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XII.

26

cum hoc fieri bellissime posset : ‘fundus Sabinus meus est': 'immo meus,' deinde iudicium : noluerunt. fundus, inquit, qui est in agro, qui Sabinus vocatur. satis verbose : cedo, quid postea ? eum ego ex iure Quiritium meum esse aio. quid tum ? inde ibi ego te ex iure manum consertum voco. quid huic tam loquaciter litigioso responderet ille, unde petebatur, non habebat. transit idem iure consultus, tibicinis Latini modo: unde tu me;

Either party

xii. 26. Cicero gives an instance of legal formalities, a lis vindiciarum, or actio rei vindicandae. It was one of those conducted with a legal wager or stake (actio sacramenti). The defendant staked a sum of money on the justice of his refusal to give up the property (sponsio), the plaintiff accepting the wager to prove the justice of his claim (restipulatio). gave security to the praetor for the money, and the loser forfeited the fixed sum to the State. Gaius, IV. 13. These actiones were intended to supplement the defective old law.

bellissime] conversational, like Eng. 'nicely.' “Though it might have been done very nicely thus, “the Sabine estate belongs to me. No, to me,” and then the trial and decision; they would not have it so,' i.e. the iuris corisulti.

inquit] ‘says the jurist.'

ex iure Quiritium] so Gaiits iv. 16. in accordance with the legal rights of a Roman citizen.' Opposed to in bonis esse. cf. Gaius II. 40, 41,. ... ut alius possit esse ex iure Quiritium dominus, alius in bonis habere. nam si tibi rem máncipi neque miancipavero neque in iure cessero,

sed tantum tradidero, in bonis quidem tuis ea res efficitur, ex iure Quiritium vero 17led permanebit, donec tu can possidendo usucapias.

inde] ‘for that reason I call you from the praetor's tribunal to join hands with me on the said estate.' inde. sc. quia meum esse aio. cf. unde... inde inf.

ex iure] We learn from Gellius,

XX. 10 SS 6-10, that the solemn joining of hands and claiming of a disputed property was of old performed on the property in the presence of the praetor; for the XII tables said si qui in iure manum C0115cuit. As the empire of Rome grew in Italy and the praetors were more and more busied with their juridical functions, they found it too much of a burden to go far and near, settling questions of property on the spot; hence by tacit consent the custom was changed ; tlie parties, instead of joining hands in iure (i.e. before the praetor), went on challenge to the property in ques. tion ex iure (i. e. from the presence of the praetor), joined hands there, and brought back some piece or other into court, e.g. a clod, to which they laid claim as representing the property. See Appendix E.

loquaciter] with adj. cf. de Off. III. $ 11 2, acerbe sëverus, Tusc. D.v. $ 6, imi pie ingratus.

undi] sc. à quo fundus petebatıir. "the defendant knew not how to angwer such a chattering pettifogger, the bombastic forms are too much for him.

transit] changes sides and prompts the defendant, as a flute-player accompanies first one singer, then another. Quirit. VII. adopted this simile.

Latini] The story in Liv. IX. 30 shews that they were not Roman citizens. Thus the haruspices were Etruscans. Ern.

unde......inde.] cf. on inde sup.

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51, has

inquit, ex iure manum consertum vocisti, inde ili eso te revoco. praetor interea ne pul hrum se ac beatum p'ltaret atque aliquid ipse sua sponte loqueretur, ci qu01111e cara men compositum est, cum ceteris relles zurum, tum vero in illo : suis utrisque superstitibus praesentibusistam viam dico; ite viam. praesto aderat sapiens ille, qui inire viam doceret. redite viam: eodem dure rcsibant. haec iam tum apud illos Darbatus rilieule, credvileivantur, homines, cum recte atque in loco conuitissent, iuberi ebire, ut, unde abissent, eodem statim redireni. iscem ineptiis fucata sunt illa omnia : quando te in iure conspicio, et haec: anne tu dicas, qua ex causa vindicaveris?

quae dum

ret'OCO] 'I call in turn.' Of invi: tations, pro Rosc. Amer. 32. Here, ' I return your challenge

pulchrum] Z cf. de lat. Deor. I. S 114, dum nihil aliud in emni aeternitate nisi mihi pilchre ist et "egro beatus sum'cesitantin. For fear that, while all this way going on, the praetor might fancy himself a fine lucky fellow, and bring out some remark on his own account, a set form of words was made up for him also.'

superstitibus] = testibus procentibus. cf. Festus, p. 305 11. Tience perhaps, as H. remarks, pracsentibus here is a gloss. If not, it must, as 2. says, be used of time and superstitibus of place. Either party having their witnesses here now present.' utrisque is the dative.

istam] sc. to the property. They did not really go, but moved off á

It is a part

il I see you here in court, I want to know whether you are responsible for the title.' This seems to be some part of the formal procedure in a vuit concerning a disputed title, and is quoied again in pro Caecina sit, alith est inl (initorin privint IN his icles; quamupaliti inline con

1. (2111 tu dicas] Gaius, Il. 16, has postulo, duu...... but the text there is corrupt, and Z., with great plausibilir, maintains that the VISS. pustill has been wrongly completed. anm dices he makes = numquid aliud an dictwʻus (s; but I am not sure that I understand this. of the proceeding in a case of vine dicatio, as above. The clod was brought into court, and was claimed by either party in turn, as above, adding sicut dixi, ecce tibi, avindictau imposui. This was a festuck or wand, symbolizing the hasta spear, the Roman sign of ownership. Then the praetor told both to let the thing go (mittite amho). The first claimant then asked the defendant (as here), why he had laid claim to the thing; the latter answered ins peregi, sicut vindictam imposui. A went on quando tu iniuria vindicaristi (since your claim is a wrong. ful one), D aeris sacramento a provoco (or L aeris etc.), and B rejoined se militer ego te. The proceedings

few steps:

or

was

barbatos] cf. pro Sestio $ 19, unum aliquem ex barbatis illis, e'xcmplum imperii veteris, imaginii anla tiquitatis. The custom of shaving

introduced into Italy B. C. 303. See Prof. Mayor's note on Juven. XVI. 31, dignum barva dig numque capillis maiorum.

in loco] so Tac. Ann. II. 4. loco is also used thus.

quando te in iure conspicio] It went on postulo anne fuas auctor.

sacra

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erant occulta, necessario ab eis, qui ea tenebant, petebantur; postea vero pervulgata atque in manibus iactata et excussa

inanissima prudentiae reperta sunt, fraudis autem et stultitiae 27 plenissima. nam cum permulta praeclare legibus essent con

stituta, ea iure consultorum ingeniis pleraque corrupta et depravata sunt. mulieres omnes propter infirmitatem consilii maiores in tutorum potestate esse voluerunt: hi invenerunt genera tutorum, quae potestate mulierum continerentur. interire illi noluerunt: horum ingenio senes ad coemptiones faciendas interimendorum sacrorum causa reperti sunt. in omni denique iure civili aequitatem reliquerunt, verba ipsa then took the form of a personal this: the woman got her tutor's conaction, founded on the alleged neg sent to her making a coemptio fidulect of an obligation, and it was regu cine causa; then the comptionator larly tried by a iudex or arbiter. made her over again to some person This was in iudicio, as opposed to of her own choice. This latter in iure, before the magistrate. See emancipated her, and then she was Lord Mackenzie, Rom. Law, part v. only the ward of the man who had cc. 2, 3 ; Gaius, IV. 5; and for dis emancipated her, her tutor fiduciatinction between civil and criminal cius. Gaius, I. 114, 115, 166, 195. causes, Mommsen, book iv. c. 10. sacra] sc. privata, often great burtenebant] “knew,'

were up in

dens on property at Rome, in honour them. cf. tenet S 22.

of the tutelary god of a family or were exclusively in possession of gens.

In order to

ensure their them.' cf. § 25.

maintenance (perpetua), they went excussa] “shaken out,'«examined.' with the property. cf. de Legib. II. cf. de Off. 111. $ 81; Tusc. Disp. 1.888. $ 47 foll., Plaut. Capt. 775, sine

fraudis] ‘chicanery' or pitfalls,' sacris hereditatenz = an unencumbered as one who pleaded informally causa property. Add Orator & 144. cadebat. cf. on S 9.

coemptiones] The coemptio was a 27. iure consultorum] This rare symbolic sham-sale, by which a woform is certainly found here.

man passed into the power of some infirmitatem consilii] so Gaius, I. man either matrimonii causa, i.e. 144, propter animi levitatem. Ulp. in manum mariti sui, or fiduciae XI. 1, propter sexus infirmitatem et causa (transacted either with her propter forensium rerum ignoran husband or some stranger); for intiam. But Gaius, I. 190, ridicules stance, if a wonian inherited an this latter theory, which however estate burdened with sacra, she cum was not uncommon.

sene coemptionem fecit. He then genera tutorum] Sometimes a man, came into her property, sacra in. instead of appointing by will a guar cluded. Then he at once manu. dian for his wife in event of his own mitted her, and gave back the pro. decease, gave her in that case the

perty in parcels as dona. The old right to choose for herself. Such a

man being poor (in fact chosen as guardian was called tutor optivus, such), when he died, had no proand would no doubt be chosen as one

perty to leave, and the sacra fell whom the woman could manage to through for want of heirs. See lead. But the most common way of Gaius, I. 113, 114. shaking off a disagreeable tutor was aequitatem ......tenuerunt] “They

Or perhaps

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tenuerunt, ut, quia in alicuius libris cxcmpli causid id nomen invenerant, putarent, omnes mulieres, que coemptionum fillerent, Gaias vocari. iam illud mihi quidem mirum viri solet, tot homines tam ingeniosos post tut anno, etium nunc statuere non potuisse, utrum diem tertium an perendinum, iudi. cem an arbitrum, rem an liien diri oporterct. X111. 1111-25 que, ut dixi, dignitas in ist scientia propueris numquam fuit, quae tota ex rebus tirtis comments pile construt, griztia leto muito etiam minus. quod enim omnillis plict it alle promptum est mini et adversario meo, il cui gratum nullo pacto potest. itaille non modu bencdicii colocandi pea, . sed etiam illud, quod aliquando fuii, licetilsalore? am perdidistis sapiens cxistimari numo patentin Crudenti quae neque extra Romum usquam nullie Rome rebus prokus quidquam valet; pierius il neo halveri potest, quod in C quod sciunt omnes, nullo modo possunt inter se discrepare;

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have dropped the spirit and held fast to the mere letter.'

ini alicuius libris] In some truatise on the forms of CIC.

11t putarent] I prefer this with 2. and the VISS. as actually to fancy that'

This is of Culo meré banter on Cicero's part, 25 Gaius, Gaia, Tilius, Titii Scius, Seia etc. are legal [05012.20 fiticies Gaia seems to have been generally employed in forms of counting Compare · John Doe' and Richard Roe. See Quint. I. vii. 28.

ium] now really,' upon word.' cf. Phil. 11. § 8, sind video masistro tuo, ib. § 14).

non potuisse] Of course there are merely the usual redundancies of legal caution. tertium according to Roman calculation would be ich vendinum. arbitrum, either appoinied by the parties, without interference of a magistrate, or by the magistrate after the preliminary hearing in iuri. cf. on S 26. In this latter sense he was properly called index. In the XII Tables was 'indici arbitrorie.'

CIC. pro L. Níur.

vii. 28. [10:25:1277). 11. plouis Dly urges that this is most likely iz Sling is stiu is directly opened 10 milesand in ? Cicero Says trimum dicuitas in tam íunni chiz ti! 110H S CASES

PORT.11091] ready to hand.' cf. de Or. 1. 5 2,375 promía d42?, 11 in Terr. 11.5 12.

Gidiyotinis tormerly;' i.e. before the days of Flavius.

licct consuluit is it allow ito take your opinion?' a formaalisti to a jurist in the good old days of their polier.

So in jest llor. San. . 192, cursului jux res noircui liicbit? 001250cl. prentice

11. cf. Corn. Nep. Cimon 2 $1, magnam prudentiune 2011miniis civilis tum rei militaris.

rebus prolatis] In times of vacation, cither (() the regular institiam clictum, or (b) caused by tumuli and insurection, or (c) generally, on? either account. cf. Plaut. Capit. 78, 79, ubi ris prolutae $216, 92!0m rus homin's cunt, semnul prolulule 77'3 nostris dintibus.

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II.

4

difficilis autem res ideo non putatur, quod et perpaucis et minime obscuris litteris continetur. itaque, si mihi homini vehementer occupato stomachum moveritis, triduo me iure consultum esse profitebor. etenim quae de scripto aguntur, scripta sunt omnia, neque tamen quidquam tam anguste scriptum est, quo ego non possim qua de re agitur' addere : que consuluntur autem, minimo periculo respondentur. si id quod oportet, responderis, idem videare respondisse, quod Servius, sin aliter, etiam controversum ius nosse et tractare

videare. 23 quapropter non solum illa gloria militaris vestris formulis

atque actionibus anteponenda est, verum etiam dicendi consuetudo longe et multum isti vestrae exercitationi ad honorem antecellit. itaque mihi videntur plerique initio multo hoc

S 91.

difficilis.. ...continetur] M. Well to Servius); give a different one, and compares de Orat. I. S 1G2, omnia you have gone so far as to detect a sunt enim posita ante oculos, collo disputed point of law and are for cata in usu cotidiano, in congressione trying an issue on it.' hominum atque in foro; neque ita quod Servius] i.e. recte. A severe multis litteris aut voluminibus mag compliment. nis continentur.

controversum ius] cf. de Orat. I. perpaucis litteris] i.e. libris. He

$ 242, ius quod ambigitur inter periis here speaking of the ius priva tissimos, pro Caec. $ 69, ius varium, tum, which at this time consisted Quint. Xii. iii. 8.

Add de Off. 111. only of (a) the xii Tables, (b) a few laws, (c) the edicta praetorum, (d) tractare] to handle, examine. the verbal forms of procedure, such 29. formulis] written forms for as those noticed above. Z. and H.

judicial proceedings, beside which mn] He had studied under the in Cicero's time still existed the old great jurist Q. Mucius Scaevola in actiones (or legis actiones), verbal his youth, cf. Brutus $ 306, and is

processes according to law. The said to have written a treatise de iure latter had been productive of great civili in artem redigendo, Gellius I. hardship and injustice, and were 22. 7.

eventually given up, Gaius IV. II, che scripto] sc. the concepta verba 30. For the formulae cf. pro Rosc. or formulae, Gaius iv. 3o.

Com. SS 24, 25. scripta sunt] ‘are to be found in ad honorem] 'in relation to office,' the books,' manuals of formulae. ' for attaining.' So $ 38, ad famam.

anguste]. so closely worded.' plerique] A hit at Sulpicius' early

qua de re agitur] A regular phrase devotion to oratory, and his later 1sed in legal forms. cf. Brutus abandonment of it. Cic. says of $ 275, Topica $ 95, Gaius IV. 47. him, Brutus § 151, that after his

respondentur etc.] ‘and as for a return from Rhodes videtur mihi in legal opinion, you run next to no secunda arte (sc. in iure civili) pririsk in giving it. Give the proper mus esse maluisse quam in prima answer, and it tallies with that of (sc. in eloquentia) secundus. cf. my learned friend yonder (bowing Quint. xii. iii. 9.

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