Silent Violence: Food, Famine, and Peasantry in Northern Nigeria
Why do famines occur and how have their effects changed through time? Why are those who produce food so often the casualties of famines? Looking at the food crisis that struck the West African Sahel during the 1970s, Michael J. Watts examines the relationships between famine, climate, and political economy. Through a longue durée history and a detailed village study Watts argues that famines are socially produced and that the market is as fickle and incalculable as the weather. Droughts are natural occurrences, matters of climatic change, but famines expose the inner workings of society, politics, and markets. His analysis moves from household and individual farming practices in the face of climatic variability to the incorporation of African peasants into the global circuits of capitalism in the colonial and postcolonial periods. Silent Violence powerfully combines a case study of food crises in Africa with an analysis of the way capitalism developed in northern Nigeria and how peasants struggle to maintain rural livelihoods. As the West African Sahel confronts another food crisis and continuing food insecurity for millions of peasants, Silent Violence speaks in a compelling way to contemporary agrarian dynamics, food provisioning systems, and the plight of the African poor.
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Preface to the New Edition
Preface to the 1983 Edition
Abbreciations and Conventions
Introduction to the New Edition
INTRODUCTION THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF FOOD AND FAMINE
CAPITAL STATE AND PEASANTRY IN COLONIAL NORTHERN NIGERIA
HUNGER RISK AND HOUSEHOLD SECURITY
6 FAMINE OVER HAUSALAND 19001960
7 CLIMATE FAMINE AND SCARCITY IN THE 1970S
8 FOOD AGRICULTURE AND THE OIL BOOM 19701980
administration Africa agrarian agricultural Bauchi beneﬁt Bornu Caliphate capitalist cash cereals climatic colonial commodity production cotton crisis crop cultivation Daura deﬁcits District Assessment drought emirate export fadama famine farm farmers ﬁeld ﬁgure ﬁrms ﬁrst ﬁscal ﬁve foodstuffs Fulani gandu grain groundnuts harvest Hausa Hausaland historical household income inﬂation Islamic jigawa Kaduna Kaita Kaita village Kano Province Kanoprof Katsina emirate Kazaure labor power land livestock maguzawa Mallam merchant capital millet million moral economy Muslim NAK Kadminagric NAK Katprof NAK SNP NAK SNP 17 Niger northern Nigeria Ofﬁce ofﬁcers ofﬁcial peasant peasantry percent period political poor population precapitalist Province Annual Report purchase rainfall reﬂected regional relations relations of production relief reproduction Resident revenue rural producers Sahel sarauta Sarkin season sector shortage signiﬁcant slave social Sokoto Caliphate Sokoto Province sorghum speciﬁc subsistence surplus TABLE tion trade wage labor Zaria