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The most remarkable division of the human mind, in Kant's system is, that into:

Vernunft. The Intuitional Faculty, or Reason, which he divides into theoretical and practical, and which gives birth to Ideas, (Ideen) the highest perceptions of the mind, which are innate, but stimulated into action by Experience.

Verstand. Understanding or Intellect; also divided into theoretical and practical; the parent of Conceptions or Notions (Begriffe), which are the generalizations of Thought, and mediate representations of things. They are divided into conceptions derived from Experience, and conceptions derived from the Understanding itself.

Under the operations of the mind we find the following terms:

Anschauung, rendered, in this edition, by Intuitional and Sensational Perception, gives immediate representations of things. Vorstellung. Representation (the Greek pavracía), applies to Intuitional and Sensational Perceptions, and also to conceptions which are their generalizations.

Erkenntniss. Cognition, representing the active co-operation of the Intellect bearing on the object presented by Sensational and Intuitional Perception.

Gefühl has been translated Emotion and Feeling.
Wissen. Science; sometimes Knowledge, but never Cognition.

A marked feature of Kant's, and indeed of all modern German philosophy, is the division of the universe of things into Subjective and Objective.

The Subjective implies the internal individual element, in perception, feeling, and knowledge. It must be referred to its centre and source;-Das Ich, translated the Ego, I or Me, implying the Percipient Self-hood.

The Objective is the externally-caused element in our perception and knowledge, derivable from the Nicht-Ich-Non-Ego; or in plain English, from without.

Another broad distinction in the Transcendental School is that between

Das Seyn, translated Esse, or Being, and signifying bare, empty Existence, admitting of no predicates; and

Das Wesen. Real concrete Existence, or Essence manifested in Qualified or Conditional Nature.

Das Werden. The Esse in a state of action, i. e. active Existence; differing from it as dynamical from static electricity. Das Absolute, the Absolute, explains itself as the contrast to the Relative, and implies the Ground and Real Principal and Basis of all things.

The editor has also been reduced to the necessity of coining a few words, in order to give an adequate rendering of the author's thoughts. Thus he has translated— Denkbarkeit. Thinkableness; Capacity of being thought. Erkennt. Cognized; (a word for which we have the sanction of Sir William Hamilton.)

Teleologisch Teleological. The science of the adaptation of means to ends. Final Causes.


Apodiktik Apodiktik. Demonstration.

Pädagogik Pædagogik. The Science of Education,
Esthetik Esthetics. Theory of the Fine Arts.
Propädeutik Propedeutik. Introductory Preparation
Moment Momentum. This term was borrowed from Mechanics


by Hegel (See his Wissenschaft der Logik, vol 3, p. 104, ed. 1841). He employs it to denote the two contending forces which are mutually dependent, and whose contradiction forms an equation. Hence his formula Esse = Nothing. Here Esse and Nothing are momentums, giving birth to Werden, i.e. Existence. Thus the momentum contributes to the same oneness of operation in contradictory forces that we see in Mechanics, amidst contrast and diversity, in weight and distance, in the case of the balance.

Potenz. Potency or degree. (Schelling's term for the Serial


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