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8 ACTS

ADVENT cxv., and part of Prov. xxxi., of twenty, / which everything in the Church of Engtwo couplets, the first line only of each land was condemned, which was not after being acrostical: Psalms cxi. and cxii., of the fashion of Geneva. They required twenty-two lines each, in alphabetical or- every ceremony to be “ commanded in the der. The divisions of the Hebrew poetry Word," and set at nought all general rules into lines, not metrical, but rhythmical and and canons of the Church. parallel in sentiment, is very much eluci- ADOPTIONISTS. Heretics in several dated by the alphabetical o. acrostical parts of Spain, who held that our Saviour poems.

was God only by adoption. Their notions ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. A second were condemned at Frankfort in the year treatise by the author of the third gospel- 794. St. Luke. The similarity of style and ADOPTION. To adopt is to make him a idiom, and the usage of particular words son who was not so by birth. The Catechism and compound forins strongly show the teaches us that it is in holy baptism that identity of the writer of both books. It is we are made members of Christ, children probable that the place of writing was of God, and inheritors of the kingdom of Rome, and the time about two years from heaven.” God sent forth his Son to redeem the date of St. Paul's arrival there as related them that were under the law, that we might in Acts xxviii. The genuineness of the receive the adoption of sons. (Gal. iv. 4, 5.) Acts has ever been recognised in the ADORATION. This word signifies a Church. (See Salmon's Introduction to N.T.) particular sort of worship, which the Pagans

ADAMITES. A sect that arose in the gave to their deities : but, amongst Chrissecond century, followers of Prodicus, a tians, it is used for the general reverence and disciple of Carpocrates. Wishing to imitate worship paid to God. The heathens paid the state of innocence before the fall, they their regard to their gods by putting their met together for worship in a naked state. hands to their mouths and kissing them. In the fifteenth century a similar sect arose This was done in some places standing, and called “ Beghards”; or, as the Bohemians sometimes kneeling; their faces were usually pronounced it, “ Picards.” (See Picards.) covered in their worship, and sometimes --Stubbs' Soames' Mosheim, vol. i. 150; vol. they threw themselves prostrate on the ii. 363.

ground. The first Christians in their public ADMINISTRATOR. An ancient of prayers were wont to stand; and this they ficer of the Church, whose duty was to de- did always on Sundays, and on the fifty fend the cause of the widows, orphans, days between Easter and Pentecost in and all others who might be destitute of memory of our Lord's resurrection, as is help.

still common in the Eastern Churches. They ADMINISTRATION, in an ecclesiasti- were wont to turn their faces towards the cal sense, is used to express the giving or east, perhaps because the “Day-Spring” is dispensing the sacraments of our Lord. a title given to Christ in the Old Testa

ADMONITION, or MONITION. I. A ment (as by Zechariah vi. 12, according to part of discipline used in the ancient Church. the Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate,) and It was the first act against an offender, and by this act they testified their belief in Him was solemnly repeated once or twice before as the Sun of righteousness. proceeding to greater severities. According ADULT BAPTISM. (See Baptism.) to the Apostle's advice, “A man that is an ADVENT. “For the greater solemnity of heretic after the first and second admonition the three principal holidays, Christmas day, reject.”. Tit. iii. 10.) This part of episco- Easter day, and Whit-Sunday, the Church pal discipline precedes excommunication.- hath appointed certain days to attend them: Ambrose, de Offic. ii. 27 ; Bingham, xvi. 2. some to go before, and others to come after

In England the Act 53 George III. c. 127, them. Before Christmas are appointed four “ for the better regulation of Ecclesiastical • Advent Sundays,' so called because the Courts in England," directed the disuse of design of them is to prepare us for a religious excommunication, and consequently of “ad-commemoration of the advent or coming of monition” in this sense, and substituted a Christ in the flesh. The Roman ritualists writ “de contumace capiendo” for the old would have the celebration of this holy writ“ de excommunicato capiendo." season to be apostolical, and that it was

II. The term admonition in the “Ordinal” instituted by St. Peter. But the precise is used in a different sense, and implies subor- time of its institution is not so easily to be dination to the ordinary, and superior priest. determined, though it certainly had its - Bishop Barry's P. B.

beginning before the year 450, because ADMONITIONISTS. Certain Puritans Maximus Taurinensis, who lived about that in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who were time, writ a homily upon it. And it is to so called from being the authors of the be observed, that, for the more strict and “Admonition to the Parliament,” 1571, in religious observation' of this season, courses

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9 of sermons were formerly preached in several | importance from the lawsuits about the cathedrals on Wednesdays and Fridays, as is “ornaments of the clergy” under the rubric now the usual practice in Lent. And we at the beginning of the present Prayer Book, find by the Salisbury Missal, that, before the that it is necessary to explain their legal Reformation, there was a special Epistle position: which, it is also necessary to inand Gospel relating to Christ's advent, form non-legal readers, has not to be deterappointed for those days during all that mined by abstract historical speculations, as time." - Wheatly.

if they were an isolated event with no abiding In the Gallican Church in the sixth cen- consequences, but in accordance with settled tury the season of Advent was reckoned legal principles. One is that in the absence from St. Martin's Day (November 11), and of decisive proof to the contrary omnia included six Sundays and a forty days' fast præsumuntur ritè acta as to the acts recalled the Quadragesima S. Martini. This quired for a legal origin of any longpractice has been maintained in the Orthodox established usage. Judges have said they Greek Church to the present day. The would presume a legal conveyance of an present rule in the Western Church is that estate, à royal dispensation from college the first Sunday in Advent is the nearest statutes, and even a private Act of ParliaSunday, whether before or after, to St. ment, if necessary. In this case, if there Andrew's Day (November 30).

were no contemporaneous evidence at all, the It should be observed here, that it is the requisite royal order would be presumed, peculiar computation of the Church to begin seeing that all the subsequent usage assumed her year, and to renew the annual course of it. Another maxim, or perhaps the same in her service, at this time of Advent, therein other words, is that long usage proves its differing from all other accounts of time own legal origin, if such an origin was whatsoever. The reason of which is, because possible under the law of England; which it she does not number her days, or measure certainly was in this case, because it was her seasons, so much by the motion of the expressly provided for by Act of Parliament. sun, as by the course of our Saviour; be- If it were not so, the consequence would be ginning and counting on her year with him, that the longer any usage or interpretation who, being the true “Sun of righteousness," of a document or law has lasted, the more began now to rise upon the world, and, as likely it would be to be upset as soon as it "the Day-star on high," to enlighten them came into Court, because the more probably that sat in spiritual darkness. —Bp. Cosin, would all the original evidence have perished.

Moreover, long public usage shows that it The lessons and services, therefore, for the would probably have been enacted if it had first four Sundays in her liturgical year, not been already understood to be law : anà propose to our meditations the twofold ad- it would be absurd if that general undervent of our Lord Jesus Christ; teaching standing were now to be made a cause for us that it is he who was to come, and did holding it to be unlawful. Amateur lawyers come, to redeem the world ; and that it is he often have to learn that the plain meaning also who shall come again, to be our judge. and positive assertions of old documents are The end proposed by the Church in setting not allowed to be set aside by ingenious these two appearances of Christ together conjectures that they may have meant, or before us, at this time, is to beget in our ought to have meant, and said, something minds proper dispositions to celebrate the else. The legal history of “the Advertiseone and expect the other; that so with joy ments of 7 Eliz.,” then, is this :and thankfulness we may now “go to Beth- The first Prayer Book, of 2 Ed. VI., 1549, lehem, and see this great thing which is retained the old Popish vestments, by some come to pass, which the Lord hath made rubrics quite at the end of it, which may known to us," even the Son of God come to therefore easily be overlooked. His second visit us in great humility; and thence, with Prayer Book, of 1552, was much more Protesfaith unfeigned and hope immovable, ascend tant; abolished the mass, materially altered in heart and mind to meet the same Son of the prayer of consecration at the communion, God in the air, coming in glorious majesty and substituted the surplice for the other to judge the quick and dead.-Bp. Horne, vestments in all ministrations of the clergy.

Advent Sunday is one of the four whose l'hat was all repealed under Mary; so that lessons are given precedence over those of when Elizabeth's reign began, on November any conflicting feast by the new lectionary 17, 1559, the old vestments were again in rubric of 1870. [H.]

Her Act of Uniformity, 1 Eliz. c. 2, ADVERTISEMENTS OF QUEEN brought back Edward's second Prayer Book, ELIZABETH. I. These are the orders re- with a few small alterations, but with this ferred to in the 24th Canon as the Advertise- also, that section 13 of the Act “provided Dents published in the 7th year of Eliza- that such ornaments of the Church, and of Leth, and they have lately regained so much the ministers thereof, shall be retained and

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ADVERTISEMENTS be in use as was in this Church of England | order ;” which proves that he had some kind by the authority of Parliament in the 2nd of instruction from her to proceed, though year (i.e. first Prayer Book) of Ed. VI, until she would not write anything more, so far as other order shall be taken by the authority is known; nor did the Act require any more. of the Queen with the advice of her Com- Doubtless she could have stopped the issue missioners appointed under the Great Seal of the orders even then, and Parker would for matters ecclesiastical, or of the Metro- never have dared to issue them against her politan of this realm,” which plainly, though will : but she plainly did the contrary someinaccurately, meant the Primate of all bow. And so they were issued, after being England (Parker), and was so taken by " agreed upon and subscribed by M. Cantuar, everybody. The vestments, being then in E. London,” and others, “ Commissioners in full use, were literally retainable until such causes ecclesiastical.” other order should abolish them; and then It is curious that the Advertisements, the Crown could restore them no more with besides the subscriptions to be made by out another Act.

persons admitted to any office, are 39, like Elizabeth issued some Injunctions in 1559, the Articles. Those about vestments prewhich have been held not to relate to vest- scribe a comely surplice with sleeves in all ments in church, and did not profess to be ministrations, except that the ministrants at the “ taking of other order” under that Act. the communion in cathedrals are also to Nor did a letter of hers under the Great Seal wear copes. They immediately began to on January 7, 1561, N.S., to the Archbishop be enforced by the bishops, according to and other commissioners say anything about abundant evidence of many bishops and vestments, but it did profess to be taking archdeacons and writers during the remainder order under the Act; or rather, giving them of Elizabeth's reign and afterwards; and it the authority to do so as the Act provided. is not denied that the other vestments For the order was only to be taken by the speedily disappeared all over the kingdom, Queen's authority, not by the Queen herself. and never reappeared until a few years ago. In January 1565, N.S., she wrote another And what is still more remarkable as proving letter to the Metropolitan, which is recited why they disappeared, the Book of Advertisein the Preface to the Advertisements as the ments, or Admonitiones, as the Latin canons authority for making them, and is given in call them, was recognised within 5 years by full in a pamphlet on this subject by a a Convocation in some (abortive) canons of modern namesake of Archbishop Parker, who 1571, and by the duly confirmed canon of maintains that the commissioners were 1603–4, and by some more of 1640, which exceeding their authority in meddling with were confirmed by the king, but set aside by the vestments at all under that letter which the Parliament, and undoubtedly were ultra they cite for it. The Privy Council has vires and illegal; but still they were the twice decided otherwise, and Lord Selborne solemn utterances of the Convocations of wrote a pamphlet also on the same side, both provinces, and therefore good evidence which Mr. Parker professes to refute. The of the universal recognition of the Advertisetitle-page, as quoted by him from one of the ments. Nor is there any evidence that they early copies (which varied a little), was— were disputed by any one worth naming “Advertisements, partly for due order in during the whole reign of Elizabeth, whether the public administration of common prayers puritanically or papistically inclined. The and using the holy sacraments, and partly first person of note who did so afterwards for the apparel of all persons ecclesiastical was Bishop Cosin, who after that confessed by virtue of the Queen's Letters command that he had forgotten the terms of the Act ing the same, Jan. 25:” other copies add, of Uniformity; and his was only a second“1564 (-5, N.S.), anno 7 Eliz. R.” But they hand opinion, for he was not born till nearly were not issued or enforced till May 1566, 30 years after the Advertisements.

It is though they had been evidently discussed with odd that an older Cosin, who was Dean of the Queen between those times, and there is Arches in Elizabeth's reign, wrote in support no doubt that Parker wanted to get her of them, in answer to an anonymous and ex post fucto sanction to them besides what he called a factious libel, in 1584. His her previous authority; and there is no answer was anonymous too, but is well surviving evidence that he did get it, for she known to be his. always liked to reserve an excuse for repudi- It will be better to finish the subject of ation in case things turned out ill. It is the vestments here than to postpone the rest doubly immaterial now whether he did get of it till the ornaments rubric of 1662, which either a verbal or a written order to issue is substantially in the same words as one them. For in the very letter of March 28, which was printed in the Elizabethan 1565, which the objectors rely on, he said to Prayer Books without any real authority, Cecil, “The Queen will needs have me assay being a copy of the first part only of that with mine own authority what I can do for clause of the Act already quoted above-i.e.

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11 it omitted the words “ until other order," &c. II. It seems desirable here briefly to state It is impossible to ascertain now how it came the reasons why a large number of persons to be so printed and to be kept there are unable to concurin the legal decisions reillegally and absurdly long after every vest- ferred to in the foregoing account, and are ment in the kingdom had disappeared. An of opinion that the Advertisements in no equally illegal thing was done early in the wise cancel or override the direction of the next reign in the issuing of the Jacobean “ Ornaments Rubric.” The 25th and 26th Prayer Book in 1604 by royal authority, clauses of the Act of Uniformity passed in professedly under the powers of the Eliza- the 1st year of the reign of Elizabeth are as bethan Act of Uniformity, which authorised follows: nothing of the kind. And it contained a “[S. xiii.] Provided always and be it enstill more illegal rubric, omitting the im- acted that such ornaments of the Church portant word “ retained” before “ be in use," and of the ministers thereof shall be reand so did undoubtedly profess to restore the tained and be used, as was in this Church olul vestments. But they nevertheless were of England by authority of Parliament in plut restored, even in the royal chapels, for the 2nd year of the reign of King Edward by that time the real dispute was not between VI., until other order shall be therein taken surplices and other vestments, but between by the authority of the Queen's Majesty, surplices and none.

with the advice of her Commissioners apThen came, in 1661-2, the first lawful new pointed and authorised under the great seal Prayer Book after Elizabeth's. There are of England for causes ecclesiastical, or of the the usual historical doubts now about the Metropolitan of this realm; [xxvi) and also exact stages of the various alterations; of if there shall happen any contempt or irwhich it is enough to say that the more reverence to be used in the Ceremonies or Protestant majority of the bishops to whom Rites of the Church by the misusing of the it was referred after the Savoy Conference, orders appointed in this book, the Queen's would not let Cosin and Sancroft, who were Majesty may, by the like advice of the said of the High Church party, have their way Commissioners or Metropolitan ordain and in many things; and in particular, the publish such further Ceremonies or Rites as Puritans at the Conference having objected may be most for the advancement of God's that the Jacobean rubric “seemed to bring glory, the edifying of this Church, and the back the vestments," as it certainly did, the due Reverence of its Holy Mysteries and old word “ retained” was afterwards rein- Sacraments.” stated by the bishops, so as to bring back The Ornaments Rubric in Elizabeth's nothing that had then vanished for a century, Prayer Book, 1559, and subsequent books both actually and legally. Although Cosin, till 1661, ran thus: “ And here is to be at different periods of his life, thus wrote noted that the Minister at the time of the different opinions about the Advertisements Communion and at all other times in his which were made before he was born, he ministration shall use such ornaments in Dever attempted, either before or after 1662, the Church as were in use by authority of to revive the vestments in his own cathedral; Parliament in the 2nd year of the reign of Dor did Sancroft, or anybody else. And King Edward the VI. according to the Act Bishop Sparrow, one of the revisers of 1661, of Parliament." is said to have written in his own Prayer Thus the rubric was based upon the Book that priests were to wear a surplice in Act, and was clearly to remain valid ordinary ministrations, and a cope at com- until the Act itself should be repealed by munion in cathedral and collegiate churches. “other order” being taken. The question He also edited a book containing the Ad- is, was such “other order” taken in the vertisements, Injunctions, Articles, and Advertisements by authority of the Queen's Canons of 1603.

Majesty? Another legal principle involves the same In 1561 the Queen certainly did take conclusion. Nothing but a distinct repeal“ other order” or “ further order” within of an existing law does repeal it, if the old the meaning of the Act, for she issued a add new can be reconciled. So far from the letter to her commissioners, the Archbishop nitric of 1662 being a clear repeal of the of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, and Advertisements and Canons about surplices others, directing them to revise the Lectionand vestments, it is rather the contrary, by ary, to reform the disorders of chancels, reason of the word “retained,” which in and to add to the adornment of them by volves the inquiry of what was then in causing the tables of commandments to be existence legally and actually. This is the set up at the east end. It is to be obsubstance of the Purchas and Ridsdale judg- served that in the preamble of this letter a ments on this point in the Privy Council direct reference is made to the clauses in (L. R. 3 P. C. 634, and 2 Prob. 300). (See the Act of Uniformity cited above, in the Ornaments). [G.]

following terms: “letting you to understand

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ADVERTISEMENTS that where it is provided by Act of Parlia- | April 7) urging, the same request, but ment holden in the 1st year of our reign without success, the subject was dropped for that whensoever we shall see cause to take a whole year. It was then revived March further order in any rite or ceremony,” &c., 12, 1566, by a letter from Parker to Cecil “we therefore . . . . have thought good to lamenting his want of success in enforcing require you our said Commissioners," &c. discipline, and expressing his great regret

The letter is formally signed and dated that the Queen will not give the weight of (January 22, 1561); it is preserved amongst her authority to the rules or Advertisements the State papers of Elizabeth's reign; one drawn up a year ago. On March 28 he copy of it exists in Archbishop Parker's writes to say that he has just printed the Register .at Lambeth (fol. 215); another Advertisements, that he has weeded out of amongst his papers at Corpus Christi the book everytbing which he thinks may College, Cambridge. Lastly, the Kalendars have “stayed it from the Queen's approbaof lessons were altered in all the Books of tion,” that he believes there is nothing in it Common Prayer as the result of the revision against any law of the realm, and that as made by the Commissioners.

he must now “assaye with his If we turn to the letter of the Queen authority" what he can “do for order," he addressed to the archbishop in January, trusts he shall not now be hindered in his 1564 (=1565 N.S.), which ultimately led to efforts. Accordingly the Advertisements the issue of the Advertisements, we find that were issued. As Parker could not obtain it is devoid of all those characteristics which the formal authorization of the Queen, he marked the former letter as a “taking of made as much as he could of the Queen's other order” under the Act, (i.) it contains letter as the originating cause of the Adverno reference whatever to that Act; it com- tisments—both in the title and the preface. plains of the varieties and novelties both in In the title they are designated “ Advertiseopinion, and in rites and ceremonies which ments partly for due order in the public addisturbed the peace of the Church; and it ministration of common prayer and using the enjoins the archbishop to confer with his Holy Sacraments, and partly for the apparel suffragans on the subject, to enquire what of all persons ecclesiastical, by virtue of the the varieties are, to deal with each case as Queen's Majesties letters commanding the it arises “according to the order and ap- same” (i.e.“the same "due order in adminispointment of such laws and ordinances as tration, &c., not the same Advertisements, are provided by Act of Parliament,” and for the letter commands no Advertisements, not to admit any to the cure of souls but but does require the enforcement of due those who will promise to “observe, keep order,-in the preface reference is made to and maintain such order and uniformity in the Queen's letter desiring that some orders all the external rites and ceremonies both might be taken to reform and repress such for the Church and for their own persons as varieties as were contrary to existing laws, by laws, good usages, and orders are already usages and ordinances." Thus neither in allowed provided and established.”

the letter nor in the Advertisements is there In short the letter requires the Metro- any reference to “taking other order” under politan and his suffragans not to make any | the Act of Uniformity. new law or order, but to take care that all (ii.) The Advertisements are not given existing laws and orders should be in future under the royal signet, but are merely obeyed. In accordance with these instruc- signed by the archbishop and five other tions, the bishops met and enquired into the bishops. (iii.) In the copies sent by “ novelties” complained of, which, judging Parker to the Dean of Bocking and other from a document containing the substance commissaries of his “peculiars” they are of the returns obtained, were certainly not merely termed “orders agreed upon by me excesses in ritual, but defects; e.g. some and other of my brethren of my province celebrated Holy Communion with “surpless of Canterbury.” (iv.) No copy of the Adand copes, some with surpless alone, others vertisements exists amongst the State with none.” Some baptised in a fount, Papers, or in Parker’s Register. (v.) In others in a bason, some in a surpless, others the Visitation Articles of Archbishop Parker, without.” On March 3, 1565, the arcn- and other bishops of his province, they are bishop sends to Secretary Cecil a rough referred to, if at all, as the Advertisements copy of some articles (which were in a “ set forth by public authority,” or simply great measure repetitions of some orders and “the book called the Advertisements," and injunctions which had been agreed upon are thus carefully distinguished from the ainongst the bishops in 1561), and on “Queen’s Majesty's Injunctions of 1559," March 8 a fair copy of the same, with a which are also referred to. (vi.) In the request that he would present them to the Visitation Articles of the Archbishop of Queen and get her to authorise them. York in 1571, they are not referred to at After two more letters (March 24, and all, as they would surely have been had they

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