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torian) obvius superbo atque ad roganti sermone percontatur quorsum vacuum duceret asinum., Not understanding Latin, the gardener passes on. The soldier belabours him with his vitis and pulls him off his ass, and takes possession of it. The gardener begs for mercy, but seeing the soldier preparing inversa vite de vastiore nodulo cerebrum suum diffindere, trips him up, beats him with fists and elbows, bites him, pounds his face, hands and sides with a stone. The soldier threatens to make mincemeat of the gardener, who again cudgels him till he feigns death, carries off his sword and hides himself in a friend's house. The soldiers charge the gardener with stealing a piece of the governor's plate : he is sentenced to death. cf. c. 41 vindictae sedulam darent operam.

PRAETORI urbano III 2 13. XIII 4 n. Gaius III 224.
11 OFFAM II 33.

a bruise'; 'one raw lump.' Plin. XV § 26 nucibus arefactis et in offam contusis.

12 RELICTUM given over, abandoned.

13 14 BARDAICUS CALCEUS Bardiaei (Plut. Mar. 43 § 4 Bapovaloi) or Vardaei (Cic. fam. V 9 § 2. Liv. perioch. 56. Plin. III § 143) a tribe inhabiting the Illyrian coast, opposite the island Pharos (Strabo 315 'Apdaiol), gave name to a military shoe. Mart. IV 4 5 lassi Vardaicus quod evocati [redolet]. 'if the injured man of peace seek redress, a soldier's shoe and stout shanks sit in judgement on the bench.'

13 IUDEX VII 116—7 n. bubulco iudice. Tac. Agr. 9 credunt plerique militaribus ingeniis subtilitatem deesse, quia castrensis iurisdictio secura et obtusior ac plura manu agens calliditatem fori non exerceat. Agricola naturali prudentia, quamvis inter togatos, facile iusteque agebat.

14 CALCEUS of the centurion 17. cf. II 10 fossa. XIV 10 n. gula.

GRANDES SURAE III 247. XIV 194 n. Pers. III 86 torosa iuventus. V 189.

MAGNA to support the gigantic occupant.
SUBSELLIA 44•

15 16 MORE CAMILLI SERVATO who introduced a standing army (Liv. V 2), before which time the soldiers might in winter at home prosecute their suits. Liv. V 19 $ 9 in pushing on the siege of Veii a procurationibus, quae multae temere inter murum ac vallum fiebant, edicto, ne quis iniussu pugnaret, ad opus milites traducti. Soldiers were forbidden by a rescript of Hadrian to leave the camp in order to give evidence dig. XXII 5 3 $ 6 multo minus milites avocandi sunt a signis vel muneribus perhibendi testimonii causa.

17—22 the centurions then, let us suppose, try the soldier's cause with perfect justice, still etc. III 100 n. Munro on Lucr.

194 n.

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III 935. Teles in Stob. XCVII 31 p. 215 27 M where mais per ών, έφηβος δε γενόμενος, όταν δε ανδρωθή, are followed by πρεσβύτης γέγονε, πάλιν επιθυμεί τα εν νεότητι.... οικέτης εστίν, ελεύθερος σπεύδει γενέσθαι κ.τ.λ. 17 CENTURIONUM proverbial for uncouth ignorance xiv

Lucil. in Cic. finn. I § 9. Cic. Tusc. IV § 55. Hor. s. 1 6 73. Pers. V 189.

19 IUSTAE CAUSA QUERELLAE Luc. VIII 511—2 iustior in Magnum nobis, Ptolemaee

, querellae causa data est. 21 CURABILIS elsewhere curable' Cael. Aur. tard. II 137 Erasistratus facile curabiles succulentos homines dixit atque fortes .... difficile autem curari posse tenues ac debiles. As plorabilis=plorandus, so here curabilis=curanda'requiring medical treatment.' Plaut. aul. 625 verberabilissume. id. trin. 44 culpam castigabilem. Ov. Pont. IV 14 31 32 esset perpetuo sua quam vita bilis Ascra, 1 ausa est agricolae Musa docere senis.

22 VINDICTA GRAVIOR QUAM INIURIA III 297–301. that your revenge (as ultio 19) may cost you more pain than the original wrong.

cf. viii 91-97: 23 MULINO CORDE VAGELLI the mulish rhetorician Vagellius XIII 119 n.

Plaut. cist. IV 12 2 mulo inscitior. Catull. 83 3 mule, nihil sentis.

24 CUM DUO CRURA HABEAS I 161 n. X 2 n. pauci. Caes. b. C. I 22 § 5 paucorum. 23 § 3 pauca. II 41 § 3 ne mi. litibus quidem, ut defessis, neque equitibus, ut paucis et labore confectis, studium ad pugnandum virtusque deerat; sed hi erant numero cc ['only 200'], reliqui in itinere substiterant. Having but two legs to stumble against so many soldiers' boots and so many thousands of hob-nails.'

CALIGAS III 322. leathern boots worn by the rank and file, whence caligatus=gregarius. [Quintil.] decl. iii $ 15 hoc dicis cui parere caligatum lex iubet, qui non solum militibus sed centurionibus praepositus. Plin. VII § 135 many say that Venti. dius iuventam inopem in caliga militari tolerasse. ed. Diocl. IX 6 caligae militares sine clabo. When Octavian B.C. 41 offered to make the senators and veterans umpires in his dispute with Fulvia, the veterans set up a court at Gabii, but Fulvia and L. Antonius did not appear DCass. XLVIII 12 $ 3 Boulny kalo γάταν από της των στρατιωτικών υποδημάτων χρήσεως αποκαλούντες.

25 CLAVORUM III 248 in digito clavus mihi militis haeret. Plin. xxxiv § 143 caligarii. from which passage it appears that they were of iron : the sole of the caliga was thickly studded with them Ioseph. bell. VΙ Ι 8 8 τα γάρ υποδήματα πεπαρμένα πυκνούς kai ottou (cf. Plin. ix 69 crebris atque praeacutis) nous éxwv, ώσπερ των άλλων στρατιωτών έκαστος.

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25 26 Who would venture so far from the city to accuse a soldier ? Besides what friend is so true a Pylades, as to devote his life for his friend ?

26 PYLADES Ov. r. a. 589 semper habe Pyladen aliquem, qui curet Orestem. Mart. Ví 11 1 2 quod non sit Pylades hoc tempore, non sit Orestes, / miraris ? Pylades, Marce, bibebat idem. 9 ut praestem Pyladen, aliquis mihi praestet Oresten.

MOLEM AGGERIS ('the agger of the praetorian camp; which makes the irony stronger.' H. A. J. M.]

27 LACRIMAE SICCENTUR Let us dry up our tears at once, and not importune our friends (who on one pretext or another will certainly put us off), to bear us company in our hazardous enterprise.

29 If when the judge calls on the accuser to produce his witnesses, the bystander, who chanced (nescio quis) to see the blow struck, dares to say • I saw it,' he may be ranked with the noblest worthies of the good old times.

DA TESTEM III 137. Cic. and Quintil.

29 30 AUDEAT ILLE, PUGNOS QUI VIDIT, DICERE 'VIDI' VII 13 14 hoc satius, quam si dicas sub iudice 'vidi' | quod non vidisti. Cic. Verr. iv $ 55. v § 165.

31 ET I 155 n. VIII 171. Sen. ep. 4 § 8 recognosce ....et intelleges. 16 % 7 excute illam et invenies. Plin. ep. IX II § 1 circumfer oculos et occurrent. Plat. Theaet. 153o. Matt. 7 7. Lucian d. d. 2 2 eŰpvona Balve kal Yel. Without et Sen. ep. 13 § 17. 36 $11. Kühner gr. Gr. 112 201. Roby § 1557.

31 32 DIGNUM BARBA DIGNUMQUE CAPILLIS MAIORUM IV 103. Varro r. r. II 11 § 10 · barbers are said first to have come into Italy from Sicily A. U. C. 454 (B.C. 300), as is attested by public documents at Ardea, and to have been brought over by T. Ticinius Mena. That formerly there were no barbers appears from the statues of the ancients, which for the most part have long hair and beard.' Plin. VII § 211° Scipio Africanus the younger (sequens) first adopted the practice of daily shaving.' Shaving the beard continued in use till the time of Hadrian, as we see from coins. When the Gauls took Rome B. C. 390, M. Papirius (Liv. V 41 $ 9) dicitur Gallo barbam suam, ut tum omnibus promissa erat, permulcenti scipione eburneo in caput incusso iram movisse. Cic. p. Sest. § 19 Halm unum aliquem te ex barbatis illis exemplum imperii veteris, imaginem antiquitatis, columen reipublicae diceres intueri. p. Cael. § 33 illa hörrida [barba), quam in statuis antiquis atque imaginibus videmus. Hor. c. II 15 11 intonsi Catonis.

CAPILLIS V 30 capillato consule. 32 CITIUS XV 19 n. 33 PAGANUM opposed to miles (Plin. ep. x 86b= 18 § 2), to

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armati (ib. VII 25 & 6). Tac. h. III 24 where Antonius Primus by way of taunt addresses his soldiers vos, nisi vincitis, pagani.

34 PUDOREM honour VIII 82. Sall. Cat. 16 § 2 ubi eorum famam atque pudorem adtriverat. Plin. Xxxvi § 108 pudor Romani nominis proprius, qui saepe res perditas servavit in proeliis. dig. XLVII 10 1 $ 5 iniuria, quae fit liberis nostris, nosa trum pudorem pertingit.

35-50 the second privilege of the soldiery: civilians wait long for the decisions of their suits : soldiers meet with a speedy settlement.

36 SACRAMENTORUM schol. 'militiae quia iurabant.' Tac. h. 1 5 miles urbanus longo Caesarum sacramento inbutus.

38 SACRUM SAXUM Liv. XLI 13 § 1 sacrum lapidem.

EFFODIT_MEDIO DE LIMITE SAXUM the land-mark or statue of the god Terminus. Hor. c. II 18 23—26 quid quod usque proximos revellis agri terminos et ultra | limites clientium! salis avarus ? Ov. f. 11 641—4 Termine, sive lapis sive es defossus in agro | stipes, ab antiquis tu quoque numen habes. I te duo diversa domini pro parte coronant | binaque serta tibi binaque liba ferunt. Terminus cannot be evoked' nor his temple 'exaugurated' Liv. I 55 $S 3—5. Sen. Hipp. (Phaedra 536–7) nullus in campo sacer | divisit agros arbiter populis lapis, He who removed his neighbour's land-mark' was accursed among the Romans (inscr. on a terminus in Orelli 4332 quisquis hoc sustulerit aut laeserit, ultimus suorum moriatur), as amongst the Israelites (deut. 19 14 Grotius. 27 17. prov. 22 28. Job 24 2. Hos. 5 10) and Greeks (Plato legg. 843*).

39 CUM PATULO PULS ANNUA LIBO originally it was for bidden to offer bloody offerings to Terminus Plut. qu. Rom. 15. DH. II 74 πελάγους δε Δήμητρος και άλλας τινάς καρπών απαρxás. These were offered on the Terminalia (ANNUA) Febr. 23 at the end of the ancient year.

PULS ANNUA XI 58. XIV 171 n. Varro in Non. 'mactat' kalendis Tuniis et publice et privatim favatam pultem diis mactat. Plin. XVIII § 84 et hodie sacra prisca atque natalium pulte fritilla conficiuntur.

LIBO III 187 n. Verg. ecl. 7 33 34 haec te liba, Priape, quotannis | expectare sat est.

40 XIII esp. 135 seq.

PERGIT NON REDDERE Cic. in lexx. Fabri on Liv. XXI 22 § 9.

41 =XIII 137. cf. XIV 315 316 n.

42 43 The civilian cannot, like the soldier (49), choose his own time, he must wait until, among the suits of the whole people, his turn comes. Actions between civilians (before the

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centumvirz) were heard in the order in which application had been made to the praetor.

42 EXPECTANDUS ERIT ANNUS Cic. de prov. cons. § 17 hoc tempore amisso annus est integer vobis exspectandus. The courts are so choked with business, that we must wait a year for the beginning of the hearing—not of our own individual suit, but of the whole nation's litigation. Ter. haut. 240 dum moliuntur, dum conantur, annus est. Sen. apocol. 12 22 23 quis nunc iudex | toto lites audiet anno?

LITES INCHOET dig. XLII I 54 $ I si litem inchoatam deseruit.

LITES TOTIUS POPULI the settlement of a cause might be long deferred Suet. Vesp. 10 iudicia centumviralia, quibus vix suffectura litigatorum aetas videbatur.

44 MORAE properly Plin. ep. I 18 8 6 iudicium centumvirale differri nullo modo. potest. Yet a whim of the praetor (ib. v 9=21 § 2 sedebant iudices, decemviri venerant, obversabantur advocati, silentium longum, tandem a praetore nuntius. dimittuntur centumviri, eximitur dies, me gaudente, qui numquam ita paratus sum, ut non mora laeter. $ 3 causa dilationis Nepos praetor, qui legibus quaerit), or the want of the full number of iudices, might cause delays.

SUBSELLIA 14.

45 STERNUNTUR the apparitores put the cushions on the bench. When the pleader Caedicius is already laying aside his lacerna (111 184 n. Suet. Cl. 6 lacernas deponere solebat, a compliment to a prince), and preparing to address the court in the toga;' x 28 29 lacernas, \ munimenta togae. Sen. contr. x pr. § 2 p. 460 K=291 B of Scaurus dicebat neglegenter; saepe causam in ipsis subselliis, saepe dun amicitur discebat. of an exiled orator Plin. ep. IV 11 § 3 cum Graeco pallio amictus intrasset (carent enim togae iure, quibus aqua et igni interdictum est), postquam se composuit circumspexitque habitum suum, 'Latine' inquit 'declamaturus sum.' dices, tristia et miseranda. Quintilian's direction to pleaders XI 3 $ 156 leniter est consurgendum, tum in componenda toga.... paulum commorandum. The toga was worn in court as the distinctive dress of Romans III 127 n. cf. II 66–82.

VIII 240 n. Plin. ep. I 22 § 6 in toga negotiisque versatur; multos advocatione, plures consilio iuvat.

46 CAEDICIO one of the name XIII 197.

FUSCO perhaps the husband of a drunken wife XII 45; probably the advocate opposed to Caedicius, and the Fuscus for whom Martial hopes VII 28 5 6 sic fora mirentur, sic te palatia laudent | excolat et geminas plurima palma fores. MICTURIENTE VI 309. C. Titius a contemporary

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