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16. What is meant by codification? Is it true that codified law has an inherent tendency to produce glosses ?

17. What are the duties of the state, regarded as a moral agent? How is the right of imposing oaths connected with this ?

18. How far do you consider Paley's statement, that the assertion of an advocate of the justice or his belief in the justice of his client's cause' comes under the case of falsehoods which are not lies, to be true? Would his grounds for this justify the advocate in asserting his belief in the guilt of a person whom he knew to be innocent?

19. What is the origin of the Law of Nations ? Enumerate the chief writers on this subject.

20. What distinction has been made between sea and land warfare? Can an enemy's goods on board a neutral vessel be confiscated? If so, on what grounds ?

21. Give a sketch of the origin of the English Consistory Courts. What were the offences of which they took cognizance ?

22. Distinguish between real property and personal property. Explain the terms tenement, corporeal and incorporeal hereditament.

23. Explain the term Privilege of Parliament. Give instances of its violation. What special immunities have been given to Members of Parliament?

24. In what consists the offence of Simony? What are its legal penalties?

25. Compare the English with the Jewish, Greek, and Roman laws respecting marriage.

Chancellor's Medals.

February, 1857.

Examiners :
DR WHEWELL, Master of Trinity College.
DR ORES, Provost of King's College.
Rev. E. ATKINSON, B.D. Master of Clare College.
PROF. THOMPSON, M.A. Trinity College.
Rev. W. G. CLARK, M.A. Public Orator, Trinity College.
Rev. H. A. J. MUNRO, M.A. Trinity College.


It is a trivial grammar-school text, but yet worthy a wise man's consideration: Question was asked of Demosthenes, what was the chief part of an orator? He answered, Action. What next?-Action. What next again ? -Action. He said it that knew it best; and had by nature himself no advantage in that he commended. A strange thing, that that part of an orator, which is but superficial, and rather the virtue of a player, should be placed so high above those other noble parts of invention, elocution, and the rest: nay almost alone, as if it were all in all. But the reason is plain. There is in human nature, generally, more of the fool than of the wise; and therefore those faculties by which the foolish part of men's minds is taken, are most potent. Wonderful like is the case of boldness in civil business; what first?-_Boldness. What second and third ?-Boldness. And yet boldness is a child of ignorance and baseness, far inferior to other parts. But nevertheless it doth fascinate, and bind hand and foot those that are either shallow in judgment, or weak in courage, which are the greatest part; yea, and prevaileth with wise men at weak times: therefore we see it hath done wonders in popular states, but with senates and princes less; and more ever upon the first entrance of bold persons into action, than soon after; for boldness is an ill keeper of promise. Surely, as there are mountebanks for the natural body, so there are mountebanks for the politic body: men that undertake great cures, and perhaps have been lucky in two or three experiments, but want the grounds of science, and therefore cannot hold out.



D. PEDRO. The lady Beatrice hath a quarrel to you; the gentleman, that danced with her, told her, she is much wronged by you.

BENE. O, she misused me past the endurance of a block; an oak, but with one green leaf on it, would have answered her; my very visor began to assume life, and scold with her: she told me, not thinking I had been myself, that I was the prince's jester: that I was duller than a great thaw; huddling jest upon jest, with such impossible conveyance, upon me, that I stood like a man at a mark, with a whole army shooting at me: she speaks poniards, and every word stabs: if her breath were as terrible as her termi. nations, there were no living near her, she would infect to the north star. I would not marry her, though she were endowed with all that Adam had left him before he transgressed; she would have made Hercules have turned spit; yea, and have cleft his club to make the fire too. Come, talk not of her; you shall find her the infernal Ate in good apparel. I would to God, some scholar would conjure her; for, certainly, while she is here, a man may live as quiet in hell, as in a sanctuary; and people sin upon purpose, because they would go thither: so, indeed, all disquiet, horror, and perturbation follow her.



Beginning, Præposteros habes tabellarios;...
Ending, quum sciam, sine meis literis ire patiar. Vale.

Cic. Ep. ad Fam. xv. 17.
Beginning, Tunc, collaudatis Carnutibus, dato jurejurando ab...
Ending, quod spatium est millium passuum circiter clx.

CÆS, B. Gall. VII. 2. Beginning, Accepta itaque res sæpiusque usurpando excitata.... Ending, tanquam expertes artis ludicræ, faciant.

LIVY, VII, 2. Beginning, Noctem sideribus inlustrem, et placido mari... Ending, Lucrinum in lacum vecta, villæ suæ infertur.

Tac. Ann. XIV. 5. Beginning, Sylvarum amenitas, et præterlabentia flumina,... Ending, eam integri ac refecti venimus, optimum secreti genus.

QUINCTIL. Instit. Orat. x. 3.

To be translated into ENGLISH PROSE :

Beginning, "Ένθα χέλυν εύρων έκτήσατο μυρίον όλβον, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, επτα δε συμφώνους οίων ετανάσσατο χορδάς. .

Hom. Hymn, els 'Epuñv.

Beginning, Εί τις ανδρών ευτυχήσαις ή συν ευδόξοις αέθλοις, κ.τ.λ. Ending, αίων δε κυλινδομέναις αμέραις άλλ' άλλοτ' εξάλ. λαξεν άτρωτοί γε μαν παίδες θεών. .

Beginning, ET. θεοίς μέν ήδη πως παραμελώμεθα, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, ΕΤ. θεών διδόντων ουκ άν έκφύγοι κακά.

Æsch. Sept. c. T'heb. 702_719.
Beginning, Οίμοι περιπλοκας, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, έλκειν απνευστί. .

ATHEN. Antiph. x. 459.
Beginning, ΦΕ. ο Σόλων και παλαιός ήν φιλόδημος την, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, αριθμός, πρόβατάλλως, αμφορης νενησμένοι;

ARISTOPH. Nub. 1187_1203.

But we shall not only lose our courage, which is a useless and unsafe virtue under a tyrant, but by degrees we shall, after the example of our master, all turn perfidious, deceitful, irreligious, flatterers, and whatever is villanous and infamous in mankind. See but to what degree we are come already: can there any oath be found so fortified by all religious ties, which we easily find not a distinction to break, when either profit or danger persuades us to it? Do we remember any engagements, or if we do, have we any shame in breaking them? Can any man think with patience upon what we have professed, when he sees what we wildly do, and tamely suffer? What have we of nobility among us but the name, the luxury and vices of it? Poor wretches, those that now carry that title, are so far from having any of the virtues, that should adorn it, that they have not so much as the generous vices that attend greatness; they have lost all ambition and indignation. What is the city but a great tame beast, that eats and carries, and cares not who rides it? What's the thing called a parliament, but a mock? composed of a people that are only suffered to sit there because they are known to have no virtue, after the exclusion of all others that were but suspected to have any? What are the people in general but knaves, fools, and cowards, principled for ease, vice, and slavery? This is our temper, this tyrant hath brought us to already; and if it continues, the little virtue that is yet left to stock the nation, must totally extinguish; and then his highness hath completed his work of reformation.

Killing no Murder.

To be translated into GREEK IAMBICS:
KENT. ALAS, sir, are you here? things that love night,

Love not such nights as these; the wrathful skies
Gallow the very wand'rers of the dark,
And make them keep their caves : since I was man,

Such sheets of fire, such bursts of horrid thunder,
Such groans of roaring wind and rain, I never
Remember to have heard : man's nature cannot carry

Th’affliction, nor the fear.
LEAB. Let the great gods,

That keep this dreadful pother o'er our heads,
Find out their enemies now. Tremble thou wretch,
That hast within thee undivulged crimes
Unwhip’d of justice! Hide thee, thou bloody hand;
Thou perjured, and thou simular man of virtue,
Thou art incestuous! Caitiff, shake to pieces
That under covert and convenient seeming
Hast practis'd on man's life! Close pent-up guilts,
Rive your concealing continents, and cry,
These dreadful summoners grace! I am a man,
More sinn'd against, than sinning.



Beginning, Και προσήκει μοι μάλλον ετέρων ο Αθηναίοι, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, τα δημόσια σκοπείτε εί του χείρον μεταχειρίζω.

Beginning, Περί δε του μορίου του της ψυχής, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, αισθητικών ουκ άνευ σώματος, ο δε χωριστός.

ARISTOT. De Anim, 111. 4. (1) απαθές, κ.τ.λ. Explain the connexion of this with the former sentence.

(2) Give a brief account of Anaxagoras and his doctrines.
(3) Discuss the etymology and meaning of évteléxela.

Beginning, ΑΔ. Ουδέν ω Λυκίνε χαλεπόν αλλά με κενή, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, ταύτα εν γή κατά την εκ Πειραιώς ές το άστυ.

LUCIAN, Navigium. (1) Point out in the above passage any words or constructions not found in the best Attic authors.

(2) What is known of Lucian's life?
(3) What modern authors have imitated him?

TRANSLATE, explaining or illustrating where necessary :

Beginning, GE. Nunc auctionem facere decretumst mihi:...
Adhæsit homini ad infumum ventrem fames.

PLAUT. Stichus, 218.

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