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licto ignoscere ; neminem misericordem esse nisi stultum et levem ; viri non esse neque exorari neque placari; solos sapientes esse, si distortissimi sint, formosos, si mendicissimi, divites, si servitutem serviant, reges : nos autem, qui sapientes non sumus, fugitivos, exsules, hostes, insanos denique esse dicunt: omnia peccata esse paria, omne delictum scelus esse nefarium, nec minus delinquere eum, qui gallum gallinaceum, cum opus non fuerit, quam eum, qui patrem suffocaverit :

sapientem nihil opinari, nullius rei paenitere, nulla in re falli, 62 sententiam mutare numquam. xxx. haec homo ingeniosissi

mus, M. Cato, auctoribus eruditissimis inductus arripuit, neque disputandi causa, ut magna pars, sed ita vivendi. petunt

cf. on

μή είναι, συγγνώμην τε έχειν μηδενί. cf. Tusc. D. IV. S 18.

viri] a true man. A man worth the name. cf. S 63.

solas...dicunt] μόνον τε (τον σοφόν) ελεύθερον, τους δε φαύλους δούλους. ου μόνον δε ελευθέρους είναι τους σοφούς, αλλά και βασιλέας, της βασιλείας ούσης αρχής ανυπευθεύνου, ήτις περί μόνους αν τους σοφούς orain. Freund adds Lucian's words, μόνος ούτος σοφός, μόνος καλός, μόνος δίκαιος, άνδρείος, βασιλεύς, ρήτωρ, πλούσιος, νομοθέτης και τάλλα οπόσα εστίν. cf. Cic. de Fin. IV. § 74, nam ex eisdem verborum praestigiis et regna nata vobis sunt et imperia et divitiae, et tantae quidem, ut omnia quae ubique sint sapientis esse dicatis. solum praeterea formosum, solum liberum, solum civem ; stultos omnia contraria, quos etiam insanos esse vultis, Acad. pr. II. SS 136, 144. The titles of the Paradoxa, 5 ότι μόνος ο σοφός ελεύθερος, και ότι μόνος ο σοφός πλούσιος, και ότι πας άφρων μαίνεται, shew how Cicero coquetted with Stoicism. [See also the banter of Horace, Epp. Ι. Ι. Ιο6-108, Sat. Ι. 3. Ι24-142, ΙΙ. 3. 40-46.]

servitutem serviant] cf. Gellius II. 18. 9, Diogenes etiam Cynicus servitutem servivit, the phrase is archaic, says Quint. vii. iii. 26. See Prof. Mayor's note on Cic. Phil. ΙΙ. 8 42, dicta diccre,

omnia ... suffocaverit] åpéokeL TE αυτοίς ίσα ηγείσθαι τα αμαρτήματα: ...εί γαρ αληθές αληθούς μάλλον ουκ έστιν, ουδέ ψεύδος ψεύδους, ούτως ουδέ απάτη απάτης, ουδέ αμάρτημα αμαρτήματος. cf. de Fin. IV. 8 74, Parad. 3 ότι ίσα τα αμαρτήματα και τα κατορθώματα. Ηor. Sat. Ι. 3. 76 -I24.

opinari] emphatic. Never fancies' or supposes' anything. έτι τε μη δοξάσεις τον σοφόν: τουτέστι ψευδεί μή συγκαταθήσεσθαι μηδενί. He alone possesses true knowledge. opinione $ 78.

xxx. 62. auctoribus] the ablative of the means, as the person stands for the thing implied, here for the auctoritas of his teachers. Madv. 8 254 obs. 3. cf. pro Mil. 8 47, jacent suis testibus = his testimoniis just above, Ar. Rhet. 1. xv. 21, οποίοι γαρ άν τινες ώσιν οι επιγεγραμμένοι ή φυλάττοντες, τούτοις αι συνθήκαι πισταί εισιν.

arripuit] eagerly caught up, i.e., he was over-hasty. cf. § 13, Cat. mai. 8 26, Corn. Nepos. Cato iii. 2. inductus with glance at sense of “ misled,' ' taken in.”

disputandi] “theorizing.' vivendi, for a rule of life.

ut magna pars] cf. the remarks on Helvidius Priscus, Tac. H. IV. 5.

petunt etc.] here a number of cases are put, in which the Stoic

So

Statutuna

aliquid publicani: 'cave quidquam habeat momenti gratia supplices aliqui veniunt miseri et calamitosi: sceleratus et nefarius fueris, si quidquam misericordia adductus fueris.' fatetur aliquis se peccasse et eius delicti veniam petit: 'nefitrium est facinus ignoscere.' at leve dclictum est : · omnia peccata sunt paria. dixisti quippiam : 'tinum et est.' non re ductus es, sed opinione : sapiens nihil opinatur.' errasti aliqua in re: maledici putat. hac en disciplina nobis illa sunt: “disi in Senatu nomen consularis candidau delaturum.' iratus dixisti numquam'inquit sapiens irascitur.' at temporis causa. "improbi'inquit hominis est mendacio fallere, mutare sententiam turpe est, exorari scelus, misereri flagitium.' nostri autem illi-fatebor enim, Cato, me 63 quoque in adulescentia dittisum ingenio meo quaesisse adiumenta doctrinae--, nostri, inquam, illi a Platone et Aristotele, moderati homines et temperati, aiunt apud sapientem valere aliquando gratiam : viri boni esse misereri, distincta genera

me

ma.

we owe such arguments as.' dixi, I said, and pixum it statutum est.

temporis ca 21.02] either dixisti, “you said it to serve the turn of the moment,' or with II. nenomen ditukiris, *do not do it just now, at such ? crisis.'

63. nostri illi] sc. magistri. Cicero's teachers, particularly Antiochus of Askalon, a free adherent of the New Academy.

diffi sum] not diffidentem. cf. Mady.

$ 431 b.

rules break down. The conversa. tional form of parallel sentences is employed to throw into stronger relief the inapplicability of each dog.

cf. Madv. $ 4+2 a obs. 2. the reply in each case is delivered in the character of Cato.

publicani] When they had tendered too high a price for the revenues, they sometimes petitioned the senate for a remissio mercedum or ut induceretur locatio. A case occurred in B.C. 61, and Cato acted just as Cicero describes here. cf. de Off. III. $ 88, ad Att. I. 17. ), 18. 7, Suet. Jul. 20.

supplices] ‘in suppliant guise,' for aliqui (adj.) goes with miseri it calamitosi (subst.). II. Some provincials are probably meant.

at] 'why,' you urge, “it is but an insignificant short-coming.'

dixisti quippiam] ‘you have dropped some casual remark, perhaps.' But see Appendix C.

opinione] cf. Acad. pr. 11. § 66, and note inf. $ 78.

nobis) dat. ethicus. cf. SS 13, 21, 74. “It is to this Stoic training that

audiumenta] the support that education gives. doctrinali, very like the studia humanitatis of $ 61 in sense. For genitive cf. on $1, 56.

a Platone] imitating the Gk, oi åro IIátwɔs etc., usually with esse', as de Fin. 1V. § 7, Zino it ab eo qui

T. Plato founder of the Academic school, Aristotle of the Peripatetic.

moderati et temperati] of no violent or extreme views.

et] and hence there is a corresponding difference in the appropriate] punishments.

esse delictorum et dispares poenas, esse apud hominem constantem ignoscendi locum, ipsum sapientem saepe aliquid opinari [quod nesciat], irasci nonnumquam, exorari eundem et placari, quod dixerit interdum, si ita rectius sit, mutare, de

sententia decedere aliquando : omnes virtutes mediocritate 64 quadam esse moderatas. XXXI. hos ad magistros si qua te

fortuna, Cato, cum ista natura detulisset, non tu quidem vir melior esses nec fortior nec temperatior nec iustior—neque enim esse potes-, sed paulo ad lenitatem propensior. non accusares nullis adductus inimicitiis, nulla lacessitus iniuria, pudentissimum hominem, summa dignitate atque honestate praeditum; putares, cum in eiusdem anni custodia te atque L. Murenam fortuna posuisset, aliquo te cum hoc rei publicae vinculo esse coniunctum : quod atrociter in senatu dixisti, aut

non dixisses aut seposuisses aut mitiorem in partem interpretarere. 65 ac te ipsum, quantum ego opinione auguror, nunc et animi

quodam impetu concitatum et vi naturae atque ingenii elatum et recentibus praeceptorum studiis flagrantem iam usus flectet,

quod nresciat]=quod non certum sciat. T. well cf. the equally remarkable ad Att. XII. 23. 2, de Oropo opinior sed certum nescio.

mediocritate] Plato's met piórns, Aristotle's megórns. cf. Ar. Eth. ΙΙ. 6. 13, μεσότης τις άρα έστιν ή αρετή, στοχαστική γε ούσα του μέσου, e.g. true bravery is the mean, rashness and cowardice being the extremes between which it lies. Also Cic. de Off. 1. S 89.

quadam] as often, apologetic. Here he has just used mediocritas in a restricted sense as a translation of Legórns. sout ita dicam. cf. de Fin. II. & II.

moderatas] are ruled, tempered. esse, *are seen to be,’ i.e. by the eye of the Philosopher.

xxxi. 64. detulisset] cf. de Off. 1. S 47, maior enim pars eo fere deferri solet quo a natura ipsa deducitur. For natura cf. $ 79.

tu quidem] cf. Mady. $ 489 b.

temperatior] more self-controlled, σωφρονέστερος. .

inimicitiis] cf. $ 56. pudentissimum) so in § 30 pudor = 'sense of honour.'

custodia] as tribune. cf. § 58. seposuisses] would have set it aside. cf. Ov. Met. III. 318, where Jove is said curas seposuisse graves.

65. auguror] so de Or. I. $ 95, quantum auguror coniectura.

impetu] ‘rush.' Alluding to his hastiness, cf. $ 62.

concitatum] 'roused,' 'over-excited.' cf. pro Flacco $ 17, non concitatae contionis, sed iurati senatus.

It implies a state of semiinsanity in some passages. With de Divin. II. § 27, concitatione mentis cddi et quasi fundi videbatur compare Macbeth 11. i. 39, ‘proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain.'

flagrantem] cf. Cat. mai. $ 50, his studiis flagrantes. recentibus. Cato was now 32.

iam] 'presently.' cf. pro Caelio $ 77, iam ista deferbuerint, iam aetus omnia, iam dies mitigarit.

dies leniet, aetas mitigabit. etenim isti ipsi mihi videntur vestri praeceptores et virtutis magistri tine's otriciorum paulo longius, quam natura vellet, protulisse; ut, cum ad ultimum animo contendissemus, ibi tamen, ubi oporteret, consisteremus. * nihil ignoveris : ' immo aliquid, non omnit, nihil omnino gratiae concesseris-immo insistito, cum

oficium

et fides postulabit. * misericordia commotus ne sis: ciium, in dissolvenda severitate ; sed tamen est laus aliquid humanitatis. sententia permaneto’: vero, nisi sententium sententia alia vicerit melior. huiuscemodi Scipio ille fuit, quem non pioniie-66 bat facere idem, quod tu: habere iruditissimum hominem Panaetium domi, cuius oratione et praccptisquamquam erant eadem ista, quae te delectant, timen isperior non est factus, sed, ut accepi i senibus, lenissimus. quis vero C.

.in

isti ipsi] i.e. your very teachers Staritati 2. cf. de Off. 1. SS, need teaching. The sense of the paso it tamen ita probande ist m112526tudio sage is, they have set up an ideal axtiyle! climcntis, ut adhibcatur riibeyond the reach of human frailty, publicade CAUSA Szeritus; Sini (111 and not without a reason: we must administrari civitas non potest. The fall short of it, but then, if we aim word = 'strictness,' • firmness.' high and fail, we still may do our duty;' humanitatis here 'feelings,' al

natura) cf. $ 60, quam veritus ciuit most sympathy.' natura patitur:

acro ] a strong affirmative, cf. ad ultimam] to the furthest limit, Tusc. 1. 1. § 26, pero qui libenter i.e. to the highest perfection.

quidem. In § 15 it was used to add ignoveris] Madv. $ 386. Here force in the last member of a climax. Cicero puts limitations to some of melior purposely put at the end the extreme doctrines noticed above. like an aster-thought, as Freund well

concesseris] so 2. from MS. Lag: 9. remarks.

insistito] 'stop,' or as we say • draw 66. Scipio) the younger Africathe line.' The strong imperatives are nus, § 58. lle was murdered in here used with mock-solemnity, like

non paenitebat=delectatat. a statute. cf. Hor. Sat. 11. 1. 8, 9. quod tu] Cato had with great diftifides] ‘honesty,' as in $ 30. culty induced the aged Stoic Atheno

etiam] a strong affirmative. cf. dorus Kordylion to come with him Acad. pr. II. $ 104, aut ctiam’aut from Pergamus to Rome and dwell 'non' respondere possit, de Nat. D. in his house, Plut. Cat. min. 10, 16, 1. $ 70, in omnibus diiunctionibus in quibus 'aut etiam aut non' poneretur, Panaetium] a famous Stoic from pro Rosc. Com. § 9 si non..., si

Rhodes. His intimacy with Scipio ctiam, Plin. Epp. VI. 2. 8, at 211012 and Laelius is often mentioned by dam supervacua dicuntur, etiam, sed Cicero, e.g. de Fin. IV. § 23, de Rep. satius est et haec dici quam non dici 1. § 24. Also by Velleius 1. 13. 3. necessaria.

His work περί καθήκοντος was fol . dissolvenda) “relaxing.' cf. de Off. lowed by Cicero in the de Officiis. III. $ 113, fraus astringit, non dis accepis Cicero was born in 13.C. ich. solvit periurium.

lenissimus] sc. erat, which has

I 29 B.C.

cf. also 4.

Laelio comior? quis iucundior, eodem ex studio isto ? quis illo gravior, sapientior? possum de L. Philo, de C. Gallo dicere haec eadem, sed te domum iam deducam tuam. quemquamne existimas Catone proavo tuo commodiorem, communiorem, moderatiorem fuisse ad omnem rationem humanitatis ? de cuius praestanti virtute cum vere graviterque diceres, domesticum te habere dixisti exemplum ad imitandum. est illud quidem exemplum tibi propositum domi, sed tamen naturae similitudo illius ad te magis, qui ab illo ortus es, quam ad unum quemque nostrum pervenire potuit, ad imitandum vero tam mihi propositum exemplar illud est quam tibi. sed si illius comitatem et facilitatem tuae gravitati severitatique asperseris, non ista quidem erunt meliora, quae nunc sunt optima,

sed certe condita iucundius. 67 XXXII. quare ut ad id, quod institui, revertar, tolle mihi

e causa nomen Catonis, remove auctoritatem, quae in iudiciis

sul 140.

perhaps dropped out.

Cicero cannot mean that Stoicism rendered him very gentle ; rather, in spite of his Stoic training he retained his gentleness. H. This I doubt. We know that Panaetius modified the harsh doctrines of the Stoics to a considerable extent, de Fin. iv. § 79, and thus caused them to spread widely and take deep root at Rome. C. Laelio] praetor B.C. 145, con

He had the nickname Sapiens, was the bosom friend of the younger Scipio Africanus, Hor. Sat. 11. I. 72 virtus Scipiadae et mitis sapientia Laeli, and is taken by Cicero as a typical “crony' to form the chief character in the dialogue on Friendship which bears his name. He did much to introduce Greek learning into Rome and was intimate with the Stoics Panaetius and Diogenes of Babylon. With this passage generally cf. de Or. II. & 154, de Rep. III. $ 5.

eodem ex studio] so $ 75. 'Of the same school.'

L. Furius Philus] consul B.C. 136.
C. Sulp. Gallus] consul B.C. 166.

communiorem] more sociable.' cf. Lael. $ 65. 2. from MS. Lag. 9 comiorem, cf, pro Balbo $ 36.

humanitatis] in every relation of social life.

exemplum] so Isocr. ad Demon. 89, ου μην αλλά και τας του πατρός προαιρέσεις αναμνησθείς οικείον και καλόν έξεις παράδειγμα των υπ' εμού 001 leyouévwv, and Mr Sandys' note.

naturae similitudo] = one word. 'Likeness of character.' illius. to him, i.e. his character. cf. huius periculi propulsatio, = from him, pro Sull. § 2.

asperseris] metaphor from cookery. cf. Orator $ 87, huic generi orationis aspergentur etiam sales, pro Cluent. $ 71, Guttam aspergit huic Bulbo.

ista] your peculiarities. quidem. Madv. $ 489 b.

condita] so Cat. mai. $ 10, comitate condita gravitas. *Seasoned.'

xxxii. 67. nomen Catonis] 'the name Cato.' cf. § 13 nomen voluptatis, Phil. VIII. § 2,

belli nomen. Madv. § 286.

mihi] dat. eth. cf. SS 13, 21, etc.

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