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vassals drained of so much wealth, in order to replenish the treasury of a profuse pontiff. Men of piety regretted the delusion of the people, who, being taught to rely for the pardon of their sins on the indulgences which they purchased, did not think it incumbent on them either to abound in faith or to practise holiness. Even the most unthinking were shocked at the scandalous behaviour of Tetzel and his associates, who often squandered in drunkenness, gaming, and low debauchery, those sums which were piously bestowed in hopes of obtaining eternal happiness ; and all began to wish that some check were given to this commerce, no less detrimental to society, than destructive to religion."* This general call for reformation did not long remain unanswered. Among the many mm of integrity and pious worth, who lamented the degraded state of the great mass of mankind, were Erasmus, Luther, Huss, Jerome of Prague, and others; all ardently seeking an opportunity to throw off the yoke of Catholic control, and restore to their fellow creatures the Christian religion in its native purity. Luther (his way having been previously cleared by Erasmus) was the first of the Reformers to throw aside the veil, and discover to the people the craft, artifice, and disgraceful duplicity of their spiritual advisers. He had about this time the happiness to discover a copy of the Bible, upon the study of which he immediately entered, and found nothing therein that either authorized monastic retirement, or empowered man to grant absolution to his fellows. He therefore proposed to the Elector of Saxony, by whose permission he reformed the several churches within his dominions, to expel all abbots and monks, and to convert the convents and mendicant priories into public schools and hospitals. In short, he exposed all the absurdities of the Romish church, and had the happiness to see his cause prevail.—This reformation was not, of course confined to the States of Germany: an occurrence so interesting to mankind soon extended itself to distint countries. England caught the flame, and nobly seconded the efforts of their continental brethren. John Wickliffe, and others equally eminent, laboured to promote the good cause, which was ultimately established in the reign of Henry VIII. It is a curious circumstance, and worthy of note, that Henry, who had written fiercely in defence of the seven sacraments against Luther, and, in the early part of his reign, burnt one William Tyndal, for making an Euglish translation of the New Testament, should be th" monarch who first established Protestantism in his own dominions. But it would seem that Providence particularly favoured the

* Itobmson's History.

exertions of the Reformers; for we find that, about fifty years before the days of Luther, the arts of printing and paper-making were discovered; while the haughty spirit of the rash Henry prompted him to throw off the yoke of Catholic supremacy, and instead of proving himself " Defender of the Faith," as by the Pope entitled, raised himself to be the Supreme Head of the Church, and refused to acknowledge any superior power. Thus the Reformation obtained a footing both on the Continent and in England, from which it has never been entirely displaced, though frequently disturbed.

(d) page 94.

The period of Easter having been ascertained, the moveable feasts follow in the undermentioned order:—

Septuagesima Sunday is nine weeks before Easter.

Shrove Sunday is seven weeks before Easter.

Ash Wednesday, three days after Shrove Sunday.

Easter Term begins a fortnight after the Wednesday in Easter

Week. Rogation Sunday is six weeks after Easter. Ascension Day is thirty-nine days after Easter Sunday. Whitsunday is seven weeks after Easter Day. Trinity Sunday is the next after Whitsunday. Trinity Term begins the Friday after Trinity Sunday, and ends on

the Wednesday fortnight after. Advent is always the Sunday nearest the 30th of November,

whether before or after; and the Sundays after Trinity,

marked in the calendar, are those between Trinity Sunday

and Advent Sunday.

(e) page 142.

Before the coming of St. Augustine, there had been four persecutions in Britain. The first, under Diocletian; the second by the Picts and Huns; the third by the Saxons, under Hengist, about A. D. 450; and the fourth by the Saxons and other Pagans, about a hundred years after.

(f) page 296.

Proclamation of King Henry VIII. A. D. 1540. — " Whereas heretofore dyvers and many superstitious and chyldish observances have been used, and yet to this day are observed and kept in many and sundry places of this realm, upon St. Nicholas', St. Catharine's, St. Clement's, and Holy Innocents', and suchliek holy daies; children be strangelie decked and apparayled to counterfeit priests, bishops, and women, and so ledde with songs and dances from house to house, blessing the people and gathering of money, and boyes do sing masse and preache in the pulpits; with such other unfittinge and inconvenient usages, which tend ratherto derysyon than enie true glorie to God or honor of his sayntes."





Advent 290

Agatha, St. biography of. 56

Agnes, St 34

Alban, St. biography of 156

All Fools' Day 101

Almanack, from what derived 14

Alpliege, St. biography of 107

All Saints , 252

— Souls 253

Ambrose, St. biography of.... 104

Andrew, St. biography of 2b4

Anne, St 184

Ascension Day 130

Ash Wednesday 62

Assumption of Virgin Mary .. 195

August, from what derived .. 185

Augustine, St 200

Augustine, St. biography of.. 141


Bartholomew, St. biography of 197

Barnabas, St 155

Bede, Venerable 143

Benedict, St 80

Blaise, St 54

Boniface, St 159

Boy Bishop 294

Bntius, St. biography of 274

Bissextile (b) 317


Calendar, origin of the word.. 14

of Julius Csesar .... ib.

Calends (a) 317

Candlemas Day 53


Carnival at Rome 28

Catharine, St. biography of... 282

Cecilia, St. biography of. 281

Chad, St. biography of. 72

Christmas, how celebrated 301

Circumcision 22

Clepsydra or Water Clock.... 11
Clement, St. biography of.... 282
Clocks, when and by whom in-
vented 12

Cock-throwing, origin of .... 59

Conversion of St. Paul 36

Con. B. V. M. (Blessed Virgin

Mary) 297.

Corpus Christi 139

Country Life, pleasures of a.. 205

Crosses, why erected 192

Crispin, St biography of. 244

Cyprian, St. biography of.... 224


Days of the Week, origin of

their titles 16

David, St. biography of 72

December, why so called 290

Denys, St. biography of 237

Dog Days, why called 170

Dominical Letter 14

Dunstan, St. biography of.... 135


Easter, how celebrated 88

Easter Term, its commence-
ment 33

Edward, king, his martyrdom 78

Edmund, king and martyr .... 280

^ Page

Ember Week 67

Enurchus, St. biography of.... 218
Ephcmeris, from what derived 14

Epiphany 26

Etheldrida, St. biography of.. 241
Execution of Guy Fawkes and
others 264


Fabian, St 34

Faith, St. biography of. 236

Fastern's E'en - 62

February, why so called 51

Fete Dieu 140

Fire of London 209


George, St. biography of. Ill

Giles, St. biography of. 208

Glove Money, origin of 26

Good Friday 87

Gregory the Great, biography of 75
Gregory, Pope, introduces the
new style 90


Harvest Home, discontinuance

of 186

Hilary, St 32

Hourglass, origin of the 11

Holy Cross 219

Thursday 130

Hugh, St. biography of 278


Invention of the Cross 127

Innocents' Day 311


James, St. the Great, biogra-
phy of... 181

the Less, biography

of 126

January, why so called 17

Jerome, St. biography of. 229

John Evan. P. L '122, 311

the Baptist, beheaded 202

Jbiography of.. 160

June, why so called 149

Jude, St. biography of........ 24?

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Lammas Day, how observed .. 187
Lambert, St. biography of.... 221

Landing of King William 254

Lady, or Annunciation Day ., 84
Lawrence, St. biography of .. 193
Lent Term, its commencement 33

, fast of, its origin, how

kept. 63

Leap Year 20

Leonard, St. biography of 270

Low Sunday 107

Lord Mayor's Day 270

Longest Day 160

Lucy, biography of 298

Lucian, St 31

Luke, St. biography of. 243


Machutus, biography of...... 277

Martin, St. biography of...... 273

May Day, at home 118

May, why so called 125

Mark, St. the Evangelist 115

Maundy Thursday 85

Matthias, St biography of.... 67

Matthew, St. biography of.... 222

Massacre of St. Bartholomew 198

Mary Magdalen 181

Margaret 180

Martyrdom, meaning of the

word i :39

March, its character, why so

called 71

Midlent Sunday... 74

Michaelmas Term, its com-
mencement 33

Day 228

Michael, St. account of 227

Midsummer Dav 160

Mothering Sunday 75

Moveable Feasts dependent

upon Easter (d) 321

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