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Congresses and Diocesan Conferences, and the wonderful development of the Colonial Church, and of Missionary enterprise during the past thirty years, rendered it necessary to prepare new articles upon all these subjects.

The same may be said of many questions which, from various causes, have acquired peculiar prominence in the present day; such as Affinity, Endowments, Establishment, Vestments, Lights upon the Altar, the Eastward position, the Advertisements of Queen Elizabeth, important legal reforms, and judgments given with regard to Ritual, Discipline, and many more. In dealing with some matters of this kind, which have been subjects of much controversy or litigation, the arguments on opposite sides have been stated by different writers in separate articles. This plan seemed the most convenient way of securing that impartial attitude which best becomes a work of this description.

But while many new articles have been inserted, some articles which had a place in former editions have been omitted or very much abbreviated, because the subjects of which they treat belong more properly to the Dictionaries of the Bible, of Christian Antiquities or of Christian Biography, and have been thoroughly dealt with in those well-known works, published under the Editorship of Dr. Wm. Smith.

Although, in consequence of all these changes, the present edition of the Dictionary is in many respects a new work, it has nevertheless been the desire and endeavour of the Editors to abstain from making needless alterations, to preserve articles intact which bore any special impress of the original Editor's mind, and above all, to adhere throughout to those principles which he consistently held and advocated.

The Editors have endeavoured, in accordance with the original design of the work, to render this edition as far as possible a practical manual for the English Churchman, clerical or lay, furnishing him with the real facts and arguments upon which the Church bases and maintains its position. They have for the most part referred the reader, at the end of each article, to easily accessible works by trustworthy writers, in which, if he wishes to pursue the investigation of any subject further, he will find it more exhaustively treated, and references given to original authorities.

Our best thanks are due to Lord Grimthorpe (formerly Sir Edmund Beckett), Chancellor and Vicar-General of York, and an old friend of Dr. Hook when Vicar of Leeds, who has revised or written the legal and architectural articles, and several others, and has also given much valuable assistance and advice. The legal articles do not profess to be a complete summary of ecclesiastical law, which would require much more space than it would be proper to occupy with one subject in this book.


The following is a list of other writers to whom the Editors are much indebted for contributions and whose initials will be found at the end of their articles.

The Very Rev. E. BICKERSTETH, D.D., Dean of Lichfield.

Rev. W. BRIGHT, D.D., Canon of Christ Church, Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Oxford.


Rev. Evan DANIEL, M.A., Principal of Battersea Training College and Hon. Canon of Rochester.

Rev. W. H. DAVID, M.A.
LEWIS T. DIBDIN, Esq., M.A., Chancellor of Rochester.
Rev. H. G. DICKSON, M.A., Church Defence Institution.
Rev. T. E. ESPIN., D.D., Chancellor and Canon of Chester.
Rev. F. HANCOCK, M.A., Rector of Selworthy, Taunton.
Rev. J. G. Howes, M.A., Rector of Exford and Prebendary of Wells.

Rev. J. W. JOYCE, M.A., Rector of Burford and Prebendary of Hereford.

Rev. G. F. MACLEAR, D.D., Warden of St. Augustine's, Canterbury.

Rev. B. V. Mills, M.A.

Rev. G. D. W. OMMANNEY, M.A., Vicar of Draycot and Prebendary of Wells.

Rev. Sir F. A. G, OUSELEY, Mus. Doc., LL.D., M.A., Professor of Music, Oxford.

Rev. H. W. TUCKER, M.A., Sec. of S.P.G.

All other articles have been revised or rewritten by the Editors, and some new ones added, to which the initials H. and W. R. W. S. are respectively annexed.

In conclusion, we pray that the blessing of God may rest upon our undertaking, and that the Dictionary in its present form may serve yet more effectually than before to the edification of the Church of England, for which the first compiler of the work, as a parish priest, a preacher and a writer, so long and so earnestly laboured.


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ABACUS. The upper member of a | abbot, with the exception that she cannot capital. (See Capital.)

exercise the spiritual functions of the priestIn Norman architecture the abacus of hood. By a decree of the Council of Trent engaged shafts is frequently returned along it is recommended that an abbess should the walls in a continued horizontal string : be at least 40 years of age, and have made perhaps the last lingering recognition of the profession for eight years. effect of the capital in representing that ABBEY. The habitation of a society horizontal line which was decided in the devoted to religion. It signifies a monasclassic architrave, and to which the spirit tery, of which the head was an abbot or of Gothic architecture is in the main op- abbess. (See Abbot.) Of monastic catheposed.

drals the bishop was considered to be virtuABBA. An Aramæan word, signifying ally the abbot: and therefore the presbyteral Father, and derived from the Hebrew “ Ăb. superior of these establishments was styled Instead of the definite article which the Prior. The abbey of Ely was constituted Hebrew uses before the word, the Chaldee, a cathedral in 1109: when Hervé, Bishop of Aramaie, adds a syllable to the end, of Bangor, was translated to this see. The giving thus an emphatic form. The word abbacy was henceforward united to the “ Abba” is expressive of attachment and bishopric: and therefore it is that the confidence, and was used by St. Mark, in bishops of Ely still occupy the first stall on describing the agony of our blessed Lord, to the right side of the choir, usually assigned gether with the Greek equivalent, “'ABBa to the dean: the dean's stall being the first ó

sarip"_rendered by Luther “ lieber on the left side, formerly occupied by the Vater. (St. Mark xiv. 36.) St. Paul prior. (See Monasteries, and Walcott's combines the words in the same way, “ye Church and Conventual Arrangements.) have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby Cranmer begged earnestly of Henry VIII, We cry, 'Abba, Father.'” (Rom. viii. 15; that he would save some of the abbeys, to comp. Gal. iv. 6.)

be reformed and applied to holy and religious ABBÉ. The designation assumed in uses, but his petition, and the exertions of France, before the Revolution, by certain Latimer for the same purpose, were in vain, persons, who, whether in the higher orders Even Wolsey's foundation of Christ Church, of the ministry or not, ostensibly devoted Oxford, out of some of the confiscated abbeys, themselves to theological studies, in the escaped with difficulty. (Sec Brewer's hope that the king would confer upon them Henry VIII.) For the arrangement of the A real abbey, i.e. a certain portion of the several buildings of an abbey, see Cathedral revenues of a real abbey. Hence it became and Monastery. the common title of unemployed secular ABBOT. 'The Father or Superior of an priests. In Italy the word 'Abate was abbey of monks, or male persons, living similarly used, to designate one who merely under peculiar religious vows. The word adopted the clerical habit.- Vocabolario della abbot comes, through the late Latin abbas, Crusca.

from the Aramaan abba-father. (See ABBESS. The Mother or Superior of a Abba.) The word Father, in its various female religious community. The abbess forms of Papa, Abbas, Padre, Père, &c., has possessed, and in the Roman Church still in all countries and all ages of Christianity possesses, the dignity and authority of an | been applied as a title of respect to the




superior clergy and priesthood. In some gave the ecclesiastical element a considerparts of the East and in Ireland, this term, able preponderance in the House until the abbas or abbat, was frequently confounded balance was redressed by the suppression with that of bishop, from the fact of the of the monasteries. Neither the Pope nor abbots being in the early times bishops also. the King interfered much as a rule with the

Before the Norman Conquest a few abbots election of abbots, and during the latter sat in the Witanagemoto (e.g. 5 in A.D. 931, part of the middle ages abbots rarely took a and 4 in A.D. 934), and after the Conquest conspicuous part in English politics. (See many were summoned to the Great Council Bishop Stubbs' Constit. Hist. i. 125, 569; and ranked next to the Lords Spiritual. iii. 403, 443–445.) Many of these were called “ Mitred " Abbots According to the ancient laws of Chrisbecause the right of wearing the mitre and tendom, confirmed by general councils, all other vestments proper to the Episcopal heads of monasteries, whether abbots or office had been conferred on them by the priors, owed canonical obedience to their Pope; but the mitred and parliamentary diocesan. And the same law subsisted till abbots were not identical. The abbot of the Reformation, wherever special exempTavistock, e.g., although mitred in the tions had not been granted, which, however, reign of Henry VI., was not created a

Cowell, as quoted by spiritual lord of parliament till the reign of Johnson in his Dictionary (tit. Abbot), Henry VIII. All mitred abbots were of erroneously says that the mitred abbots the Benedictine order, except those of were exempted from episcopal jurisdiction, Waltham and Cirencester, who were Au- but that the other sorts (i.e. the nongustinians. (See Dugdale's Monasticon.) mitred) were subject to their diocesans.

There were some lords of parliament, The truth is, that the former endeavoured heads of religious houses, who were not after their own aggrandizement in every abbots : (1.) The prior of St. John's of possible way, but had no inherent right of Jerusalem, of the Knights Hospitallers in exemption from the fact of their being England. He ranked before the mitred lords of parliament, or being invested with abbots, and was considered the first baron the mitre. Thus it appears from Dugd. in England. (2.) Some monastic priors, Monast. that Gloucester, Winchcomb, and including the prior of Coventry, a solitary Tewkesbury were subject to the visitation instance in England of the presbyteral head and jurisdiction of the bishop of Worcester, of a cathedral being a spiritual peer. Of till the Reformation; Croyland, Peterthe abbots, the abbot of Glastonbury had borough, Bardney, and Ramsey to the the precedence till A.D. 1154, when Pope bishop of Lincoln; St. Mary in York, and Adrian IV., an Englishman, from the af- Selby, to the archbishop of York; and Cofection he entertained for the place of his ventry to the bishop of Lichfield. The education, assigned this precedence to the abbots, unless specially exempted, took the abbot of St. Alban's. In consequence, oath of canonical obedience to their diocesan, Glastonbury ranked next after him, and and after election, were confirmed by him, Reading had the third place. Abbots and and received his benediction. (Fuller; priors were not ambitious of sitting in Collier ; Willis's Mitred Abbeys.) In Ireland Parliament, finding attendance to be a the abbots who were lords of parliament, burden on their resources, and in many were those of St. Mary, Dublin ; St. Thomas, cases they obtained exemption by proving Dublin; Monastereven, Baltinglass, Dunthat they were not tenants in barony under brody, Duisk, Jerpoint, Bective, Mellifont, the Crown. After the fourteenth century the Tracton, Monasternenagh, Owney, and number attending Parliament steadily di- Holycross. All these were of the Cistercian minished from 80, which was the maximum order, except the abbot of St. Thomas, who in 1301, down to 27, which remained the was of St. Victor. The other parliamentary normal number until the Dissolution. The lords, heads of religious houses, were the list summoned in 1483 may be quoted as cathedral priors of Christ Church, Dublin, a good average specimen. Peterborough, and of Downpatrick; the priors of AllColchester, St. Edmund's, Abingdon, Wal- hallows, Dublin ; Conall, Kells, (in Kiltham, Shrewsbury, Cirencester, Gloucester, kenny,) Louth, Athassel, Killagh, Newton, Westminster, St. Alban's, Bardney, Selby, and Rathboy. All these were of the AugusSt. Benedict of Hulme, Thorney, Evesham, tinian order, except the prior of Down, who Ramsey, Hyde, Glastonbury, Malmesbury, was a Benedictine, the preceptor of the Crowland, Battle, Winchcombe, Reading, Knights Hospitallers at Wexford, and the St. Augustine's, St. Mary's York, prior of prior of the Knights Hospitallers at KilCoventry, prior of St. John of Jerusalem. mainham. (See Monks.) As the ordinary number of lay lords in ABBREVÌATION. The expression of Parliament was about 40, the proportion of a word or words in short. The most com27 abbots was large, and with the bishops, mon ecclesiastical abbreviations are I. H. S.,

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