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rat, adierat, sperarat, victoria possideret, tamen non ante, quam illum vita expulisset, bellum confectum iudicarit. hunc tu hostem, Cato, contemnis, quocum per tot annos tot proeliis tot imperatores bella gesserant? cuius expulsi et eiecti vita tanti a Pompeio existimata est, ut morte eius nuntiata denique bellum confectum arbitraretur. hoc igitur in bello L. Murenam legatum fortissimi animi, summi consilii, maximi laboris cognitum esse defendimus, et hanc eius operam non minus ad consulatum adipiscendum quam hanc nostram forensem industriam dignitatis habuisse.

XVII. (at enim in praeturae petitione prior renuntiatus est 35 Servius.' pergitisne vos tamquam ex syngrapha agere cum

populo, ut, quem locum semel honoris cuipiam dederit, eundem in reliquis honoribus debeat? quod enim fretum, quem euripum tot motus, tantas, tam varias habere putatis agitationes commutationesque fluctuum, quantas perturbationes et quantos aestus habet ratio comitiorum ? dies intermissus unus aut nox interposita saepe perturbat omnia et totam opinionem parva nonnumquam commutat aura rumoris. saepe etiam sine ulla aperta causa fit aliud atque existimaris, ut nonnumquam ita factum esse etiam populus admiretur, quasi vero non ipse

fecerit. nihil est incertius vulgo, nihil obscurius voluntate 38 hominum, nihil fallacius ratione tota comitiorum. quis L.

Philippum, summo ingenio, opera, gratia, nobilitate, a M.

xvii. 35.

a Pompeio] H. inserts this, and it seems to me the best conjecture. dofendimus] cf. on S 5.

at enim] cf. Mady. S 437 c.

pergitisne] The thought goes back, as H. says, to $ 18.

locum honoris) place on the roll of office, “precedence.'

quod enim etc.] Loosely quoted by Quint. VIII. vi. 49, with the remark ilud vero longe speciosissimum genus orationis, in quo trium permixta est sratia, similitudinis, allegoriae, transKutionis.

fretum] especially the Sicilian. Euripum, esp. that between Euboea

and the mainland, said to ebb and ilow 7 times a day: see Mr Tozer's Geography of Greece, Lecture vii, for the wonderful tides of this channel.

IVhat strait, what sound, think you, has its waves lashed by such violent storms or turned by such shifting tides as are the squalls and surges in the working of our elections ?'

ratio] so S 36, and in § 4 with tempestatum.

comiiioruin] Forthe comparison to a stormy sea cf. pro Planc. SS 11, 15.

aura] The abl., according to H. cf. Verg. An. VII. 646, ad nos vix tenuis rerum perlabitur aura.

quasi vero] so $ 75, de Off. 111. S 39.

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Herennio superari posse arbitratus est? quis 1). Citulum, humanitate, sapientia, integritate interellentvill, i e'n. Mallin? quis M. Scaurum, hominem gravissimum,

CICH, fortissimum senatorem, a (). Viimo? non noso hurum nihil ita fore putatum est, sed ne cum crct furtum quidem, qua re ita factum esset, intelligi potuit. ut impietats saepe certo aliquo caeli sivno commorentur, size pe improviso nulla ex certa ratione obscuri üliqua2 C CLS2 concitantur, sie in hac comitiorum tempestato populari simple intellegas, quo si no commota sit, saepe ita obscura cost, 11t (su Criatidesse videatur. SVIII. sed tamen si est reddenda ratio, dune res vehe- 37 menter in praetura desideratae sunt, que ambae in consulta multum Murende profuerunt: una, elspiertatio muncris, quae et rumore non nullo et studiis sermonibusque competitorum creverat, altera, quod ii, quos in provincia de legatione omnis et liberalitatis et virtutis suae testis habucrat, nondum decesserant. horum utrumque ci foruuna ac consulatus petitionem reservavit. nam et L. Luculli exercitus, qui ad triumphum convenerat, idem comitiis L. Jiurenae praesio fuit, et munus amplissimum, quod petitio praeturne desiderarat, pretura

36. opira]='activity in the forum. H. cf. on $ 22.

Jl. Ironio) consul in B.C. 93.
G1. Mlallio] consul 105.

Q. Fabio slavimo Eburne) in 116.

putatum est] Very rare, but found in de Div. I. $ 84. 2.

riam ut etc.] Quoted loosely by Quint. VIII. iii. 80.

tempestates] For the metaphor cf. Dem. F. L. S 136, p. 383.

obscura est] sc. commota tempestas.

esse videatur] cf. Quint. X. ii. 18, Tac. Dial. 23.

ratio] if one must account for Murena's having been returned as praetor later than Sulpicius.

desideratae] the want of which was felt when he was standing for the praetorship.

muneris] He had not been aedile,

and had had no chance of giving any great shows The other candidates (and their agents) had made the most of this defect in Murena's qualifications for oflice.

imrat] 'had reached a great height, owing to a general report, and the remarks of rivals coloured with party-spirit.

provincia] T. refers this to his service in Asia under his father,

ligatione] as ligutus to Lucullus.

duesserant] Regular word for quitting a province, Ś 68 etc., the triumph of Lucullus was deferred by intrigues from the year 66 B.C. to 63.

comitiis] at the election,' cf. gladiatoribus, & 67; this conjecture seems necessary to be adopted. MSS. comes.

L. Murenal] dative aster praesto fuit. H.

xviii. 37

38 restituit. num tibi haec parva videntur adiumenta et subsidia

consulatus? voluntas militum cum per se valet multitudine, cum apud suos gratia, tum vero in consule declarando multum etiam apud universum populum Romanum auctoritatis habet suffragatio militaris; imperatores enim comitiis consularibus, non verborum interpretes deliguntur, quare gravis est illa oratio : 'me saucium recreavit, me praeda donavit : hoc duce castra cepimus, signa contulimus: numquam iste plus militi laboris imposuit quam sibi sumpsit ; ipse cum fortis, tum etiam felix. hoc quanti putas esse ad famam hominum ac voluntatem? etenim si tanta illis comitiis religio est, ut adhuc semper omen valuerit praerogativae, quid mirum est in hoc felicitatis famam sermonemque

valuisse? XIX. sed si haec leviora ducis, quae sunt gravissima, et hanc urbanam suffragationem militari anteponis, noli ludorum huius elegantiam et scaenae magnificentiam valde contemnere, quae huic admodum profuerunt. nam quid ego dicam populum ac vulgus imperitorum ludis magno opere delectari? minus est mirandum, quamquam huic causae id satis est ; sunt enim populi ac multitudinis comitia.

quare, si populo ludorum restituit] As praetor urbanus he mus te, imperator, salvum recepimus celebrated the ludi Apollinaris with ..go tecum, imperator, in Armegreat splendour, thus the chance of

nia, ego in Rhaetia fui, etc. winning popular favour, lost before, quanti putas esse] cf. $ 48, quam was ‘given back' to him as his due. securim etc., Mady. S 492 b. H. 38. cui...cum ...tum]

ad famam] cf. on § 29, ad honoRosc. Am. $ 62, pro Rabir. § 2, de leg. Agr. I. $ 9.

omen praerogativae] The order of valet multitudine] Plut. Lucull. voting being determined by lot, the 36, as H. well remarks, throws some vote of the first century was taken light on Cicero's statements. Pom as an omen or indication of the vote peius left him but 1600 soldiers to to follow, cf. de Div. I. § 103, pro share his triumph, and even these shewed little eagerness in attending xix. urbanam] civilian,' cf. SS him, cf. § 69.

19, 41. suffragatio] canvassing,' as also vulgus imperitorum]= vulgus imI believe in pro Planc. SS 15, 44: peritum as in de Orat. III. § 195.

verborum interpretes] In which huic causae] For the matter in case the soldiers would be the worst hand the fact is sufficient. id, the of critics : the phrase is a hit at fact that the shows please the mob. Sulpicius.

Cicero argues, how then can one ipse] Personally. For the reception be surprised at Murena's defeating of a popular general cf. Velleius, II. you? 104, 5, at vero militum conspectu populi] Possessive genitive, cf. eius elicitae gaudio lacrimac..... vide Madv. 281.

cf. pro

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Planc. $ 49:

magnificentia voluptati est, non est mirandum cum L. Murenae apud populum profuisse. sed si nosmet ijini, qui ct ab dele. 39 tatione communi negotiis impedimur et in its optine delectationes alias multas habere possumus, lucis timen obilico tamur et ducimur, quid ill admirere de multeine indert? L. Otho, (vir fortis.] meus neressarius, equestri ordini restituit 40 non solum dignitatem, sed etiam voluptatem. itaque les halos quae ad ludos pertinet, est omni gratissima, quoc honestissimo ordini cum splendore fructus quoque in unditatis est restitutus. quare delectant homines, mihi crede, ludi, ctiam illos, qui dissimulant, non solum cos, qui tirentur. quod ego in mea petitione sensi: nam nos quoque habuimus scaenam competitricem. quodsi ego, qui trinos ludos edilis ferram, tamen Antonii ludis commovebar, tibi, qui casu nullus feceras, nihil huius istam ipsam. quam irrides argenteam scenam

39. admirene de... sc. Wonder, not 0+ 11.C sought to lessen the general at the common here, but at some di like to it in the speech de L. fact in connexion with them; here', Othone, now lost, cf. ad 111.11. 1. 3. at their fondness for the show trinos) not trcas decidi denotesta Madv. Fin. I. $ t, who cf. ad lit. compound object, which can be reX. 17. +, de diplomate cu'mirnis. peated and counted, so bine caistrin,

indocta] 2. on ng215 § 38 well quindi littera Machu Ś 76c, c. remarks that this is not at all the bina spolar, Liv. I. 10. same as multitudo indoctorum.

adilis] In B.C.69. The three land? 40. L. Otho] The cazulitis seem to were Corial's, Plerulis, Romuri, as have had some precedence of the he tells us II in Verr. V. $ 30; he plebs in the theatre (though they did had not however indulged in any not sit all together), as they had had great extravagance, de Off. 11. $ 50), in the circus from very early times. G. and he claims that he did not oire Gracchus had probably given them his later distinctions to these shows. this distinction (Mommsen, bk.11., Antonii] as praetor in B.C. 66. ch. 3), Sulla deprived them of it. Their splendour made Cicero feel When then Roscius Otho, tribune very anxious, as Antonius was in B.C. 67, carried his law which gave league with Catiline at the elections them 14 rows of seats in the theatre all together immediately behind the case] As praetor he did not get orchestra (where the Senators sat), the urbana iurisdictio, and he had he did what may fairly be spoken never been aedile. of as restituit, so also Velleius, 11. argentiam] Probably some part of 32. 3, cf. Hor. E. 4. 15, Epp. I. I. the stage was really covered with 62, Prof. Mayor on Cic. Phil. 11. silver: the testimony of Plin. H. N. $ 44, Juv. III. 153.

XXXII. 3. 53 depends on the puncad ludos] In ad Att. II. 19. 3 we tuation of the passage, and cannot have mention of a lex Roscia frue be urged strongly. Even if (as I mentaria.

think) it does say literally what gratissima] it was a most unpopu. Cicero says here, we may doubt lar measure.

Cicero himself had in whether the present high-flown pas.

for 63.

XX.

41 adversatam putas? sed haec sane sint paria omnia : sit par

forensis opera militari, militaris suffragatio urbanae, sit idem magnificentissimos et nullos umquam fecisse ludos: quid? in ipsa praetura nihilne existimas inter tuam et huius sortem interfuisse ? huius sors

ea fuit, quam omnes tui necessarii tibi optabamus, iuris dicundi: in qua gloriam conciliat magnitudo negotii, gratiam aequitatis largitio : qua in sorte sapiens praetor, qualis hic fuit, offensionem vitat aequabilitate decernendi, benevolentiam adiungit lenitate audiendi : egregia et ad con

sulatum apta provincia, in qua laus aequitatis, integritatis, 42 facilitatis ad extremum ludorum voluptate concluditur. quid

tua sors? tristis, atrox : quaestio peculatus, ex altera parte lacrimarum et squaloris, ex altera plena tabularum atque indicum. cogendi iudices inviti, retinendi contra voluntatem ; scriba damnatus, ordo totus alienatus; Sullana gratificatio reprehensa, multi viri fortes et prope pars civitatis sage be not the only authority for squaloris] The reus would appear Pliny's statement.

in a squalida vestis. See App. A. 41.

sed haec ......interfuisse?] Re tabularım] account-books put in capitulates from $ 19. Z.

as evidence. cf. pro Fonteio S 12, iuris dicundi] Since Sulla unae tabulae proferantur. there had been eight praetors, two indicum] so $ 49, much the same for the Civil Courts, the urbanus as the later delatores, informers.' and the so-called peregrinus; the scriba] The secretaries to the ma. other six were for the Criminal gistrates were called scribae; the Courts. Murena was lucky in draw scribae quaestorii and aediliciï were ing the lot for the practura urbana. held in highest repute. They were

aequitatis] “justice according to citizens and had votes in elections. the spirit of the law,' opposed to the Freund. Their influence was great letter, as in 27.

(de Leg. III. § 48 probably refers adiungit] sc. sibi, 'wins,' cf. $ 42, to them in particular), and also pro Rosc. Am. $ 116, pro Cluent. $ 3. their duties, cf. II in Verr. III. (ad extremum] “to crown all, it is § 183, where they are

as here finished off with '...not of time, for strangely spoken of as ordo (so ordo the ludi Apollinares fall on a. d. III. aratorum. II in Verr. II. S 17). Non. Iul. (5th July). But I can find Cicero seems to be thinking of a case no parallel.

in which a scriba had by his power 42. tristis, atrox] 'one of gloom over the State ledgers been guilty of and severity.'

peculatus either as principal or acpeculatus] One of the quaestiones cessory.

For form of sentence cf. perpetude, dealing with misappro Madv. § 442 a, obs. 2. priation or theft of the public pro gratificatio] The free allotments of perty. pecus originally = moveable land by Sulla to his soldiers. cf. de property. Freund well cf. Gell. XI. leg. Agr. II. § 6, coniungitur im18. 18, Auct, ad Herenn. 1. $ 22. pudens gratificatio cum acerba iniuto

XX.

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