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which is full of iron-ores, one variety being the richest as yet found in India, being situated in the Daundi-Lohárá zamindári. "Bhindo" and "Sambarsingha," I have not yet been able to identify.
2. Extent of the ores.-The number of places where iron-ores and smelting furnaces exist is much larger than that given in the statistical tables cited above. Of the localities noted by these, Magarkund is the only one where the ores are still worked, the furnaces at Kondkasar, Dalli, &c., having been given up for some time past. On the other hand, as will be seen from the following list, there are numerous places not mentioned in the statistical tables where I saw furnaces at work (season 1882-83.) The number of these is very variable and must be taken as approximate. The Agarias who work them are a very unsettled people, leaving a place as soon as the neighbouring jungle fails to satisfy their requirements, or the zamindár enhances the duty levied on their furnaces.
I. GANDÁI ZAMINDÁRI.
Magarkund. Here the ore worked is red hæmatite occurring as nodules in alluvium a mile and a half north-east of the village at the foot of a hill of red ferruginous Chilpi (? transition) sandstone. The ore is evidently derived from the latter. I saw eight furnaces at work in the village.
II. THÁKURTOLA ZAMINDÁRI.
(a) Chutrala (deserted).-The ore is like that of Magarkund in extent and mode of occurrence. It is no longer worked.1
(b) Kumi.-Here the ore is of considerable extent and occurs in lateritic beds overlying black basaltic rocks which appear to be intrusive in the Chilpis.
(c) Basantapur (not marked on map).-A village near Kumi, several smelting furnaces are at work here. Ore as at Kumi.
III. NANDGAON FEUDATORY STATE.
Lateritic ore abundant over an area of eight square miles, at Bháwá, Jurlákhár and Chuhuri (depopulated), now worked only at Jurlakhar, where I saw four active furnaces.
IV. KHAIRÁGAR FEUDATORY STATE.
In the western portion of this state north of Dongargar is a jungle-clad hilly country, which is full of iron-ores. These are very largely worked, there being furnaces at Borlá, Katulkassa, Banjár (not marked on map), &c., probably aggregating twenty in number. The ores mostly occur in soil covering basaltic rocks which appear to be intrusions in the Chilpis; but rich hæmatite, among beds of red sandstone, is also met with.
V. WORÁRBAND ZAMINDÁRI.
West of Worár a mile south of the great eastern road from Nagpur to Raipur, I found iron-ore in lateritic deposits covering beds of hard, red, nearly flat sandstone (Chandarpur). The country is poorly wooded; and, as far as I could ascertain, it has never been utilised.
1 Last season furnaces were working at Murwabhat, 3 miles south-east of Chutrala, "From information last season (1886-87) I learn that the village is now deserted.
VI. DAUNDI-LOHÁRÁ ZAMINDÁRI.
The richest and most extensive ores of the district are to be found in this zamindári. Furnaces exist at Killákorá, Ungárá, Hirkápár, &c. The hill of Dalli, for about 7 miles of its length, is full of good hæmatite, which is developed in hard, red, rather thin bedded ferruginous Chilpi sandstone. The villages of Dalli and Kondekassa once possessed a very large number of furnaces, but they have been given up, owing, I heard, to the Zamindár of Lohara having raised the duty levied on iron furnaces.
3. Analyses.-Four specimens of the ores brought by me were analysed by Mr. E. J. Jones, of the Geological Survey, with the following result:—
4. The first variety of the Dalli ore appears to be the best that has as yet been found in this country, as will be seen from the following comparison :
5. Fuel and Water Supply.—All the places mentioned above, except Magarkund and Worarband, are situated in fairly wooded forests; and those near Dalli, especially to the west and south-west of it, are exceptionally good, so much so that a charcoal furnace on a large scale could possibly be maintained here to advantage. The fuel used for reduction of ore in the furnace is obtained from Dhaora, Salai and similar trees of comparatively little economic importance, teak and other timberyielding trees being not allowed to be cut down for the purpose. For refining, bamboo charcoal is employed.
Of all the places tabulated above, Dalli is most advantageously situated as regards supply of water, several springs in the neighbourhood yielding it in a very pure form. Mr. E. J. Jones of the Geological Survey, who kindly analysed a sample of the spring water, detected the merest traces only of lime and chloride in it.
6. Flux.-Flux is never used in the furnaces which I saw at work. The Raipur (Lower Vindhyan?) limestone is usually not far off from the iron-ore localities. As regards Dalli, the nearest outcrop of it is at a distance of 20 miles. One specimen of the stone, analysed by Mr. Hiralal, of the Geological Survey, gave the following result:
7. Mode of working, &c.-The furnaces are of a primitive character, not unlike those described at p. 380 of the "Manual of the Geology of India," pt. III. The ore selected is almost invariably the softest, though not always the best, available. The metal turned out by the furnace is refined in an open hearth, and is made into bars called chuls, which are sold to blacksmiths at an average rate of five annas per chul. The outturn per day from each furnace, supposing eight persons to be employed for preparing and bringing fuel and ore, and for working at the bellows, would be four chuls, selling at one rupee four annas. Fixing the wages of workpeople at two annas per head, this leaves a margin of four annas for the proprietor. The duty on the furnace has to be paid from this sum, and it may be as low as one rupee, and as high as seven rupees per annum. This, however, is inclusive of all dues on account of trees cut down for charcoal. As the only expensive portion of the apparatus employed is the bellows, which costs from three to four rupees, and as the proprietor's supply of labourers is usually drawn from his own family, he being one of them, iron-smelting is considered a fairly profitable industry where fuel is abundant, and the duty on the furnace not too high.
The furnaces are worked by a class of Gonds who style themselves Agariás or Pardhans. They almost invariably speak the Gondi language, which their brethren of the plains have quite forgotten, and would not scruple to eat cow, buffalo, &c., which the latter, who aspire to the title of Hindus, would never touch. Iron-smelting must be a very old industry with the Gonds. Their traditions ascribe their first settlement in Káchikopá Lahugarh, or the "Iron valley in the Red Hills;" and the only metal for which they appear to have a name in their language is iron.
Notes on Upper Burma, by E. J. JONES, A.R.S.M., Geological Survey of India (with 2 maps).
Recent and alluvial deposits.
1. The Chindwin Valley.
2. The Panlaung Coal-field.
3. Two Coal Localities in the Shan Hills.
4. Lignite at Thigyit near Nyaungwe.
5. Metalliferous Mines in the Shan Hills.
1. THE CHINDWIN VALLEY.
The strata exhibited in the Chindwin river at Monywa, the lowest point which I visited, consist of recent sand, resting on a ferruginous conglomerate containing fragments of the well known fossil wood so widely distributed in Burma. I found this fossil wood at almost the highest point to which I travelled on the Chindwin (the neighbourhood of
'From the manner in which the operations are performed, it is impossible to form anything like a correct estimate of either the outturn or of the working expenses.
fossil wood group," of Mr. Theobald. See Memoirs, G. S. I., X,
the mouth of the Kalé creek), and as far east as a short distance from the base of the Shan Hills; while according to Mr. Theobald it is of very wide-spread occurrence in Lower Burma.
At Alon, 5 miles up the river above Monywa, the same conglomerate is seen. dipping slightly towards the east.
Above Alon the banks are low and sandy for some distance, but a few miles above the station, a ridge of sandstone, which, from the launch
Tertiary. in which I was travelling, appeared horizontal, but which probably dips, as do the strata everywhere in this part of the country, to the east, is seen running across the river from east to west and forming a low cliff on each bank. Above this point the right bank becomes less sandy and higher, while the left bank remains low and chiefly composed of sand. Another ridge of sandstone runs across just by Yathit.
Above this point similar sandstone frequently appears in both banks, though at the time I visited the locality the channel was frequently separated from the actual river bank by wide stretches of sand-bank, between which the little water that was left in the river flowed.
Some miles below Kani the banks become quite low and sandy again, but at Kani there is a precipitous cliff, just above the village, formed by a small range of hills running nearly north-south, which here crosses the river.
At the bottom of this cliff, which is about 200 feet high, there are 20 feet of coarse ferruginous conglomeratic sandstone, above which the sandstone becomes much finer and lighter coloured, being of a light buff, though bands of the darker coloured ferruginous sandstone are to be seen at intervals all the way up.
Above Kani the banks gradually become low again till, at about 17 miles below Maukadau, the river passes through a much higher range of sandstone hills. Above this the river becomes wide and much spread out, and blocked with sandbanks, though low hills are always to be seen at no great distance from the river. Above Mingin soft sandstones are seen on the right bank dipping to the east under the river; the left bank is fairly flat with an occasional small outcrop of the sandstone. At the junction of the Kalé creek (or Myit-tha) a fine-grained greenish yellow sandstone, harder at and near the weathered surface than Cretaceous ? inside and containing courses of a harder sandstone, is exposed dipping to E.15°S. at 30°. The harder courses are due to infiltrated silica and ferruginous matter. This sandstone also contains in parts ferruginous nodules and bands of a somewhat coarser texture.
The Kalé Coal-field.-This is only a small portion of what promises to be a much larger field. It owes its name to the fact of some coal Position of the field. having been found and worked to some extent in the socalled Kalé creek (the Myit-tha), which flows into the Chindwin at the village known as Kalewa (Lat. 23° 4' N., Long. 94° 25′ E.), situated on the right bank of the Chindwin between Mingin and Kindat.
I was informed by those who had the opportunity of observing the neighbouring country that this is by no means the only tributary of the Chindwin in which coal occurs, but that it is to be found in almost, if not quite, all the streams flowing in on the right
Other coal seams on the Chindwin.
Coal in Kubo valley.
bank below the Kalé creek, and to the north of this point as far as Tamu. Coal was also reported by Captain Stevens through the Political Agent, Manipur, in 1886 to occur in large quantities in the Kubo valley, though Captain Stevens did not think it would ever be able to compete with the Kalé coal.
Position of the coal outcrops.
The only coal locality I visited was that on the Kalé creek. The coal is here found out-cropping in the right bank of the stream about 2 to 3 miles above its junction with the main river, and just below the villages of Thitcho on the left bank, and Chau-oung on the right bank. About a mile below Chau-oung a small stream runs into the creek from the south, immediately below which the main seam of coal is exposed.
The whole section as seen is as follows in descending order, the dip being to the east at 45°: