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horum ego

delendae, civium trucidandorum, nominis Romani exstinguendi. atque sic cives, cives inquam, si cos hoc nomine appellari fas est, de patria sua et cogitant et cogitavcrunt. cotidie consiliis occurro, audaciam debilito, sceleri resisto, sed moneo, iudices : in exitu iam est meus consulatus: nolite mihi subtrahere vicarium mere diligentine, nolite adimere cum, cui rem publicam cupio tradere incolumem ab his tantis periculis defendendam.

XXXVIII. atque ad haec mali, iudices, quid accedat aliud, 81 non videtis ? te, te appello, Cato: nonne propicis tempestatem anni tui? iam enim in hesterna contione intonuit vox perniciosa designati tribuni, collegae tui, contra quem multum tua mens, multum omnes boni providerunt, qui te ad tribunatus petitionem vocaverunt. omnia, quae per hoc triennium agitata sunt, iam ab eo tempore, quo a L. Catilina et Cn. Pisone initum consilium senatus interficiendi scitis esse, in hos dies, in hos menses, in hoc tempus erumpunt. qui locus est, iudi- 82 ces, quod tempus, qui dies, quae nox, cum ego non ex istorum insidiis ac mucronibus non solum meo, sed multo etiam magis

moneo]The construction is changed: it would, if regular, run on in exitre iam esse meum consulatum.

tradere] cf. $ 3.

incolumem] with defendindam, cf. pro Flacco $ 98, incolumis est ripublicae conservatus, pro Planc. $ 12.

xxxviii. 81. n0n] with doubt and surprise, but implying that the answer is expected in the negative. Madv. § 450. nonne, you surely must' see the storm brewing ahead of you, for you are elected tribune for next year and must have looked forward, while it is just barely possible that the jury may need remind. ing. Madv. $ 451 c.

contione] Probably he had attacked Cicero's measures against the conspiracy of Catiline.

intonuit]carrying out the metaphor of tempestatem. See the story in Plut. Cato 20, diknu OKNTTOÙ.

collegae tui] Q. Metellus Nepos, who when Cicero at the end of the

year laid down his consulship prevented him from delivering the usual address to the people. cf. ad Fam. V. 2. 7. he was afterwards reconciled to Cicero by P. Servilius Vatia, and in 57 B.C. Supported his recall from exile.

tumns] He had been urged to stand for the tribuneship, but had refused. When however he found that Metellus was going to stand, he changed his mind, and came forward ως αντιταξόμενος προς τον ΜέTellov, Plut. Cato 20.

eo tempore] the first Catilinarian conspiracy, at the end of B.C. 66. cf. Sall. Cat. 18.

erumpunt) are bursting forth upon this season. so in Catil. I. S 31, omnium scelerum maturitas in nostri consulatus tempus erupit, the metaphor is the same as above.

82. insidiis] cf. in Catil. iv. § 2. T.

cum...evolem] Madv. § 358 obs. 4.

meo

divino consilio eripiar atque evolem ? neque isti me nomine interficere, sed vigilantem consulem de rei publicae praesidio demovere volunt; nec minus vellent, Cato, te quoque aliqua ratione, si possent, tollere, id quod, mihi crede, et agunt et moliuntur. vident, quantum in te sit animi, quantum ingenii, quantum auctoritatis, quantum rei publicae praesidii: sed cum consulari auctoritate et auxilio spoliatam vim tribuniciam viderint, tum se facilius inermem et debilitatum te oppressuros arbitrantur. nam ne sufficiatur consul, non timent: vident in tuorum potestate collegarum fore, sperant

sibi Silanum, clarum virum, sine collega, te sine consule, rem 83 publicam sine praesidio obici posse. his tantis in rebus

tantisque in periculis est tuum, M. Cato, qui mihi non tibi, sed patriae natus esse videris, [videre quid agatur,] retinere adiutorem, defensorem, socium in re publica, consulem non cupidum, consulem, quod maxime hoc tempus postulat, fortuna constitutum ad amplexandum otium, scientia ad bellum gerendum, animo et usu ad quod velis negotium.

quamquam huiusce rei potestas omnis in vobis sita est, iudices : totam rem publicam vos in hac causa tenetis, vos gubernatis. si L. Catilina cum suo consilio nefariorum homi

XXXIX.

same view.

cf. pro

meo nominc] on my own account, 'as Cicero. cf. § 69, talis viri no cupidum] 'greedy,' 'passionate,' mine, ‘in the cause of a man of that after honour or money. sort.'

Fonteio $ 22, cupidos moderatis anteagunt) have in view; moliuntur, ferre. almost =ambitious, as in Hor. are working to effect. Cicero is fond A. P. 165, sublimis cupidusque. of joining these words. cf. ad Fam. fortuna] cf. on § 79. Murena is VI. 10. 2, etc. Z.

a well-to-do man, and hence not fore] sc. hoc, ne sufficiatur consul : rerum novarum cupidus. they could stop the holding of an scientia] so in $ 34, summi con. election by their veto. H. D. Iunius silii. Silanus was the other consul elect. animo et usu] spirit backed by

83. mihi] i. e. for any one of experience. your friends. cf. the mention of sui

quod velis]=quodvis. and amici in the parallel passages, xxxix. quamquam] ‘still’(though de Fin. II. $ 45, de Off. 1. § 22. So things look so black). Here Cicero we retain the reading of the best passes on to the epilogus or peroratio MSS non mihi, non tibi, sed patriae.Z. of the speech. But I prefer to read as above with in vobis sita est]=penes vos est. T. the large majority of MSS, and tenetis] sustain. cf. tenebatur, § II.'s em

videris for videre quid 58, note. agatur, and I see that T. takes the consilio]=bench of judges. Cati

num, quos secum eduxit, hac de re posset iudicare, condemnaret L. Murenam, si interticere posset, occideret. petunt enim rationes illius, ut orbetur auxilio res publica, ut minuatur contra suum furorem imperatorum copia, ut maior facultas tribunis plebis detur, depulso densario, seditionis ac discordiae concitandae. idemne igitur delecti amplissimis en ordinibus honestissimi atue sapientissimi viri iudicabunt, quod ille importunissimus gladiator, hostis reipublicae indicaret? mihi 84 credite, iudices, in hac causa non solum de L. Murenae, verum etiam de vestra salute sententiam feretis. in discrimen extremum venimus: nihil est iam, unde nos reticiamus aut ubi lapsi resistamus. non solum minuenda non sunt auxilia, quae habemus, sed etiam nova, si fieri possit, comparanda. hostis est enim non apud Anienem, quod bello Punico gravissimum visum est, sed in urbe, in foro di immortales! sine gemitu hoc dici non potest-non nemo etiam in illo sacrario rei publicae, in ipsa, inquam, curia non nemo hostis est. di faxint, ut meus collega, vir fortissimus, hoc Catilinae nefarium latrocinium armatus opprimat, ego togatus, vobis bonisque omnibus adiutoribus, hoc, quod conceptum res publica periculum parturit, consilio discutiam et comprimam! sed quid tandem 85

line is represented (fingitur) as sitting in judgment on Murena with his fellow.conspirators for jury.

si posset etc.] This is quoted by Quint. V. X. 99 as an instance of argumenta ducta a fictione, 9100 Graeci καθ' υπόθεσιν τοcanit.

rationes] ‘his plans.' cf. on § 46; almost = 'interest.'

auxilio] sc. consulari, S 82.

imperatorum] such as Murena. cf. on scientia sup.

tribunis] such as Metellus. cf. on $ 81.

importunissimus] that most sav. age of cut-throats.' So in Catil. II. § 12, importunissimum hostem. inf. § 85.

gladiator] cf. $ 50.

hostis] 'public enemy.' Emphatic, as in Catil. iii. & 17.

84. resistamus] 'regain our foot

ing.' A rare use. Ennius has post er fluvio fortuna resistet.

apud Anienem] cf. Liv. XXVI. 10. Polybius IX. 5. 9, Mommsen, bk. 111. c. 6. This was in 211 B.C., the distance 3 or 4 miles from Rome.

non nuemo] ‘one or two. Certain persons are meant, but not named. cf. Madv. S 493 c. obs.

sacrario] .shrine of the people's interests.

faxint) the usual form in solemn wishes. cf. Roby, Lat. Gr. II. 20. $ 620.

latrocinium] ‘band of brigands.' cf. in Catil. I. S 31, quodsi ex tanto latrocinio iste unus tolletur.

togatus) in a civilian capacity, opp. to armatus.

parturit] cf. Phil. II. S 118, ut aliquando dolor populi Romani pariat, quod iamdiu parturit.

fiet, si haec elapsa de manibus nostris in eum annum, qui consequitur, redundarint? unus si erit consul et is non in administrando bello, sed in sufficiendo collega occupatus, haec iam qui impedituri sunt? * * * * illa pestis immanis, importuna Catilinae prorumpet, quae * * * minatur: in agros suburbanos repente advolabit; versabitur in rostris furor, in curia timor, in foro coniuratio, in campo exercitus, in agris vastitas; omni autem in sede ac loco ferrum flammamque metuemus, quae iam diu comparantur. eadem ista omnia, si ornata suis praesidiis erit res publica, facile et magistratuum

consiliis et privatorum diligentia comprimentur. 86 XL. quae cum ita sint, iudices, primum rei publicae causa,

qua nulla res cuiquam potior debet esse, vos pro mea summa et vobis cognita in re publica diligentia moneo, pro auctoritate consulari hortor, pro magnitudine periculi obtestor, ut otio, ut paci, ut saluti, ut vitae vestrae et ceterorum civium consulatis : deinde ego idem vos defensoris et amici officio adductus oro atque obsecro, iudices, ut ne hominis miseri et cum corporis morbo tum animi dolore confecti, L. Murenae, recentem gratulationem nova lamentatione obruatis. modo maximo beneficio populi Romani ornatus fortunatus videbatur, quod primus in familiam veterem, primus in municipium antiquis

85. redundarint] run over into. for metaphor cf. Nägelsb. Stil. 132. 1.

collega] to take Murena's place.

sunt] so MS. Lag. 9, and this makes sense, though I admit it savours of a correction. After this there is a lacuna in the MSS., and the following words to minatur are also imperfect.

immanis] After this word H. very plausibly conjectures that manus has been lost. cf. pro Sest. § 42, Catilinae importunam manum.

prorumpet] sc. from the gorges of the Apennines. H.

vastitas] 'desolation,' as usual.

suis] ‘with its proper means of defence.' T.

xl. 86. moneohortor-obtestor] climax. 'warn'--'urge'-'adjure.'

ut] expresses the object in general, ne the negation. Madv. S 456.

obruatis] ‘do not drown the sounds of congratulation still fresh in his ears with the sudden voice of woe. beneficio. $ 3.

familiam veterem] cf. SS 15, 53.

municipium] Lanuvium, & 9o. It was an ancient Latin town among the Alban hills. No distinction was drawn between these old cantonal centres and the coloniae Latinae, save that now and then the latter are spoken of as coloniae to mark their origin. By the Julian law of B.C. 9o all alike were offered the citizenship. But Lanuvium was conquered in B.C. 338, and received the civitas sine suffragio. The people became municipes in relation to Rome, i. e., they bore burdens, such

simum consulatum attulisset: nunc idem squalore et sordibus * * confectus, lacrimis ac maerore perditus, vester est suppler, iudices, vestram fidem obtestatur, iestra misericordiam implorat, vestram potestatem ac vestras opes intuetur. nolite, 87 per deos immortales: iudices, hac eum re, qui se honestiorem fore putavit, etiam ceteris ante partis honestatibus atque omni dignitate fortunaque privare. 10e ita vos si Jurena, iudices, orat atque obsecrat, si iniuste neminem laesit, si nullius aures voluntatemre violavit, si nemini, ut levissime dicam, odio nec domi nec militiae fuit, sit apud vos modestiae locus, sit demissis persugium, sit auxilium pudori. misericordiam spoliatio consulatus magnam habere debet, iudices; uma enim eripiuntur cum consulatu omnia. invidiam vero his temporibus habere consulatus ipse nullam potest; obicitur enim contionibus seditiosorum, insidiis coniuratorum, teiis Catilinae, ad omne denique periculum atque ad omnem invidiam solus opponitur. quare qui invidendum Murenae aut cuiquam 88 nostrum sit in hoc praeclaro consulatu, non video, iudices :

a

as army-service and the tributum, but had no vote. cf. Mommsen, bk. II. C. 5. At a later time, before the Julian law, they had received the full citizenship. cf. $ +2.

squalore it sordibus] cf. pro Cluent. $ 18, and Prof. Ramsay's note. Here follows a small lacuna.

vester supplix] so pro Cluent. $ 200, supplicem l'estrum. The reading of MS. Lag: 9 vestram supplex, iudices, vestram... is very tempting. Z. adopts it.

87. hac eum re....... ceteris] The double ablative has an awkward air, but the same may be said of § 23 (see note); the real difficulty is that hac re=his desire of the consulship, qua=his attainment of it. T. well cf. Tusc. D. II. $ 43, quod ergo et postulatur a fortibus et landatur, quum fit, id aut extimescere veniens aut iion ferre praesens nonne turpe est? where quod=toleranter dolorem pati, but id=dolorem.

honestatibus] honestas is the quality imparted by honores, as

distinction. The plural in this sense seems to occur here only.

itur] sc. “as I describe him,' lavi. mis ac dolori perditus etc.

si] 'if, as is the fact,' = einep, as often, especially, as 2. remarks, in perorations. cf. $ 90, pro Cluent. $ 200, pro Rosc. Am. § 153, pro Balbo $ 64.

neminem ... mullius ... nemini] good instance of Latin usage.

levissime] so in Catil. III. $ 17, pro Sest. § 145. •To make the least of it.'

demissis] so with Z. and MS. Lag. 9 I prefer to read, leaving out the hominibus which follows in most MSS. The conj. demissioni animi

ems to me clever but superfluous.
pudori] cf. SS 30, 64.
habere] cf. on § 68.

obicitur] 'is exposed to’..., "at the mercy of '...cf. § 82.

opponitur] 'is set to meet.' cf. the play on this word in Catul. 26.

88. praeclaro] 'this glorious ... ironical, cf. § 22.

we say

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