without a head.) The name given to those Lam. iv. and Psalms xxv., xxxiv., and

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