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of quadrupeds, is at right angles with the legs, but in man alone επί μιάς ευθείας εκτέταται. Yet he rejects the commonplace (p. 182) το δ' οίεσθαι δια τούτο ορθώς εστάναι τον άνθρωπον, ίν' εις τον ουρανόν ετοίμως αναβλέπη και λέγειν έχη ανταυγέω προς "Όλυμπον αταρβήτοισι προσώποις,’ άνθρώπων μέν έστιν ουχ έωρακότων ουδεπώποτε τον καλούμενον ουρανοσκόπον ιχθύν· ώς ούτός γε, κάν ει μή βούλοιτο, προς τον ουρανόν αει βλέπει, άνθρωπος δε ει μη τον τράχηλον ανακλάσειε εις τουπίσω, τον ουρανόν ουκ άν ποτε θεάσαιτο. Asses, he adds, and birds can also throw back their necks and look up to heaven.

148 149 INDULSIT COMMUNIS CONDITOR ILLIS TANTUM ANIMAS, NOBIS ANIMUM QUOQUE Non. p. 426 animus est quo sapimus, anima qua vivimus. Attius Epigonis : sapimus a ni. mo, fruimur anima: sine animo anima est debilis.

150 151 for rhythm cf. XI 110 111, for the thought I 142 n. Lucr. V 925-1457. Aristot. eth. N. I 5=7 p. 1097 b. ΙΙ φύσει πολιτικός άνθρωπος.

151 DISPERSOS TRAHERE IN POPULUM Cic. de inv. I § 2 dispersos homines agris et in tectis silvestribus abditos ratione quadam compulit unum in locum et congregavit, cet.

152 VI 2 seq. Lucret. V 955-7.
153 Lucr. ib. ΙΙο8–9.
154 TUTOS SOMNOS Lucr. ib. 982—7.

157 DEFENDIER I 169 n. duelli. x 138 n. induperator. Pers. I 28 dicier. III 50 fallier. Sulpic. 51 defendier. 64 dignarier.

159 IAM SERPENTUM MAIOR CONCORDIA Aesch. suppl. 226 όρνιθος όρνις ουκ αν αγνεύοι φαγών. proν. in Varr. 1. 1. VΙΙ 8 31 canis caninam non est. Hor. epod. 7 11 12 neque hic lupis mos nec fuit leonibus | numquam nisi in dispar feris. Sen. clem. I 26 8 4 illa rationis expertia et a nobis inmanitatis crimine damnata abstinent suis et tuta est etiam inter feras similitudo. Plin. VII $ 5 cetera animantia in suo genere probe degunt. congregari videmus et stare contra dissimilia. leonum feritas inter se non dimicat. serpentium morsus non petit serpentes. maris quidem beluae ac pisces nisi in diversa genera Saeviunt. at, Hercule, homini plurima ex homine sunt mala. paroem. I 428 Leutsch κύων κυνός ουχ άπτεται, Truer descriptions of 'Nature, red in tooth and claw' in Erasm. adag. pisces magni parvulos comedunt.' 'piscium vita. Hes. op. 276—280 the son of Kronos appointed this law for men ιχθύσι μεν και θηρσι και οιωνούς πετεινοίς | έσθειν αλλήλους, επει ου δίκη εστιν εν αυτοίς, | ανθρώποισι δ' έδωκε δίκην, ή πολλών αρίστη | γίγνεται. Varro Marcopolis fr. 289 Bicheler φui pote plus urget, piscis ut saepe minutos / magnu' comest, ut aves enicat accipiter.

ne

163 TIGRIDE XII 28 n. Iside. Serv. Aen. X 166 condemns this imparisyllabic form, though he cites Luc. V 405 for

168-171 man's rage can no longer be appeased with the sword, though the first smiths knew nothing even of that; now we see people who are not content with the death of their enemy, but must feast upon his body.

FERRUM LETALE INCUDE NEFANDA Verg. g. II 539-540 under Saturn necdum etiam audierunt inflari classica, necdum 1 inpositos duris crepitare incudibus enses.

166 PRODUXISSE Cypr. ep. 69 § 8 turibula quoque ipsa ... conflata atque igne purgata in laminas ductiles producuntur.

PARUM EST [Quintil.] decl. 9 § 12 parum est quod (ter).

166 167 SARCULA MARRIS III 311. The sarculum was a hoe, used for drawing the earth over the seed sown (Colum. II II § 10 iaciunt semina et sarculis adobruunt), for stirring the ground about the roots of the crops (Plin. XVIII SS 184—6) and as a substitute, in shallow soils, for the plough (ib. § 178 montanae gentes sarculis arant): some were two-pronged (Pallad. I 43 $ 3 sarculos vel simplices vel bicornes). It appears to have been lighter than the marra Plin. XVIII § 146 protinus altitu, dine unciali herbis omnibus liberanda est, manu potius quam sar. culo... § 147 ad trimatum [debet] marris ad soluni radi. cf. XIX § 109 sarculo leviter convelluntur radices. XVIII § 241 levi sarculo purgare verius quam fodere. The marra was a pickaxe, an indented hoe with a broad head Colum. x 72 penitus latis eradere viscera m'arris: the ground was first broken by it, before the sarculum was used ib. 88 seq. mox bene cum glaebis vivacem caespitis herbam | contundat marrae vel fracti dente ligonis, l.... tunc quoque trita solo splendentia sarcula sumat | angustosque foros adverso limite ducens | rursus in obliquum distinguat tramite parvo. Rich (companion) has cuts of marrae and sarcula.

167 COQUERE Aen. VII 636 Forbiger recoquunt patrios fornacibus enses. Bentley on Hor. c. 1 35 39.

168 PRIMI FABRI the brazen race Arat. phaen. 131 of #pÔTOL κακόεργον έχαλκεύσαντο μάχαιραν. .

EXTENDERE Plin. XIII S 82 of paper extenditur malleo.

169—171 QUORUM NON SUFFICIT ... CREDIDERINT Prop. II=III 16 29 30 adspice quid . invenit | arserit et quantis.

172 QUO NON FUGERET II I 153 seq.

173 CUNCTIS ANIMALIBUS ABSTINUIT QUI TAMQUAM HOMINE XIV 98 n. Ov. m. XV 72—82. According to Aristoxenus (DL. VIII § 20=fragm. 7. Müller. cf. Gell. IV II § 6 porculis quoque minusculis et haedis tenerioribus victitasse idem Aristoxenus refert. Ath. 4189) Pythagoras enjoined abstinence only

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from the wether and the ox used in ploughing : according to Aristotle (Gell. l. c. § 12. DL. VIII § 19. cf. ib. 33) only from certain parts of animals and some kinds of fish: according to others, from every kind of flesh DL. VIII SS 8. 13. 20. 22. Mnesimachus in DL. VIII § 37 ús tvo a yopiori ovouer Aočią, 1 ψυχον ουδέν έσθίοντες παντελώς. Αntiphanes Korykos in Ath. 1618 πρώτον μεν ώσπερ πυθαγορίζων εσθίει | έμψυχον ουδέν, της δε πλείστης τουβολου | μάζης μελαγχρή μερίδα λαμβά

Cic. n. d. III § 88 Pythagoras would not stain altars with blood. Sen. ep. 108 $ 17 non pudebit fateri, quem mihi amorem Pythagorae iniecerit Sotion. dicebat, quare ille animalibus abstinuisset, quare postea Sextius. $ 19 at Pythagoras omnium inter omnia cognationem esse dicebat et animorum commercium in alias atque alias formas transeuntium .... interim sce. leris hominibus ac parricidii metum fecit, cum possint in parentis animam inscii incurrere et ferro morsuve violare, si in quo cognatus aliqui spiritus hospitaretur. § 20 'Do you not believe in this transmigration?' asked Sotion. § 21 'Great men have believed it. si vera sunt ista, abstinuisse animalibus innocentia est. si falsa, frugalitas est. quod istic credulitatis tuae damnum est ? alimenta tibi leonum et vol. turum eripio.' § 22 his ego instinctus abstinere animalibus coepi et anno peracto non tantum facilis erat mihi consuetudo, sed dulcis. agitatiorem mihi animum esse credebam nec tibi hodie adfirmaverim, an fuerit. Seneca was reported to have escaped poison intended for him by Nero Tac. XV 45 fin. dum persimplici victu et agrestibus pomis ac, si sitis admoneret, profluente aqua vitam tolerat.

174 VENTRI INDULSIT NON OMNE LEGUMEN III 229. Hdt. II 37. Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. III § 224 ČVLOL Trov åv tås kepalds φαγείν φασί των πατέρων ή κυάμους. (δειλοί, πάνδειλοι, κυάμων άπο χείρας έχεσθε» | Ισόν του κυάμους τε φαγείν κεφαλάς τε TORÝw verses ascribed to Pythagoras or to Orpheus, whose school in this as in some other points agreed with the Pythagorean Didymus in geop. II 35 p. 183). This prohibition is attested by Aristot. in DL. VIII $ 34 cf. 19. 33. Callim. in Gell

. Ιν 11 8 2 και κυάμων απο χείρας έχειν, ανιόντος έδεστους, | κάγώ, Πυθαγόρας ως εκέλευε, λέγω. Hor. s. ΙΙ 6 63 Pythagorae cognata faba. Aristoxenus, on the other hand, states that beans were the usual food of Pythagoras (Gell. IV II), Paus. VIII 15 § 4 the mystae of Demeter at Pheneae regarded the bean as un kabapov. Iambl. v. P. § 191 Pythagoreans chose rather to die than to march across a bean-field. $ 193 when Dionysius asked the reason, Myllias replied: "They chose rather to die than trample on beans, I would rather trample on beans, than divulge their reason.'

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XVI

34 cet,

SOLDIERS enjoy an almost entire exemption from punishment (1—34), are not harassed by protracted law-suits(35-50), and hold property in their own right, while their fathers yet live (51—60).

Schol. 'ista a plerisque exploditur, et dicitur non esse Iuvenalis.' On the other hand it is quoted as Juvenal's by Servius (Aen. I 16 ver. 6. II 106 ver. 42) and Priscian (vili 31 and 82 ver. 2). That the satire is imperfect is evident : for we have no complete list of the communia commoda, which were but the beginning of the proposed theme (7): the instances of special good fortune, alluded to in verses 1—6, are not touched upon. The objections taken to the language, frivolous in themselves, are outweighed by the excellence of 4 seq. 24–

146 Fortune (I felicis, 2 prospera, 3 secundo, 4 benigni) can shower countless prizes on the soldier; if she befriend him, he need not pray to Venus or Iuno to make interest with Mars on his behalf. The theme of the satire, as of xv, is proposed in a question.

FELICIS VII 190—202. IX 33. XII 62–66. epithet of Sulla and of certain legions.

PRAEMIA the pay (Tac. ann. I 17 two denarii a day for praetorian soldiers), bounties on special occasions, as on an accession, a lump sum (5000 denarii for praetorians) on discharge.

GALLI the name Gallius occurs in Cic.

2 NAM felicis I say, for I could be content: myself, if sure of fortune's favour, to enter the camp.

3 4 ME PAVIDUM EXCIPIAT TIRONEM PORTA SECUNDO SIDERĖ VII 194–5 distat enim, quae | sidera te excipiant. Tac. h. III 24 quae castra alia excipient?

PORTA dig. XLIX 16 12 § 2 officium tribunorum est vel eorum, qui exercitui praesunt, claves portarum suscipere. There were four gates of the camp, the side-gates porta principalis dextera and p.p. sinistra, one at each end of the via principalis or cardo maximus, and the gates at the ends of the decumanus maximus, porta praetoria in front, p. decumana in the rear.

X 313

4 SIDERE VI 569-581. X 314. XIV 248 n. HORA Pers. V 48 nata fidelibus hora.

5 VENERIS COMMENDET EPISTOLA MARTI II 30 31 leges revocabat amaras | omnibus atque ipsi Veneri Martique timen. das.

On the Lucianic tone i 84 n. XIII 38–52. 6 SAMIA GENETRIX QUAE DELECTATUR HARENA VII 32 n. X 171 n. Aen. I 15 16 quam Iuno fertur terris magis omnibus unam | posthabita coluisse Samo. The Heraeon at Samos was Hdt. III 60 § 6 uéYLOTOS Távtwv vnwv Twv ñueîs louer. It contained many pictures and statues and was plundered by Verres and by Antonius Strabo 637. Apul. m. VI 4.

GENETRIX Hera mother of Ares by Zeus Il. v 896; or without a father Ov. f. V 233—260.

HARENA Tert. pall. 1 p. 921 Oehler nulla iam Delos, hare. nae Samos, owing to the earthquake of A. D. 178. Sibyll. III 363 έσται και Σάμος άμμος.

7—34 The first privilege common to all ranks in the army alike : they hold so fast to one another, that no civilian dare accuse them or give evidence against them.

7 COMMODA Tac. ann. I 26 the mutinous soldiers A.D. 14 exclaim novum id plane, quod imperator sola militis commoda ad senatum reiciat.

COMMUNIA XIII 140 where, as here, it )( special luck.

8 NE used because Hand Tursell. IV 42" subest notio im. pediendi vel prohibendi.'

TOGATUS VIII 240 n. x 8 n.

9 it was not uncommon for a defendant to enlist as a means of evading justice cod. XII 34 i qui litis causa militiam ap. petierunt.

ETSI PULSETUR, DISSIMULET dig, xLvII 10 11 § 1 iniu. riarum actio ..... dissimulatione aboletur.

DISSIMULET supply ut from ne, as XIII 36. so quisque from nemo VI 17 18. Cic. Brut. § 259 sciebat understood from a following nesciebat. finn. II § 25 Madvig. Ov. m. IV 470—1 quod vellet, erat, ne regia Cadmi | staret, et in facinus traherent Athamanta sorores. Tac. h. I 84 ne centurio tribuno obsequatur, [ut] hinc confusi pedites equitesque in exitium ruamus. Munro on Lucr. II 1038. Matthiä § 634 3. Madvig lat. Gr. $ 462 b and gr. Synt. § 213. Kühner gr. Gr. 11° 1072. Sir T. Browne vulgar errors i 10 fin. p. 32 ed. 1650 'some denying his humanity, and [supply affirming] that he was one of the Angels, as Ebion.'

9 10 AUDEAT AUDEAT X 359—361 n. XIV 48 n.

10.III 300 301. Apul. m. 1x 39—42 a Macedonian gardener is riding on his ass, when quidam procerus et, ut indicabat habitus et habitudo, miles e legione factus nobis (the ass is his

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