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offensa ; lites severe aestim.11.11'; cui piadect obliviscuri di dolet meminit. postremo ti in provinciam ire nous possum id in te reprehendere, quod in me pict pero et consule probavi, sed timen L. Jurcade provinciis natos bonas gratias cum optima Cristinatione tuli huice ! ficiscens dilectum in Umbria: dedit ci tatilitiem re's puli..? liberalitatis, qua usus multis sibi tribus, quae municipalmbriae conficiuntur, adiunxit: ipse autem in Callinna li nostri homines desperatas iam pertinas exigerunt, i? juillie' di: taque perfecit. tu interea Rome scilicet imici prinesioluisti. fateor, sed tamen illud cogii, non nullorum amici utili minui solere in eos, in quibus provincias conicami inicik: lic.

XXI. et quoniam ostendi, iudices, purum ditutum al con 13 sulatus petitionem, disparum fortunam provincialium natiorum in Iurena atque in Sulpicio fuisse, diam iam apertius, in quo meus necessarius fuerit inferior Servius, et ea dicam vobis audientibus, amisso iam tempore, quae ipsi soli re integra

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ria. reprehensa, coiled in question by some decision.

viri fortesj se. Sull vei milit,'s. pars] ‘a considerable part, 'anten, cf. Liv. I. 10, Cuerrills's Coustranninique et Antemnatis aunt ad quos eius iniuriae pars pertindak.

lites, etc.) If you have assessed the amount of the restitution to be made, taking a hard view of the case. [In the times of the empire the amount was fixed at four times the value of what was taken; in quadruplu, Jul. Paull. v. 27.) This seems to have been confined to State cases, and was quite a separate matter from the verdict (iudicium). See in particular pro Cluent. S3 115 -110, anl Ramsay's note.

in Gellius IV. 4. 2, we have a case of breach os promise of marriage, where litim puun aestimabat used to assess the camages at such-and-such a sum.

cui placet] he who approves of it. Nobody “gets anything by it.' Z.

meminit) and so the presiding magistrate gradually becomes unpopular.

bonas sratias] A regular combina

tion, cf. 12. 2016!!! ????? 67117126, pro imp. Gin. Pump Sil for the plural = 3?!Moscoe Build, cf. ;2.4. Tibuditions)

SENCrou lieli in equipment-money, de Z., and I co not see how the world will bear any other interpretation.

conjiciuitur] are made up out of borough-towns in Umbria. There mmpi are the oil Latin colonies, planted as garrisons when Rome was gradually conquering all Italy. the Julian law of B. C. 9o they received the Roman franchise.

Galliu] Trasaliin?, in 64 B.C. inse, he made a chance,' opposel io didit res publica.

vostri homines] Roman capitalisis, publicani, de

non nulloruin] sc. place-huters.

xxi. 43. provincialiune} “oficial.' So provincia, an oficial charge,' $ 41 etc.

amisso] “though the time for plying them is now past and gone.' cf. de prov. Cons. $ 17, tempore amissu annus est integer vobis expectandies. re integra] while it

was yet time.' ci on est integrimin $ 8.

saepe dixi. petere consulatum nescire te, Servi, persaepe tibi dixi, et in his rebus ipsis, quas te magno et forti animo et agere et dicere videbam, tibi solitus sum dicere, magis te fortem accusatorem mihi videri quam sapientem candidatum. primum accusandi terrores et minae, quibus tu cotidie uti solebas, sunt fortis viri, sed et populi opinionem a spe adipiscendi avertunt et amicorum studia debilitant. nescio quo pacto semper hoc fit-neque in uno aut altero animadversum

est, sed iam in pluribus-,simul atque candidatus accusationem 44 meditari visus est, ut honorem desperasse videatur. quid

ergo? acceptam iniuriam persequi non placet ?' immo vehementer placet, sed aliud tempus est petendi, aliud persequendi. petitorem ego, praesertim consulatus, magna spe, magno animo, magnis copiis et in forum et in campum deduci volo: non placet mihi inquisitio candidati, praenuntia repulsae, non testium potius quam suffragatorum comparatio, non minae magis quam blanditiae, non declamatio potius quam persalutatio, praesertim cum iam hoc novo more omnes fere domos

consulatum] not interpolated. Cicero is quoting his own words in private to Sulpicius during his last candidature. There is of course no implied opposition, such as though you do know how to stand for the praetorship and quaestorship.' cf. Quint. XI. i. 69.

his rebus ipsis] sc. his denunciations in the Senate, and his preparations for prosecutinga successfulrival.

fortis] ‘resolute. Perhaps better fortissimi with MS. Lag. 9:

a spe adipisceni] i.e. they make people think that he has given up all hope of success. fit...ut] is the connexion.

desperasse] to have given up for lost. For the acc. after despero, cf. de Rep. VI. $ 25, in Catil. II. $ 19, ad Fam. XII. 14. 3.

It is also constructed (a) with acc. and inf., (6) with de and abl., (c) absolutely like 'to be in despair,' (d) with the dat., saluti, etc.

44. magnis copiis] A company of friends of the clients usually escorted

a candidate to the forum, where he canvassed (prensabat), and on the day of election to the Campus Nsar. tius, where the voting went on. It was an object to secure as many Senators and equites as possible. The larger a man's company, the more likely he was thought to succeed. cf. auct. petit. cons. SS 16–18.

deduci] The regular word for escorting a candidate. cf. g 69 foll.

inquisitio] the hunting up of evidence against a candidate. Here it is of an unofficial proceeding, for the purpose of having the materials ready to hand. Usually of the official search for evidence after the charge has been formally laid and received by the praetor. cf. II in Verr. II. SII.

suffragatorım] cf. on $ 16. declamatio] ‘ranting'against what displeases you.

persalutatio] 'general greeting' to all you meet. cf. persalutare in pro Flacco $ 42.

praesertim cum] Madv. on de Fin.

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omnium concursent et ex vultu rinisditorum faciant, quantum quisque animi et tuultatis hendatur. videsne tu illum tristem, demissum? izlet, dittiilit, aliccie 15 hastas.' serpit hic rumor : 'scis tu illum illustionem cogitare, inquirere in competitores, festes querere? alium tuum, quoniam sibi hic ipse desperat cius modi de candidato rumore amici intimi debilitantur, studii sleponunt, ut desertam rem abiciunt, aut suam operan ct gratiam iudicio it accusationi reservant. XXII. accedit cucum, ut ctiam ipie Candidatus totum animum atque omnem curam, operam diligentiamque suam in petitione non possit ponere: adiungitur enim accusationis cogitatio, non parua res, sed nimirum omnium maxima. magnum est enim te comparare ei, quibus possis hominem e civitate, praesertim non inopem neque intirmum, exturbare, qui et per se et per suos et vero etiam per

alienos defendatur. omnes enim ad pericula propulsanda concurrimus, et qui non aperte inimici sumus, etiam alienissimis in capitis periculis amicissimorum officia et studia praestamus. quare ego expertus et petendi et defendendi et accusandi mo- 46 lestiam sic intellexi: in petendo studium esse acerrimum, in defendendo officium, in accusando laborem. itaque sic statuo : fieri nullo modo posse, ut idem accusationem et petitionem

cf. $ 30.

obs. 3.

II. $ 25, explains these particles as= support. idque cum tamen,'quamuis,' and 45: hastas] weapon of offence. that though. If so here, it must go • He has given up the contest.' incet. very closely with declamatio, which must='stopping at home to prac fuim] ‘I shall vote for another tise a speech against Vurena,' as 2. candidate.' cs. pro Planc. $ 9, explains it. cf. Prof. Mayor on Phil. fuit cos, a quibus est musime amII. § 42. But it seems to me that bitus. Cicero was Mladiigi suurus, and xxii. accedit 111] Madv. S 373, meant, “I do not prefer the voice of sulky indignation to that of general e civitate exturbare] The lex Tullia greeting, particularly as people no inflicted a penalty of ten years exile. tice it and feel inclined to vote non inopem, etc.) Or he would against such a candidate.' cf. SS 24, never have come forward as a can: 53.

didate. te and hominem are quite iam] since it has got to this now general. a-days, that....

alienissimis] cf. § 8, de Orat. II. omnium] sc. candidatorum.

$ 200. coniecturam faciant] so $ 9.‘infer.' 46. esse in] belongs to, is reanimi et facultatis] confidence and quired by.

[consulatus diligenter adornet atque instruat: unum sustinere pauci possunt, utrumque nemo. tii, cum te de curriculo petitionis deflexisses animumque ad accusandum transtulisses, existimasii te uitrique negotio satis facere posse : vehementer crrasti. quis enim dies fuit, postea quam in istam accusandi denuntiationem ingressus es, quem tu non totum in ista ratione consumpseris ? XXIII. legem ambitus flagitasti, quae tibi non deerat; erat enim severissime scripta Calpurnia. gestus est mos et voluntati et dignitati tuae. sed tota illa lex accusatio

adornet] “equip,'preparc.' i12struat. marshal,' 'array, organize. cf. pro Cluent. $$ 18, 191. The metaphor seems to be a military one.

cf, on $ 22. sustinere] carry out,' 'act.' cf. de Orat. II. $ 102, tres personas 7.MUS sustinuco. This seems to be a stage metaphor.

deflexisses] Here we pass to a race. The change of metaphors here is very rapid, and does not appear to me happy. te is in the NSS., and, though against Cicero's usage, seems defensible. I believe that he is thinking of the circus. “After turning yourself (like a chariot) out of the course,' i.C. you were like a driver who gives his attention during a race to some thing off his course, anil divided aitention was fatal to your success as it would be to his.

quis dies] quis adjectival. cf. Nadv. S 88, obs. I.

il ista ratione] ‘in carrying out that plan.' cf. $ 83, I in Verr. $ 34, tua ritíio est ut secundum binos luidos mihi respondere incipias, mea ul anil primos luos comperendinen.

xxiii. erat] “there was the Calpurnian law, with its provisions of the sirictest.'

Calpurnia] passed in 1.c. 67 by G. Calpurnius, consul of the year, at the desire of the Senate. It was severe, and quite superseded all the earlier enactments on the subject. It inflicted a heavy fine on a candi. date who (whether successful or not) had employed bribery. It also de

prived him for ever of the right of holding office or sitting in the Senate, but allowed him to stay at Rome. A fine was also probably inflicted on the agents, in particular those called divisoris. Z. well remarks that these must be the plebs, the increase of whose penalties was called for by Sulpicius. Moreover, one who had been condemned for ambilus might regain his former position (in integrum restituebatur) by procuring the conviction of another on the same charge (pro Balbo $ 57, pro Cluent. $ 98, Quint. XI. i. 79), but did not get back the fine. This system of reward was not peculiar to the lex Calpurnia.

gestus est mos] This was in the meeting of the Senate at which the Senatusconsultum was carried leading to the lix Tullia in this very year.

tota illa ler) the lex Tullia. It probably followed the terms of the sinatusconsultuill, given in § 67. Another provision is quoted by Cicero himself, in Vatin. S 37, quilin mea lex dilucide vetet biennio quo quis petet petituruste sit gladiatoris dare nisi ex testamento praestituta die, also pro Sest. § 133. It was a supplement to the Calpurnian law, defining the proofs of guilt more closely, and adding to the penalties, (1) of Senators, i. e. candidates, ten years exile, (2) of the agents, an increase of the previous fine. Moreover, any juror or witness who pleaded illness as an excuse for non-attendance, thus im

nem tuam, si haberet nocentem reum, fortasse armasset, petitioni vero refragata est. poena gravior in plebem tua voce 47 efflagitata est; commoti animi tenuiorum : exilium in nostrum ordinem ; concessit senatus postulationi tuae, sed non libenter duriorem fortunae communi condicionem te auctore constituit. morbi excusationi poena addita est: voluntas ofiensa multorum, quibus aut contra valetudinis commodum laborandum est aut incommodo morbi etiam ceteri vitae fructus relinquendi. quid ergo? haec quis tulit? is, qui auctoritati senatus, voluntati tuae paruit, denique is tulit, cui minime proderant. quid ? illa, quae mea summa voluntate senatus frequens repudiavit, mediocriter adversata tibi esse existimas? confusio

peding the trial, was to be liable to some penalty not now known. 11. however refers this penalty to the accused.

haberet] sc. accusatio tuo. So 2. after MS. Lag. 9, and I prefer this to haberes of the other J1SS., though adopting it with hesitation.

47. efflagitata est] was called for and carried.

commoti] A feeling of our occupation's gone.

nostrum ordinem] Since Sulla had made the quaestorship a passport to the Senate, candidates had practically come only from the senatorial order. H.

concessit] 'gave way to,' with no object. cf. S 57. H.

fortunae commun] A strange way of stating it. They had the option of abstaining from bribery. But they did not generally do so, and in B.C. 67 it was the Senators who had opposed the hard provisions of the proposed lex Cornelia of G. Cornelius the tribune, and had procured the passing of the lex Calpurnia in its stead.

excusatio) often employed to defer the hearing of such a charge till the accused entered on his office, and was out of the law's reach. If this be meant here of the accused, the penalty was doubtless, as H. says, directed against the candidates. But

CIC. pro I. Mur.

it may equally well (and with more likelihood, it seems to me) be referred to cases of witnesses or jurors falling ill.

See below, quibus ...... laburun est, and note. They often fell ill when a friend was on his trial.

aditu est sc. on the top of their illness. cf. Phil. II. $ 31, cur 9102*stori's additi? and Prof. Hayor's note.

laborandum) i. e. stand the wear and tear of a trial in court.

fructus] What the allusion here is we do not know. H. has a note in which he refers to the punishment of exile. But 2. rightly urges that multorun cannot be the accused candidates, and his conjecture, that jurors or witnesses who stayed away because of illness were to lose some privileges (e. g. the right of sitting on a jury or giving evidence) for the future, seems to me far more probable.

haec] these provisions, i.e. this law. is. Cicero. proderant] Cicero's own

He is making out that Sulpicius was the real author of the severity of the Tullian law. He was known to have advocated even stronger measures, and this, says Cicero, was a bad thing for his candidature. confusionem suffragiorum] some

5

course

was run.

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