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vassals drained of so much wealth, in order to replenish the treasury of a profuse pontiff. Men of piety regretted the delusion of the people, who, being taught to rely for the pardon of their sins on the indulgences which they purchased, did not think it incumbent on them either to abound in faith or to practise holiness. Even the most unthinking were shocked at the scandalous behaviour of Tetzel and his associates, who often squandered in drunkenness, gaming, and low debauchery, those sums which were piously bestowed in hopes of obtaining eternal happiness ; aud all began to wish that some check were given to this commerce, no less detrimental to society, than destructive to religion.”* This general call for reformation did not long remain unanswered. Among the many men of integrity and pious worth, who lamented the degraded state of the great mass of mankind, were Erasmus, Luther, Huss, Jerome of Prague, and others; all ardently seeking an opportunity to throw off the yoke of Catholic control, and restore to their fellow creatures the Christian religion in its native purity. Luther (his way having been previously cleared by Erasmus) was the first of the Reformers to throw aside the veil, and discover to the people the craft, artifice, and disgraceful duplicity of their spiritual advi. sers. He had about this time the happiness to discover a copy of the Bible, upon the study of which he immediately entered, and found nothing therein that either authorized monastic retirement, or empowered man to grant absolution to his fellows. He therefure proposed to the Elector of Saxony, by whose permission he reformed the several churches within his dominions, to expel all abbots and monks, and to convert the convents and mendicant priories into public schools and hospitals. In short, he exposed all the absurdities of the Romish church, and had the happiness to see his cause prevail.—This reformation was not, of course confined to the States of Germany: an occurrence so interesting to mankind soon extended itself to distant countries. England caught the flame, and nobly seconded the efforts of their continental brethren. John Wickliffe, and others equally eminent, laboured to promote the good cause, which was ultimately established in the reign of Henry VIII. It is a curious circumstance, and worthy of note, that Henry, who had written fiercely in defence of the seven sacraments against Luther, and, in the early part of his reign, burnt one William Tyndal, for making an English translation of the New Testament, should be the monarch who first established Protestantism in his own dominions. But it would seem that Providence particularly favoured the

* Robertson's History,

exertions of the Reformers; for we find that, about fifty years before the days of Luther, the arts of printing and paper-making were discovered; while the haughty spirit of the rash Henry prompted him to throw off the yoke of Catholic supremacy, and instead of proving himself “ Defender of the Faith," as by the Pope entitled, raised himself to be the Supreme Head of the Church, and refused to acknowledge any superior power. Thus the Reformation obtained a footing both on the Continent and in England, from which it has never been entirely displaced, though frequently disturbed.

(D) page 94.

The period of Easter having been ascertained, the moveable feasts follow in the nndermentioned order :

Septuagesima Sunday is nine weeks before Easter..
Shrove Sunday is seven weeks before Easter.
Ash Wednesday, three days after Shrove Sunday.
Easter Term begins a fortnight after the Wednesday in Easter

Week.
Rogation Sunday is six weeks afler Easter.
Ascension Day is thirty-nine days after Easter Sunday.
Whitsunday is seven weeks after Easter Day.
Trinity Sunday is the next after Whitsunday.
Trinity Term begins the Friday after Trinity Sunday, and ends on

the Wednesday fortnight after. Advent is always the Sunday nearest the 30th of November,

whether before or after; and the Sundays after Trinity, marked in the calendar, are those between Trinity Sunday and Advent Sunday.

(E) page 142.

Before the coming of St. Augustine, there had been four persecutions in Britain. The first, under Diocletian ; the second by the Picts and Huns; the third by the Saxons, under Hengist, about A. D. 450; and the fourth by the Saxous and other Pagans, about a hundred years after.

(F) page 296.

Proclamation of King Henry VIII. A. D. 1540. - " Whereas heretofore dyvers and many superstitious and chyldish observances have been used, and yet to this day are observed and kept in many and sundry places of this realm, upon St. Nicholas', St. Catharine's, St. Clement's, and Holy Innocents', and suchliek holy daies ; children be strangelie decked and apparayled to counterfeit priests, bishops, and women, and so ledde with songs and dances from house to house, blessing the people and gathering of money, and boyes do sing masse and preache in the pulpits; with such other unfittinge and inconvenient usages, which tend rather to derysyon than enie true glorie to God or honor of his sayntes."

THE END.

INDEX.

A.

281

2

Page
Page Carvival at Rome............

28
Advent ...:::..

290 | Catharine, St. biography of ... 282
Agatha, St. biography of...... 56 Cecilia, St. biography of......
Agnes, St. ....... .. 34 Chad, St. biography of... .....
Alban, St. biography of ...... 156 Christmas, how celebrated.... 301
All Fools' Day ............... 101 Circumcision................ 22
Almanack, from what derived 14 Clepsydra or Water Clock....
Alphege, St. biography of .... 107 Clement, St. biography of.... 282
All Saints .................. 252 Clocks, when and by whom in-
-- Souls ...................

253 vented..................
Ambrose, St. biography of.... 104 Cock-throwing, origin of .... 59
Andrew, St. biography of .... Conversion of St. Paul ......
Anne, St. .................. 184 | Con. B. V. M. (Blessed Virgin
Ascension Day ....

Mary). .........

297
Ash Wednesday ....

62 Corpus Christi ........ 139
Assumption of Virgin Mary.. 195 Country Life, pleasures of a.. 205
August, from what derived .. 185 Crosses, why erected ....... 192
Augustine, St. .............. 200 Crispin, St. biography of......
Augustine, St. biography of .. 141 Cyprian, St. biography of .... 224

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244

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16

Bartholomew, St. biography of 197 Days of the Week, origin of
Barnabas, St ... ... 155 | their titles ..............
Bede, Venerable .............

· 143 David, St. biography of ......
Benedict, St...

80 December, why so called......
Blaise, St. .......

54 Denys, St. biography of ....
Boniface, St................. 150 Dog Days, why called......
Boy Bishop..................

294 Dominical Letter .............
- Britius, St. biography of .... 274 Dunstan, St. biography of....
Bissextile ..

(B) 317

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Easter, how celebrated ...... 88
Calendar, origin of the word.. 14 Easter' Term, its commence-

of Julius Cæsar .... ib. ment....................
Calends ................ (A) 317 Edward, king, his martyrdom 78
Candlemas Day.............. 53 Edmund, king and martyr ....

Page

Page
Ember Week......

67 | July, why so called ..........
Enurchus, St. biography of.... | Julian Year, when commenced 19
Ephemeris, from what derived 14 Julius Cæsar amends the Ca-
Epiphany....................

lendar ...............
Etheldrida, St. biography of .. 241
Execution of Guy Fawkes and

K.
others ..................

King Charles I. martyrdom of.. 41
F.

- II. restored .... 145

264

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H.

a.........

Fabian, St. ........

Faith, St. biography of...
- Fastern's E’en ......... 62 Lammas Day, how observed .. 187

February, why so called...... Lambert, St. biography of ....
Fête Dieu .......

140 Landing of King William ...,
Fire of London......

209 | Lady, or Annunciation Day ..

Lawrence, St. biography of ..
Lent Term, its commencement

-, fast of, its origin, how
George, St. biography of...... 111 kept.........
Giles, St. biography of........ 208 Leap Year ..

e Money, origin of ...... 26 Leonard, St. biography of
Good Friday ................ 87 Low

Low Sunday ......
Gregory the Great, biography of 75 Lord Mayor's Day .....
Gregory, Pope, introduces the Longest Day ........
new style .............. 90 Lucy, biography of .......

Lucian, St....

Luke, Śt. biography of.....
Harvest Home, discontinuance

M.
t. of........

186
Hilary, St. ..

32 Machutus, biography of ......
Hourglass, origin of the...... 1 Martin, St. biography of....
Holy Cross. .................

219 | May Day, at home .......
- Thursday .............

130 May, why so called ..........
Hugh, St. biography of ......

278 Mark, St. the Evangelist...

Maundy Thursday ..........
1.

Matthias, St. biography of....

Matthew, St. biography of....
Invention of the Cross. ....... 127 Massacre of St. Bartholomew
Invention of the Cross........ 50 | Mary Magdalen. ..........
Innocents' Day ..............

Margaret ....................
Martyrdom, meaning of the

word .................:
James, St. the Great, biogra- .. March, its character, why so
phy of.

called ......
- --- the Less, biography Midlent Sunday..

126 | Michaelmas Term, its com-
January, why so called ......

mencement ...
Jerome, St. biography of...:::

229

- -- Day .........
John Evan. P. L. ........ 122, 311 Michael, St. account of ....
-- the Baptist, beheaded.... Midsummer Day ........

- biography of.. 160 Mothering Sunday ....
June, why so called.......... 149 Moveable Feasts dependent
Jude, St. biography of........ 247 upon Easter............(D) 321

of................

anuary, ;;....Ss, biocris. le Marchord .meanin

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